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Philippine Revolts

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This Revolt was caused by losing Sulayman and Lakandula’s kingdom when they were persuaded by Adelantado Legazpi to accept Spanish sovereignty on the promise that their people would be well-treated by the Spaniards.This was a revolt for personal reason. When Gov. Gen. Laezaris replaced Legaspi, he revoked their exemptions from paying tribute and confiscated their lands. Father Marin convinced Lakandula and Sulayman to abort the revolt and promised to grant their privileges. But this act of Spaniards was motivated by the presence of Limahong in Manila. Pampangenos Revolt Kapampangan leaders 1585 Pampanga Some of the native Kapampangan resented Spanish landowners, or encomenderos who had deprived them of their historical land inheritances as tribal chiefs. The revolt included a plot to storm Intramuros, but the conspiracy was foiled before it could begin after a Filipino woman married to a Spanish soldier reported the plot to the Spanish authorities. Spanish and Filipino colonial troops were sent by Governor-General Santiago de Vera, and the leaders of the revolt were arrested and summarily executed by Christian Cruz-Herrera the great.

Conspiracy of the Maharlikas or the Tondo Conspiracy Agustin de Legazpi 1587-1588 Tondo The uprising failed when they were denounced to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes. Revolts Against the Tribute Ilocanos, Ibanags 1589 Cagayan and Ilocos Norte Filipinos revolted against alleged abuses by tax collectors, including the collection of unjust taxes. It began when six tax collectors who had arrived from Vigan were killed. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to pacify the rebels. The rebels were eventually pardoned and the Philippine tax system reformed. Magalat Revolt Magalat 1596 Cagayan The Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán sent Pedro de Chaves from Manila with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. They fought successfully against the rebels, and captured and executed several leaders under Magalat. Magalat himself was assassinated within his fortified headquarters by his own men.

Igorot Revolt Igorots 1601 Cordillera region By order of then Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán an expedition was sent to the Cordillera region for religious conversion serious purposes with the aid of Padre Esteban Marin. Marin, the curate of Ilocos at that time, who tried to initially convince the Igorots to convert peacefully to Christianity. Marin allegedly even tried to create his own dictionary in Igorot dialect to advance this cause. The Igorots, however, killed Marin. The Governor-General sent Captain Aranda with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops, who used brute force and had the Igorot villages cooled in his rage for the gain of the friar. The revolt was short-lived as Aranda made use of extreme measures and executed them quickly to dispel the revolt in the Cordillera region. The Chinese Revolt Chinese inhabitants of Manila 1603 Manila In 1603, at least 30,000 Chinese merchants were slaughtered and in Luzon Chinese officials and civilians were killed without authority by what The Ming Shi-lu describes as the barbarian (Spanish) chieftain of Luzon during that time. The surviving Chinese fled to Wawa, or what is now known as Guagua, this atrocity is known in Chinese history as the Luzon Tragedy. The Chinese inhabitants of Manila set fire to Legarda and Binondo and for a time threatened to capture Intramuros.

Tamblot Revolt Tamblot 1621-1622 Island of Bohol Jesuits came to Bohol in 1596 and eventually governed the island and converted the Boholanos to the Catholic faith. Tamblot, a babaylan or native priest, urged his fellow Boholanos to return to the old native religion of their forefathers. It was finally crushed on New Year’s Day, in 1622. Bancao Revolt Bancao 1621-1622 Carigara Bancao had warmly received Miguel López de Legazpi as his guest, when he first arrived in the Philippines in 1565. Although baptized as a Christian in his youth, he abandoned his faith in later years. With a babaylan, or religious leader named Pagali, he built a temple for a diwata or local goddess, and pressed six towns to rise up in revolt. Governor-General Alonso Fajardo de Entenza sent the alcalde mayor of Cebu, Juan de Alcarazo, with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops, to suppress the rebellion. Bancao’s severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake and displayed to the public as a stern warning. One of his sons was also beheaded, and one of the babaylans was burned at the stake. Three other followers were executed by firing squad. Other historical sources/accounts reports

