Society in philippines
- Pages: 12
- Word count: 2964
- Category: Capitalism Economics Philippines Society
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Society has developed through three overlapping stages — physical, vital, and mental. Over the course of tens of thousands of years humanity has evolved from a society mainly concerned with the physical realities, such as our survival, a life of fear and threat from without, and the need for complete deference to authority; to a stage in which our individual vital needs and wants, including our desire to interact with others and expand and trade, come into their own; to the present emerging mental stage whereunderstanding, knowledge, peace, freedom, democracy, the fulfillment and empowerment of the individual, the emergence of fast, complex organizations, and the extraordinary power of thought to shape our world for endless progress emerges. Beyond that is the spiritual stage of social evolution where mind is more fully developed to allow multi-sided awareness of truth, instead of the current limited capacity of mind, and where one connects with the spiritual Force that enable the ultimate flowering and transformation of life.
When humans first evolved on earth say 100,000 years ago, and in particular over the last 10,000 years, individuals were mostly focused on their very survival and existence; everything else was secondary. The atmosphere was one of physical and psychological insecurity. Threats were perceived everywhere — from threats in nature to threats from other tribes or collectives. In this physical stage people’s social awareness was limited to the tribe. To think and act outside of the tribe and tradition was considered treasonous. In other words, humans had a very limited sense of their own selves. They were beyond to the concerns and authority of the collective. VitalStage
Over time society, the collective, overcame these threats from nature, from the outside. Plus they began to develop better cohesion and unity within the collectives they were a part of. We began to master the basic productive operations of life, and we gained control of the physical forces around us. This enabled the emergence of a new vital human. Another way of saying this is that humanity organized themselves at a higher level in the physical stage, enabling a more expansive vital stage. So what is this vital age? In this stage we see a willingness of people to engage others not of their own tribe or collective. We begin to see the beginnings of trade with other tribes, more interaction with others. This leads to the desire for more travel and exploration to expand trade and resources. Gradually there is an awakening that the individual can improve his own lot, and that he does not have to only focus on the concerns and needs of the collective. In this vital stage there is a broadening of the social interactions, of interchange with others. We could nowbegin to focus on our own individual self-interests.
We could become prosperous and enjoy life. There was thus a vast expansion of vitality in the vital stage. Where the physical stage of life was the culmination of an evolution that began 100,000 or so years ago, and formed more fully around 10,000 years ago, the vital stage has only been there around 500 years, roughly corresponding to the Renaissance and the centuries of exploration and discovery. In the last 100 years, and in particular the last 50, there has been the rapid emergence of the next stage of human development; the mental stage. MentalStage
The first thing that we notice about the mental stage is that society begins to value the vast amount of accumulated knowledge of the past. In the modern era this knowledge base of the past began to be organized, codified, and then disseminated to the population. Information that was formerly unfocused and scattered is now distributed through systems of training and education. That in turn energizes individuals to further advancement in work, their careers. And then that in turn accelerates people’s achievement in life, which we can see expressed in the vast developments in science, communications, and technology of recent years.
Then through that rapidly expanding technology base, through exposure to the vast knowledge base presented in media, in the Internet, people become even more aware of what can be achieved. They become aware of possibilities for achievement; and see that others are doing it. That in turn leads to an era of ever rising expectations; people want and demand more in their own lives. It’s actually been going on for centuries. Freedom, democracy are unstoppable forces that have emerged in the last century or two. These are products of the rationality of the mental age; an acknowledgement of the needs for these essential values in life. Now that same freedom is extending further as we each as individuals become aware of our ability to fulfill our individual dreams, our own self-fulfillment and human potential.
So in this emerging mental stage that we have now begun to enter, with its possibilities of freedom, initiative, and self-determinism, we are very far from the determinism of the physical stage, where we deferred to the collective will to survive. The quantification and dispersion of accumulated knowledge, the qualitative improvements in life in areas such as education and social benefits, the demand and ability to fulfill one’s potential, the awareness and concern for the plight of others, the demand of the individual to be involved in the decisions of the collective, and the emerging political and social freedom are some of the indicators of the mental stage of social evolution.
Then there is a spiritual stage beyond the mental. That is obviously further out. As we begin to emerge through the mental stage, we perceive that even the power of mind cannot be the ultimate salvation for humanity; for after all the faculties of mind as we have said are decidedly limited. So there begins to develop a longing for a unity of awareness and perception that mind cannot hold; an openness to greater truths, greater insights, spiritual knowledge and vision. To an understanding that our individual will, the collective will, and the Divine will are all bound together. At some point individuals who have experienced the inner life of the spirit, who have begun to transform themselves to a higher physical, vital, and physical existence, who have experience the spirit in action in life, who have felt and opened themselves to a greater spiritual power to effect life, become the harbingers of a new collective life, a new divine life on earth. This is the vision that Sri Aurobindo envisioned beyond the mental stage that we are only just emerging into just now. SOCIETY TO ANTHROPOLOGY
An anthropologist is a person who does the study of human societies. They are interested in providing a deeper understanding of human beings from the time they emerged into the world to their current state. Anthropologist is a social scientist who is specialized in anthropology and studies the origin and social relationships of the human beings.
