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Ocean Turbines

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Renewable and sustainable energy sources are hot topics and headline current event news sources on a regular basis. Many organizations specializing in these types of energy resources put in a lot of research into finding new ways to accommodate the world with energy. The Kyoto Treaty (United Nations, 2010) is one way the world is showing its concern over the effects of greenhouse gases and the depletion of fossil fuels by forming a world protocol to minimize emissions country by country (the United States never ratified the treaty). Through years of research and studies, renewable and sustainable energy resources have proven to help decrease greenhouse gases that are products of the main current world energy sources. But renewable and sustainable energy sources must be chosen properly depending on geographic positioning. Therefore renewable and sustainable energy are important to the future of the world and every qualitative objective research into the matter should be studied and implemented.

In coastal areas, water is the biggest natural resource available. It is only recently that research and business have attempted to work together to attain sustainable energy resources that will produce the equivalent amount of energy from our current fossil fuel usage (Andreis, 2012). With the rising cost and consumption of petroleum to rise in the future, the race to finding sustainable energy is heating up because the status quo is causing serious negative effects on the environment. It is unknown if these effects are reversible (A Primer, 2012). Other factors such as the Energy Policy Act (2005) and the Minerals Management Service (2006), both a part of the bureau of the U.S. Department of the Interior, have established criteria for the search of sustainable energy. The new programs have been developed to oversee operations oversees as well as create guidelines for the development of renewable energy.

The program has identified 4 points of contingency: 1) provide for public input concerning the scope of national issues associated with offshore alternate-energy related use activities; 2) identify, define, and assess generic environmental, socio-cultural, and economic impacts associated with offshore alternate-energy related use activities; (3) evaluate and establish effective mitigation measures and best management practices to avoid, minimize, or compensate for potential impacts; and (4) facilitate future preparation of site-specific National Environmental Policy Act documents—subsequent NEPA documents prepared for site-specific Renewable Energy and Alternate Use Program projects will tier off of the Programmatic EIS and Record of Decision (EPA, 2005). In its Millennium Statement, “Energy for Tomorrow’s World – Acting Now!” the report of the World Energy Council, (World Energy Council, 2000) presents three principles for energy development: 1) Accessibility is the provision of reliable, affordable modern energy services. 2) Availability addresses the quality and reliability of the service. 3) Acceptability addresses environmental goals and public attitudes, specifically local pollution and global climate change.

In the world of renewable/sustainable energy, harnessing the energy from one of our largest resources- the oceans, rivers, and seas of the world – is in great demand. Creating energy from the waters of the world is an ancient idea and has been around for centuries. Even though the general enthusiasm for sustainable energy is still in its grass roots stages, skepticism on these forms of energy is still there because of the lack of historical research. Chapter 1

Using the world’s water resources for energy has been around for centuries. In an article in BusinessWeek Magazine in 2011, it reports how the Ancient Romans harnessed water to provide water and energy for their villages and town. Using the force of gravity and declining pressure, the Romans were able to provide plenty of energy for each of their citizens. The Ancient Romans became such masters of harnessing water for energy and building sustainable devices, one can still view their original works to this day (Migliaccio, 2011). Man has also harnessed water with the use of water wheels. Water wheels used as mills or lumber saws have been around for centuries and in remote areas, they are still in use today. These machines work with the power of the running water from a river with high velocity (Hansen, 2012).

The water is shot into built in buckets or fins on the wheel from the river either over, under, or into the wheel. Once the buckets or fins are hit or filled with water, the shear force or weight of the wter causes the wheels to turn on an axis. The axis is attached to some other mechanical device which, depending on what type of industry the wheel is empowered for, the kinetic energy from the spinning wheel will propel energy to the next device (Hansen, 2012). Many of these water mills are still in use today in areas across Europe and the United States.