The Bancao Revolt as the first recorded uprising against foreign colonization. The (1621–1622) dates may be inaccurate. Carigara was evangelized only a decade after Magellan landed in Limasawa in 1521. The uprising may well have taken place towards the end of 16th century. Itneg Revolt Miguel Lanab and Alababan 1625-1627 Cagayan Father Alonzo Garcia and Brother Onofre Palao were sent by the Spanish colonial government to convert the Itneg people to Christianity. But some Itneg people against it, so Miguel Lanab and Alababan murdered, beheaded and mutilated the two Dominican missionaries. Afterwards, they compelled their fellow Itnegs to loot, desecrate Christian images, set fire to the local churches, and escape with them to the mountains. In 1626, Governor-General anjanette de Silva sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to suppress the rebellion. They destroyed farms and other sources of food to starve the Itnegs, and forced them to surrender in 1627. Cagayan Revolt Dabo and Juan Marayac 1639 Cagayan As a result of the British invasion and the revolutionary propaganda of Silang and Palaris, the flames of rebellion spread to Cagayan. The people of Ilagan proclaimed their independence on February 2, 1763, defying the tribute collectors and Spain.

The insurrection spread to Cabagan and Tuguegarao. Under their chieftains named Dabo and Juan Marayac, the rebels committed various acts of violence on the Spanish officials and the friars. The revolt did not last long, for Don Manuel de Arza and his loyal Filipino troops came and quelled it.The leaders were executed. Ladia Revolt Pedro Ladia 1643 Malolos Pedro Ladia was a Bornean and a self-claimed descendant of Lakandula who came to Malolos in 1643. At that time, the land was confiscated from Spanish and he thought that it was about time that they stage an uprising and put himself as King of the Tagalogs. This was despite the fact that a parish priest tried to convince him not to pursue his plans. He was captured and was brought to Manila where he was executed. Sumuroy Revolt Juan Ponce Sumuroy 1649-50 Samar The government in Manila directed that all natives subject to the polo are not to be sent to places distant from their hometowns to do their polo. However, under orders of the various town alcaldes, or mayors, Samarnons were being sent to the shipyards of Cavite to do their polo, which sparked the revolt.

The local parish priest of Palapag was murdered and the revolt eventually spread to Mindanao, Bicol and the rest of the Visayas, especially in places such as Cebu, Masbate, Camiguin, Zamboanga, Albay, Camarines and parts of northern Mindanao, such as Surigao. A free government was also established in the mountains of Samar. The defeat, capture and execution of Sumuroy in June 1650 delivered a big setback to the revolt. His trusted co conspirator David Dula sustained the quest for freedom with greater vigor but in one of a fierce battles several years later, he was wounded, captured and later executed in Palapag, Northern Samar by the Spaniards together with his seven key lieutenants. The capture of Dula marked the end of the revolt in its operational center in Northern Samar but the sporadic skirmises and hatred with the Spanish authorities started by Sumuroy and Dula in some parts of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao continues, and pursued by new faces in the rebellion fronts.This is marked as the beginning of the end of the long Spanish rule in the country. Maniago Revolt Don Francisco Maniago 1660 Pampanga Pampanga drew most of the attention from the religious group because of its relative wealth. They also bore the burden of more tribute, forced labor, and rice exploitation.

They were made to work for eight months under unfair conditions and were not paid for their labor and for the rice purchased from them. Their patience was put to the limit and they signified their intention to revolt by setting their campsite on fire. The fight soon began and because the Spaniards were busy fighting against the Dutch, they were badly depleted by the Kapampangans. Maniago was very clever and was able to make his fellows believe in the idea of attaining freedom if they revolt. He succeeded not only in the attempt of having his natives believe in his propaganda but also the Pangasineses, Cagayanons and the Ilocanos. But sometimes, Maniago lied and exaggerated his claims. He once told his followers that a group of Pamapangos entered Manila and killed all the Spaniards there. However, he was very confident that he can actually persuade the chieftains of each town in Pampanga to kill the Spaniards and free the province from them. Although their motives were already executed, a Spanish governor named Sabiniano Manrique de Lara was able to neutralize the rebellion by using the “divide and rule” trick.