SOCIETY TO HISTORY
Since history is the study of the past, it is very much important to society. With historym, we’ll be able to know the all the information in the past for us to understand how the society evolves.
Filipinos have had connections with China that resulted to a mixed Chinese-Filipino descent. Spanish-Filipinos came out during the colonial period and Filipino-Americans added a few percentages as well during the American occupation. They are easily distinguished by their fairer color, taller stature and fairly formed nose structure. A few Arab and Indian blood added to the racial mixture of the Filinos during their trading years. Aetas- the aboriginal group of thePhilippines has a small percentage remained in the composition of the country’s ethnic groups.
The Philippines is a combined society, both Singular and Plural in form. Singular as one nation, but it is plural in that it is fragmented geographically and culturally. The nation is divided between Christians, Muslims, and other religion-ethno-linguistic groups; between urban and rural people; between upland and lowland people; and between the rich and the poor. Although different in a lot ways, the Filipinos are very hospitable and give appropriate respect to anybody regardless of race, culture and belief.
Inside their mixed society, anyone who has not seen Filipinos will be surprised how everyone differs from each other. Their looks, their cultural practices and beliefs show a truly diverse blend of people and customs. Because of this inconsistent homogeneity of race, the Filipinos naturally adapt and get influenced easily. They embraced the spirituality of the Spanish during the colonial period and surpass it with the modernity of the Americans in the recent years. Inspite of these multifaceted customs and incongruous mixture of people, visitors, however, find Filipinos enriched with uniqueness and variants.
The Filipino Cultural Awareness
• Bayanihan: the creation of association with neighbors and the helping atittude whenever one is in disastrous need. Oftentimes, the Bayanihan spirit in action can be seen when a bus gets a flat tire. The by standing or surrounding Filipinos would help the bus driver in whatever actions to get the bus back on going.
• Close Family Ties: Filipinos are well-known for the close family ties. The primary social welfare system for the Filipino is the family. Many filipinos live near their family for most of their lives, even as independent adults.
• Pakikisama: Pakikisama, or harmony, in English, involves getting along with others to preserve a harmonious relationship.
• Hiya: Hiya is shame and is a motivating factor behind behavior. It is a sense of social decency and compliant to public norms of behavior. Filipinos believe they must live up to the accepted standards of behavior and if they fail to do so they bring shame not only upon themselves, but also upon their family. An example might be a willingness to spend more than they can afford on a party rather than be shamed by their economic situation. If someone is publicly embarrassed, criticized, or does not live up to expectations, they feel shame and lose self-esteem.
• Utang na Loob: Utang na Loob, or Debt of Gratitude, is owed by one to a person who has helped him through the trials he had undergone. There is a local saying: ‘Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan’, meaning, ‘One who does not look back to where he started, will not get to where he is going’.
o Amor Propio: Concern for self image.
o Delicadeza: Sense of honor
o Palabra de Honor: “word of honor”
Although these traits are generally positive, these practices also have the inclination to be applied in the wrong context. A debt of gratitude is
sometimes repaid by giving special favors to the other person regardless of the moral outcome. Close familial ties can also lead to favoritism.
Folk Traditions and Beliefs
Before the coming of the Spaniards and the introducing of Roman Catholicism, the indigenous inhabitants were believer of animism, or the worship of nature. As in Roman Catholicism, their pre-Hispanic beliefs consisted of a hierarchy of gods, goddesses, and spirits which bear similarity to that of Roman Catholicism, which is why the latter has been accepted easily by the inhabitants. Bathala was the supreme God of the Tagalogs, symbolized by the araw, or sun. The supreme God of the Bikolanos was Gugurang. Other Tagalog Gods and Goddesses include the buwan or moon, tala or stars, and even objects, such as trees, shrubs, mountains, or rocks.
The spirits consist of aswang (ghoul), tikbalang (a man having the head of a horse), kapre (a giant that is smoking tobacco), tiyanak ( vampire feeding on children’s blood), santelmo (fireball), dwende (dwarves and elves), ik-ik (witches), and a lot of engkanto (minor spirits) and diwata (fairies/nymphs). Aside from that, voodoo practices were practiced by the pre-colonial inhabitants, such as pangkukulam, or witchcraft. Beliefs such as usog (a child greeted by a stranger will get sick) and lihi (unusual craving for something during pregnancy) are also present. These beliefs were carried on up to the present generation of Filipinos, which has directed some foreign authors to describe them as ‘Pagan-Christians’
A SEMICOLONIAL AND SEMIFEUDAL SOCIETY
Philippine society today is semicolonial and semifeudal. This status is determined by U.S. imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat capitalism which now ruthlessly exploit the broad masses of the Filipino people. These three historical evils are the basic problems that afflict Philippine society.
