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# Quantitative management

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Quantitative Management Theory is realized through measurable data and mathematical models. The theories are worked out through mathematical games and problem solving. The results are then acted upon for decision making. During World War II, mathematicians, physicists, and other scientists joined together to solve military problems. The quantitative school of management is a result of the research conducted during World War II. The quantitative approachto management involves the use of quantitative techniques, such as statistics, information models, and computer simulations, to improve decision making. This school consists of several branches, described in the following sections.

The management science school emerged to treat the problems associated with global warfare. Today, this view encourages managers to use mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques to make management decisions. â€˘Managers can use computer models to figure out the best way to do something â€” saving both money and time. Managers use several science applications. â€˘Mathematical forecasting helps make projections that are useful in the planning process. â€˘Inventory modeling helps control inventories by mathematically establishing how and when to order a product. â€˘Queuing theory helps allocate service personnel or workstations to minimize customer waiting and service cost.

Operations management is a narrow branch of the quantitative approach to management. It focuses on managing the process of transforming materials, labor, and capital into useful goods and/or services. The product outputs can be either goods or services; effective operations management is a concern for both manufacturing and service organizations. The resource inputs, or factors of production, include the wide variety of raw materials, technologies, capital information, and people needed to create finished products. The transformation process, in turn, is the actual set of operations or activities through which various resources are utilized to produce finished goods or services of value to customers or clients. Operations management today pays close attention to the demands of quality, customer service, and competition. The process begins with attention to the needs of customers: What do they want? Where do they want it? When do they want it? Based on the answers to these questions, managers line up resources and take any actionÂ necessary to meet customer expectations.

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