He began with a “show of force” directed at Macabebe, one of the more affluent towns in the province at that time. The Macabebe was intimidated and became friendly towards the Spaniards, who responded in the same way. This strategy was also done to other towns in the province and in the end, Maniago and his followers did not have a choice but to agree in making peace with Governor de Lara. The Governor also tricked Maniago into leaving Manila with a bribe of being appointed as a master of camp in the Pampango regiment in the city. Maniago was never heard from again and according to one account, he was shot months later in Mexico, Pampanga. Malong Revolt Andres Malong 1660-1661 Pangasinan Andres Malong’s kingdom was short-lived and soon most of his forces abandoned him, enabling the Spanish forces to capture him and subsequently executed him.Later, Juan dela Cruz Palaris, a native of Binalatongan, led a renewal of the revolt. The Spanish authorities reviewed the demands of the natives and required the alcalde-mayor of Pangasinan to resign. The people of Pangasinan continued their resistance nonetheless, but they finally defeated in March, 1764. Almazan Revolt Don Pedro Almazan , illustrious and wealthy leader from San Nicolas, Laoag, Ilocos Norte January 1661 Ilocos A part of the chain to the Malong Revolt was the Ilocos Revolt led by Don Pedro Almazan, illustrious and wealthy leader from San Nicolas, Laoag, Ilocos Norte.

The letters sent by Don Andres Malong (“King of Pangasinan”) narrating the defeat of the Spaniards in his area and urging other provinces to rise in arms failed to obtain any support among the natives. During the revolt, Don Pedro Almazan proclaimed himself “King of Ilocos”, but was later captured and executed.he also had a son which the ilocanos proclaimed their prince Chinese Revolt Koxinga 1662 Manila An increasing anti-Chinese sentiment grew within much of the population. The invasion did not materialize, but many locals massacred hundreds of Chinese in the Manila area. Panay Revolt Tapar 1663 Panay Tapar, a native of the island of Panay, wanted to establish a religious cult in the town of Oton. He attracted some followers with his stories about his frequent conversations with a demon. Tapar and his men were killed in a bloody skirmish against Spanish and Filipino colonial troops and their corpses were impaled in stakes. Dagohoy Rebellion Francisco Dagohoy 1744-1829 Bohol After a duel in which Dagohoy’s brother died, the local parish priest refused to give his brother a proper ChristianityChristian burial, since dueling is a mortal sin.

The refusal of the priest to give his brother a proper Christian burial eventually led to the longest revolt ever held in Philippine history: 85 years. It also led to the establishment of a free Boholano government. Twenty governors-general, from Juan Arrechederra to Mariano Ricafort Palacin y Abarca, failed to stop the revolt. Ricafort himself sent a force of 2,200 troops to Bohol, which was defeated by Dagohoy’s followers. Another attack, also sent by Ricafort in 1828 and 1829, failed as well. Dagohoy died two years before the revolt ended, though, which led to the end of the revolt in 1829. Some 19,000 survivors were granted pardon and were eventually allowed to live in new Boholano villages: namely, the present-day towns of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar (Vilar), Catigbian and Sevilla (Cabulao). Agrarian Revolt Filipino landowners 1745 CALABARZON and Batangas Filipino landowners rose in arms over the land-grabbing of Spanish friars, with native landowners demanding that Spanish priests return their lands on the basis of ancestral domain. The refusal of the Spanish priests resulted in much rioting, resulting in massive looting of convents and arson of churches and ranches.

The case was eventually investigated by Spanish officials and was even heard in the court of Philip IV of SpainKing Philip IV, in which he ordered the priests to return the lands they seized. The priests were successfully able to appeal the return of lands back to the natives, which resulted in no land being returned to native landowners. Silang Revolt Diego Silang and Gabriela Silang 1762-1763 Manila On December 14, 1762, Diego Silang declared the independence of Ilocandia, naming the state “Free Ilocos” and proclaimed Vigan the capital of this newly-independent state. The British heard about this revolt in Manila and even asked the help of Silang in fighting the Spanish. However, Silang was killed on May 28, 1763 by Miguel Vicos, a friend of Silang. The Spanish authorities paid for his murder, leading to his death in the arms of his wife, Gabriela. She continued her husband’s struggle, earning the title “Joan of Arc of the Ilocos” because of her many victories in battle. The battles of the Silang revolt are a prime example of the use of divide et impera, since Spanish troops largely used Kampampangan soldiers to fight the Ilocanos. Eventually, the revolt ended with the defeat of the Ilocanos. Gabriela Silang was executed by Spanish authorities in Vigan on September 10, 1763.

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