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Psychological Effect of Broken Family to the Behavior of Children

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* Head/Body houses the optical parts in the upper part of the microscope * Base of the microscope supports the microscope and houses the illuminator * Arm connects to the base and supports the microscope head. It is also used to carry the microscope. * Eyepiece or Ocular is what you look through at the top of the microscope. Typically, standard eyepieces have a magnifying power of 10x. Optional eyepieces of varying powers are available, typically from 5x-30x. * Eyepiece tube holds the eyepieces in place above the objective lens. Binocular microscope heads typically incorporate a diopter adjustment ring that allows for the possible inconsistencies of our eyesight in one or both eyes. The monocular (single eye usage) microscope does not need a diopter. Binocular microscopes also swivel (Interpupillary Adjustment) to allow for different distances between the eyes of different individuals. * Objective Lenses are the primary optical lenses on a microscope. They range from 4x-100x and typically, include, three, four or five on lens on most microscopes. Objectives can be forward or rear-facing. * Nosepiece houses the objectives. The objectives are exposed and are mounted on a rotating turret so that different objectives can be conveniently selected.

Standard objectives include 4x, 10x, 40x and 100x although different power objectives are available. * Coarse and Fine Focus knobs are used to focus the microscope. Increasingly, they are coaxial knobs – that is to say they are built on the same axis with the fine focus knob on the outside. Coaxial focus knobs are more convenient since the viewer does not have to grope for a different knob. * Stage is where the specimen to be viewed is placed. A mechanical stage is used when working at higher magnifications where delicate movements of the specimen slide are required. * Stage Clips are used when there is no mechanical stage. The viewer is required to move the slide manually to view different sections of the specimen. * Aperture is the hole in the stage through which the base (transmitted) light reaches the stage. * Illuminator is the light source for a microscope, typically located in the base of the microscope.

Most light microscopes use low voltage, halogen bulbs with continuous variable lighting control located within the base. * Condenser is used to collect and focus the light from the illuminator on to the specimen. It is located under the stage often in conjunction with an iris diaphragm. * Iris Diaphragm controls the amount of light reaching the specimen. It is located above the condenser and below the stage. Most high quality microscopes include an Abbe condenser with an iris diaphragm. Combined, they control both the focus and quantity of light applied to the specimen. * Condenser Focus Knob moves the condenser up or down to control the lighting focus on the specimen. *

* There are many parts to the average point and shoot digital camera, the basics are as follows: * 1) The lens. Just like a film SLR camera, this focuses the light coming into the camera onto the device that will capture the image. * 2) The CCD or CMOS sensor. This is part takes the light that enters the lens and translates it into a digital signal. The size of the CCD or CMOS varies, from 25mm2 up to 1977mm2 and can contain anywhere from less than 1 million pixels (1MP) to 24 million pixels (24MP) and up. Each pixel is a ‘dot’ in the image, the more megapixels the more dots that comprise the image. This is not a measure of quality, it is only a measure of size. *

* 3) The PCB. There can be one or more Printed Circuit Boards inside the camera. These process the information and are the ‘brains’ of the camera. Think of it like the motherboard inside your computer, just much smaller. * 4) The memory. This may take the form of built in memory which is soldered to the PCB (non-upgradeable), or it can be removeable memory cards that can be changed at any time. * 5) The LCD screen. Most digital cameras now being produced have at least a small LCD screen which allows you to view photos as they are being taken or play them back after they have been taken. The LCD screen is lit by a ‘backlight’ which shines through the screen allowing the image being displayed to be seen. Without the backlight, the LCD is dark and unviewable. * 6) The flash. Most, if not all digital cameras have a built in flash. The flash provides a great deal of light from a very small source and allows the camera to take pictures without blurring the image in dark situations without a tripod. * 7) The body. The outer casing of the camera holds all the inner components together and allows the user to easily use the camera without damaging it.

Parts of the light Microscope
1. Ocular lens or eyepiece: most are 10x magnification. The scopes used are binocular (two eyepieces). 2. Body tube: contains mirrors and prisms which direct the image to the ocular lenses. 3. Nosepiece: holds the objective lenses, rotates

4. Objective lenses: usually 3-4 on our scopes, 4x, 10x, 43x, 100x oil immersion (red banding). Total magnification = ocular power x objective power. Most of our binocs have fixed position lenses–the stage moves up and down rather then the lens. 5. Stage: Movable platform on which slides are mounted for viewing; all of the scopes have mechanical stages with X,Y vernier scales. Focus knobs move the stage up and down. 6. Condensor: A substage lens which focus the light on the specimen. The binocs have condensors that move up and down to focus the light beam. 7. Iris Diaphragm: the diaphragm is located just below the stage and controls the amount of light which passes to the specimen and can drastically affect the focus of the image. 8. Focusing knobs: outermost is the fine focus and innermost is the coarse focus. On the binocs these knobs control up/down movement of the stage. 9. Light source: The scopes have built in light sources. The rheostat ON/OFF switch is located either on the scope or on the external power supply and is used to regulate light intensity.

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