Definitions of Terms
Hydro Kinetic Energy= relating to the kinetic energy in moving liquids; mostly related to dams. Kinetic- something characterized by motion; pertaining to motion or action Tidal energy= is kinetic energy derived from the power of the tides of our oceans Turbine- any of various machines having a rotor, usually with vanes or blades, driven by the pressure, momentum, or reactive thrust of a moving fluid, as steam, water, hot gases, or air, either occurring in the form of free jets or as a fluid passing through and entirely filling a housing around the rotor. Wave energy- is the kinetic energy derived from the motion and speed of waves of the ocean Chapter 2

Sustainable or Renewable energy simply means it is energy that is available in nature and can not be depleted because it is constantly being replenished. The sun, wind, and water are the ones most familiar to us. Capturing the energy from all has so far been successful, but on several points unreliable, unpredictable, and the return on the initial investment has been grim. Literature Review

The World Energy Council (WEC, 2000) has actively pursued an alternative for fossil fuels for at least the past 20 years but this is slow moving since research has been so limited with sustainable energy and there is little historical evidence to truly back up its reliability because published data on Offshore Wave Energy Conversion devices too often provide insufficient data to assess the true accuracy of the energy they are collecting (Ocean Energy, 2008). In comparison, wind energy production facilities often publish their kinetic energy results in forms of tables that reflect the scientific research evidence of the energy produced based on wind speed, whereas water/wave energy developers seldom reveal these facts based on wave activity, rather on theory (Baddour, 2004). This is one of the reasons there is a bit of skepticism in the scientific world if this sustainable technology is worth it or not.

The lack of real scientific research prohibits any comparisons to other mechanical devices of the wave/tidal kinetic energy industry, or to even create a baseline for comparisons. The Electric Power Research Institute (Jacobson, 2010) is in the preliminary stages of creating a benchmark in this industry by creating common resource specification that all mechanical equipment manufacturers can follow during construction of their device as well as standardized testing procedures. The ERPI has also chosen 6 reference stations for research. These stations are what the ERPI believe to represent the long term offshore wave climate. The coastlines are located in Maine, Massachusetts, California, Oregon, Washington, and Hawaii. These 6 locations were chosen because they have registered and recorded wave measurements in detail in these locations over the past 20 years and that data would be conducive to further scientific research into the feasibility of a wave power plant (Jacobson, 2010). Currently there are only a few different types of hydro power used to produce energy, and only 2 will be covered in this research: wave/current energy & tidal energy.

Although both rely on the movement of the earth’s ocean, they use the kinetic energy produced to manipulate the movement into an energy source. Wave/current energy. Wave/current energy is created by wind moving over the water surface or from variable pressures from below the water’s surface. It produces what is more familiar as a wave or a chop in the water. This motion is irregular and because of this, it must be converted to at least 60Hz before it can be added to an electric utility grid (Ocean Energy, 2012). As stated earlier in this research, the testing done on any mechanical devices that have been created to capture this type of energy has been minimal, and furthermore, research done actually in the ocean has been even less. Almost all research has been done in test facilities (California Energy Commission, 2009). Energy to be harnessed from waves can only be captured in certain parts of the world where waves are strong and abundant (Appendix A).

Areas rich in wave power are the Northwest of the Unites States of America, Australia, South Africa, and the coast of Scotland (Ocean Energy, 2008). According to a study by the State of California Energy Commission (2009), the European Union recommends that among the different converters capable of exploiting wave power, the most advanced is unquestionably the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter, a kind of “undulating sea serpent” developed by Ocean Power Delivery. This technology is the object of a commercial contract for installation of a wave/current energy farm in Portugal. In 2007, three machines, with a total capacity of 2.25 megawatts are in installation phase, and should be joined by 27 others in the years to come. Another 5 MW project is being studied for England this time.” (California Energy, 2009). Tidal Energy. Tidal energy is created by the rise and fall of the tides of the oceans and rivers of the world. When the tides come in, the water is usually trapped in a reservoir and then released all at once at a later time to create the equivalent energy supply similar to that of a hydroelectric plant like a dam (Robinson, 2006). This technology is as ancient as roman aqueducts.

