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Influence of European States to Unification of Italy

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  • Category: Italy

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Italy was unified in 1871. There were three important individuals who had shown extreme efforts in unifying Italy. They were Mazzini, garibaldi and Cavour. Cavour was considered to be the most important person in unifying Italy, Eventhough he only ends the steps of Mazzini and garibaldi who initially started the idea of uniting Italy. However, it had been claimed that the assistance of foreign power was the most important reasons for Italian unification during the period of 1848 to 18 71. Firstly the influence of France was important to the unification to the unification of Italy.

After the help of Cavour to France in the Crimean war. Napoleon iii promised to help Cavour in fighting against Austria through the compact of plombieres in 1855 where in the treaty napoleon iii agreed to help Italy against Austria and if they were success in defeating Austria, Italy promised to give Savoy and nice to France. When the war against Austria occurred in 1859, napoleon iii sent his troops to Italy and France would gain nice and Savoy. Therefore the influenced of France helped Italy gaining Lombardy from Austria. The influenced of Prussia was also important to the creation of the united of Italy.

In 1866, the austro-prussian war occurred. Garibaldi fought against the Austrian when the Italian government formed an alliance with Bismarck. Bismarck promised to give Venetia to Italy if the Italians help them fight against Austria. The Italians helped the Prussians to win and the Prussian handed over the Venetia to the Italians as promised. Therefore, the influenced of Prussia leas to Italy successfully gained Venetia. The influence of Britain was also important in unifying Italian. When Italy offered help in the Crimean was, Britain rejected their helped because Britain that time had serious problem in its own country.

Britain also warned both Austria and France that Britain opposed the annexation of the central Italy. Central Italy was still under Italy with Britain help. Therefore, the influence of Britain prevent the central Italy got annexed by Austria and France and would still remain under Italy. The influence of Russia was also important to the creation of united Italy. After the defeat in Crimean war. Russia was prepared to accept many changes made by napoleon iii schemes in the 1856 settlement and kept its promise where it would remain neutral in the event of unifying Italy.

Therefore, the influenced of Russia remain neutral during the unification of Italy helped Italy. However, the influenced of other European countries were not the only reasons that leads to the creation of Italian states. There were also local nationalist leaders who help in unifying Italy. Firstly the influenced of local nationalist leader Cavour, who introduced many way in order to unify Italy. Cavour introduced newsletter called Risorgimento iii where he spread his ideas by writing on how he wanted to unify Italian states under piedmont.

Cavour also introduced reforms to improve piedmont politically, militarily and economically, in his political reforms, he introduced anti-clerical policy where it helped to reduce the power of the church so this policy would not to be obstructed by the political influenced of the pope in piedmont, military he strengthen the army of piedmont by re-equipped with the better weapons and promotion of middle class officers. Cavour’s’ economic policies were that he created new state banks which money can be invested in railways, communication and agriculture to improve piedmont economically.

Therefore, the influence of Cavour also leads to the creation of the Italian states. Another local nationalist leader that influenced the unification of Italy was Mazzini; he spread the feeling of patriotisms and nationalist to unify Italy as a roman republic stated. He spread his feeling of nationalism through his writings. He also introduced a political party called young Italy where he spread his ideas to unify Italy as a republic state. Thus, the influence of Mazzini also leads to the creation of Italian states. The influence of garibaldi also helped to unify Italy.

After Carbonar failed, he ran away to Argentina he learned and began revolutions. He came back to Italy with the experience of revolution in Argentina and helped gained the two Scillies kingdom. Therefore, the influenced of garibaldi also helped to united the Italian states. As a conclusion, with the help of foreign powers such as Britain and Russia in the unifying Italy gave great advantages to Italy, however, the influence of the local nationalist leaders who introduce reforms to unify the Italian states by gaining trust and support from the local Italian itself.

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