The semicolonial character of Philippine society is principally determined by U.S. imperialism. Though the reactionaries claim that the Philippines is already independent, it is not in fact completely so as they themselves give
contradictory testimony that Philippine independence was merely “granted” or “restored” by U.S. imperialism. The truth is that U.S. imperialism persists in violating the national sovereignty of the Filipino people and in strangulating Philippine independence. Before and after the grant of nominal independence, U.S. imperialism made sure that it would continue to control the Philippine economy, politics, culture, military and foreign relations.
It has extorted unequal treaties and one-sided privileges that transgress the national sovereignty, territorial integrity and national patrimony of the Filipino people. U.S. imperialism continues to arrogate unto itself the privilege of giving armed protection to the local exploiting classes. Though there is now the illusion that the present government is self-determining, its basic policies and the election and appointment of its highest officials are mainly determined by U.S. imperialism. The clearest evidence that the Philippines is still a colony of the United States consists of economic enclaves lorded over by U.S. enterprises and also of huge U.S. military bases. These colonial enclaves can be removed only by means of an armed national revolution to assert Philippine independence.
The semifeudal character of Philippine society is principally determined by the impingement of U.S. monopoly capitalism on the old feudal mode of production and the subordination of the latter to the former. The concrete result of the intertwining of foreign monopoly capitalism and domestic feudalism is the erosion and dissolution of a natural economy of self-sufficiency in favor of a commodity economy. Being dictated by foreign monopoly capitalism, this commodity economy is used to restrict the growth of a national capitalism and force owner-cultivators and handicraftsmen into bankruptcy. It is used to keep large masses of people in feudal bondage and at the same time create a relative surplus of population, a huge reserve army of labor, that keeps the local labor market cheap. In Philippine agriculture, the old feudal mode of production persists side by side with capitalist farming chiefly for the production of a few export crops needed by the United States and other capitalist countries. As a matter of fact, the old feudal mode of production still covers more extensive areas than capitalist farms.
Feudalism has been encouraged and retained by U.S. imperialism to perpetuate the poverty of the broad masses of the people, subjugate the most numerous class which is the peasantry 40 and manipulate local backwardness for the purpose of having cheap labor and cheap raw materials from the country. It is in this sense that domestic feudalism is the social base of U.S. imperialism. The persistence of landlord exploitation is in turn under the counterrevolutionary protection of U.S. imperialism. An agrarian revolution is needed to destroy the links between U.S. imperialism and feudalism and deprive the former of its social base. The interactive and symbiotic relationship between U.S. imperialism and feudalism has made Philippine society semi-colonial and semifeudal. U.S. imperialism has no genuine interest in developing the colonial and agrarian economy to one that is truly independent and self-reliant. It is in the nature of modern imperialism to make possible only uneven and spasmodic development.
The U.S. monopoly capitalists are merely interested in making superprofits from the colonial exchange of raw materials from the Philippines and fully processed commodities from the United States, from direct investments that rake in a higher rate of profit from colonies and semicolonies and from the practice of international usury. The present reactionary state cannot be expected to solve the basic problems of the Filipino people because it is in the first place a creation and puppet instrument of U.S. imperialism and feudalism. At every level of the present reactionary state, from the national to the municipal level, are the bureaucrat capitalists who serve as the running dogs of U.S. imperialism and feudalism. Bureaucrat capitalism itself is a distinct evil that afflicts the entire nation. It plays the special role of linking up the interests of the foreign and domestic exploiters and suppressing the determined opposition of the revolutionary masses. It has been built up by U.S. imperialism under its policy of “tutelage for self-government” precisely to function as its puppet administrator. The bureaucrat capitalists would rather pocket the spoils from their government offices and seek concessions from their foreign and feudal masters than fight for the national and democratic interests of the Filipino people.
It is futile and wrong to expect thhem to change the basic semicolonial and semifeudal policies of the reactionary puppet government. What these corrupt government officials usually do is to use counterrevolutionary dual tactics in order to deceive the people and serve the ruling classes better. They will proclaim themselves as “populists,” “nationalists,” “democrats” or even “socialists” and they are even capable of stealing phrases from the revolutionary mass movement. They will even misrepresent their amicable relations with the local revisionist renegades and the Soviet social-imperialists as their credentials for patriotism and progressivism. But they will never hesitate to turn outright fascists and employ military force to quell the revolutionary masses. They are the caretakers of a reactionary state, an instrument of coercion against the broad masses of the people. Bureaucrat capitalism is the social basis of fascism.