Back then, the tides were captured behind dams and then released to turn water wheels. But similarly to wave/current energy, the only way tidal wave energy can create energy is to be located in an area where there is sufficient enough tidal activity. Studies have shown in order for tides to increase energy, there must be at least an increase of at least 16 feet between low tide to high tide (California Energy, 2000). There are only a few places in the world where this level of tide change occurs. Some power plants are already operating using this idea. The largest and first tidal wave energy production facility is the La Rance Barrage and is located on the Rance River in Brittany, France. It has been in operation since 1966 and has an annual energy output of 600 GWh. Although quite costly to develop at the time, today the production costs per kWh is almost half of that of nuclear power (1.8 cent vs 2.5 cents.) (WTE,2012). There are less than a handful of other tidal wave energy production facilities in the world. They are located where the tidal surges are equal or exceed the minimum tidal activity. Test Phase 1: Equipment

Since the past 2 decades, there are only a dozen types of mechanical devices producing energy from waves or currents of the earth’s oceans. They are differentiated by either extracting the energy from waves moving across the surface of the water or from the pressure fluctuating under the surface of the water (Abu Sharkh, Morris, Turnock, Myers, & Bahaj, 2002). Some of the turbines are fixed in a position while some of them float atop the water and follow the waves. The energy augmenter can either be placed on the ocean floor in shallower water, or it can float (Andreis, 2012). Most prototypes and test devices have been placed at or near shore. The various components of wave/current turbines are similar to wind turbines. They consist of several components: the axis, and augmenter, a power generator system, and a hull. The positioning of the turbines is critical.

Research from the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico Il, Italy (2007), has shown that deep ocean sites are 3-8 times more likely to produce power than at similar sites located near shore. Unfortunately, the cost of deep ocean wave/current energy production is higher further offshore than near the shore (Anyi, Kirke, 2010). Therefore the visual impact of the device is critical: if the device is deep water, its appearance is likely to have no visual impact to the people on the coast line. However, if the device is near shallow water and floating as a buoy, the visual impact on the natural landscape of the ocean and water views could be negatively impacted. The wave/current devices have other barriers to overcome that revolve around permitting, the disturbance of marine life, and the degradation of the ocean floor. There are 2 different types of turbines: vertical axis and horizontal axis. Vertical Axis. The vertical axis turbines have either straight blades or curved blades.

Some of the advantages of the vertical axis turbine are that the kinetic power of the turbine is independent of the current, the blades are a simple design and build, and increasing the span is easily done (Department of Aerospace Engineering, 2007). Some of the disadvantages include that they are slightly more inefficient than horizontal turbine and the fixed blade turbines need a power up to start (similar to wind turbines). (Appendix B; Appendix G) Horizontal Axis. Horizontal turbines are engineered with the same technology as standard wind turbines (Andreis, 2012). Some of the advantages of the horizontal turbines are they are slightly more efficient then the vertical turbines and the hydro dynamics are well known via research. Some of the disadvantages are they depend on the direction of the current and the construction is more complex (Appendix H). The average dimensions of blades according to the Dipartimento Ingegneria Aerospaziale (Department of Aerospace Engineering, 2007) are as follows (Appendix I): I. Root chord: 0.136 m; Tip chord: 0.05 m

II. Length: 0.4 m;
III. Area = 0.5 m2 ; Diameter = 0.8 m
IV. Number of Blade = 3
Test Phase 2 Performance
The common measure of wave power, P, is
Watt per meter (W/m) of crest length (distance along an individual crest), where:
ρ = the density of seawater = 1,025 kg/m3,
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/s/s,
T = period of wave (s), and
H = wave height (m).
An example of testing of wave/current turbines from the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico Il, Italy, in conjunction with the Dipartimento Ingegneria Aerospaziale (Department of Aerospace Engineering, 2007, Page 3) breaks down the physics in layman’s terms by relating the earth-moon gravitational fields that occur in channels such as the entrance from a river to an ocean. From their testing, they concluded they are independent on climate and the speeds can be accounted for throughout the years and with that information, a close analytical report can be concluded on what the energy reserve will be each year at that point. Example of the theoretical physics of the wave/current turbine from the DIAS: Theoretical power of the stream hitting the rotor = 0.5 ρ V3 S (Watts) Effective electrical power produced Pelectrical (Watts) Global efficiency of the system =(water): ρ = 1000 Kg/m3 V = 2 m/s S = 30 m2 =>Ptheoretical = .5 * 1000 * 8 * 30 = 120000 Watts = 120 Kw Pelectrical= Ptheoretical * ηRotor * ηGearbox * ηGenerator * ηElectrical System If the global system efficiency is:

η = ηRotor*ηGearbox*ηGenerator* ηElectrical = 25% => P electrical = .25 * 120 = 30 Kw
What this example shows us is if the water current research is correct, and the water runs over those blades at the speed they should, then each would produce 30 kW of power (Appendix F; Appendix J). In real world language, depending on the size of a home and how much electric the home uses, the average home requires at least 3kW per hour for the inhabitants to live comfortably (Electric utility companies consider a typical house to require 4 kWh of electrical power). But in extreme areas – in the south and in the north – 80-100kW per day of power for each home may be needed. The energy load can be calculated by using this example: AVERAGE = 55 kW / day divided by 24 hr / day = 2.3 kWh Other current testing examples have shown with only 1 square meter (11.1square feet) of intercepted water flowing at 6 knots (17.6 miles/h), it is possible to produce about 3.3 kW. Test Phase 3 Information Sources

In 2010, President Obama said in a speech for the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy committee: “Our future as a Nation depends on making sure that the jobs and industries of the 21st century take root here in America. And there is perhaps no industry with more potential to create jobs now –and growth in the coming years –than clean energy.” In fact, the United States Government already has plans to move forward with this renewable energy source. According to a report from the U.S. Department of Energy (2011), there are already plans in place that involve the deployment of wave/current/tidal turbines to be established in key locations for testing. The testing must be made in order to determine the economic feasibility of the turbines (Appendix K). Creating benchmarks for the devices is also one of the reasons the government wants more research and development conducted. Since there is so little location data on these devices, it is important to begin collecting the information now.

The program put together by the government is to do major testing on all sorts of hydrokinetic energy turbine systems. The program plans to begin with the conceptualization of each device to the full-scale location testing. In 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency program was awarded $37 million to go ahead with the research and testing of wave, current, tidal turbine devices in the oceans and strategic river locations. (Appendix D; Appendix E) One of the reasons the government is getting involved so heavily is to be sure the energy output is being maximized efficiently while limiting the environmental effects. The government agency has also created liaisons with several universities for support of the agencies work and research and has set up experiment locations around the United States for studying hydrokinetic devices and components (U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2011).

This gives the opportunity to have first testing locations and then an easier segue into real location testing. Part of the research is developing those benchmarks for future construction of devices and developing a congruency in the instrumentation to measure performance of the energy devices across the board. This work, in collaboration with international concerns will help alleviate any redundancy in creating feasible machines. Realistically, any type of work to create and capture hydrokinetic energy always has many barriers to overcome. The most common are the extreme and harsh conditions in which to build, maintain, and control the mechanisms (Ocean Energy, 2012). In salt water conditions, the corrosive effect of the water itself on the devices as well as the growth of barnacles could have serious negative effects on the devices when deployed and maintaining them could be a nightmare. Currently, only hypothetical and experimental research and development is the most comprehensive information out there on these devices. Once the devices are actually at sea, higher than expected surges could over exceed values.

Some offshore load situations are unpredictable (Minerals Management Service Renewable Energy and Alternate Use Program, 2006). More experiments in real life locations are needed to accommodate the wave energy systems and also to be sure they are safe and efficient to be operated in extreme conditions. Harnessing wave/tidal energy could involve a couple of levels of conversion: there are the primary levels which include the turbines that collect the energy from the waves, currents, and tides and the energy projected immediately (Robinson, 2006), and the other level which is when the kinetic energy from the water movement is stored in a secondary holding device (similar to solar energy where the energy is store in direct current cell and then converted to alternate current when ready for use). Chapter 3

Other Renewable/Sustainable Energy sources
Solar. Solar energy is a way of trapping heat from the sun into solar cells. There are different types of solar cell energy technologies and each one transfers the heat from the sun into different energy methods depending on the desired outcomes. The various types can include photovoltaic cells used to trap heat to be transferred later to energy to parabolic mirrors to create steam (a popular method of heating water in pools in Florida is with solar energy: the sun heats up the nets holding water that is cycled back into the pool.) Never-the-less, the energy that is created from the heat from the sun to be used as an energy source for occupants of a building is collected as direct current first and then transferred into alternate current for use in a structure (Solar Energy Research Institute, 1989). Solar energy has its disadvantages. Because the collection of energy depends on the sun, this energy source can only be used where sun is a steady and a constant resource. Also, so far the only construction ideas for solar energy have been to create plazas of photovoltaic cells on large plots of land which reduces the land use for only that certain purpose (A Primer, 2012).

Also, although the return on investment on solar energy has proven to be high, it can take up to 15 years to re-coup the original funds. Wind. Wind energy has been in existence for centuries and has proven to be a reliable energy source for mankind. Windmills in the past have been used to execute mechanical physical labor to perform tasks such as pumping water or crushing grain. Nowadays, wind mills are spun when the wind crosses over the blades and the axis of the blades turns a generator which produces kinetic energy. Currently, wind energy is used by single family homes and also municipalities who have created “wind farms” sometimes on massive scale that create enough electricity for cities and towns (A Primer, 2012). The farms are strategically located in various places around the world where the wind is above a certain knots per hour on a regular steady basis – enough power needed to turn the blades. One of the biggest advantages of the wind turbines is that they produce no greenhouse gases. Protecting the environment is one of the most important considerations with renewable energy.

Another advantage is the sustainability of this resource: the wind will always blow! Because this source of energy is in use around the world (A Primer, 2012) and seems to be holding its own and proving to be reliable, there are government subsidies for the electric costs in place. But the disadvantage of wind turbines is similar to some other renewable energy resources. The large windmills need space to sprawl out (similar to solar energy photovoltaic cell’s need for land), therefore they take up space in the landscape and some people may find them unaesthetic. Because of the escalation of this concern, many wind turbine companies have moved their wind farms offshore and out of the landscape for the inhabitants. This action elevated another controversy: the fishing industry. Fishermen consider building the wind farms a problem for them because the construction could interfere with their industry by scaring the fish and also prohibiting them from fishing near the towers (A Primer, 2012). There is also the concern for the ocean environment and the changing landscape and stability of the ocean floor. All serious concerns that are constantly being researched. Hydro-Geothermal.

Hydro-geothermal energy is a fast developing renewable energy source. The energy is produced from the heat from the center of the earth, heating water near the surface to steam and releasing it. We know these effects in the shape of geysers around the world and “hot springs”, too. Currently in some areas around the world like California, San Salvador, and the Philippines, geothermal plants produce energy for large municipalities (How Geothermal Energy Works, 2012). Many of these plants have been totally self-sufficient in producing energy for their inhabitants and if constructed properly, will emit no greenhouse gases, therefore making it a truly renewable and sustainable energy source. What the comparisons of these energy sources shows is the desire of the world to create energy sources that emit no harmful by-products and protect the world environment from destruction because of man’s insatiable appetite for energy. Each resource has its advantages and disadvantages (How Geothermal Energy Works, 2012), but most of those points are similar in each path. The more the renewable and sustainable energy sector can emulate the quantitative reliability of fossil fuels, the more they will receive government assistance for further development.

Chapter 4
Strategy for implementation of Water Turbine Energy
The world wants new ideas for energy sources. Renewable and Sustainable energy resources are being developed and implemented at a constant rate and water turbines are a part of this trend. The Kyoto Treaty (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2005), is a significant sign the world is ready for a change in the current energy resources, but at the end of the day, implementing a strategy for governments to move in this direction takes a lot of planning. In fact, this type of movement should be broken down similar to the strategy plan a new business would take on. Certain parameters must be identified, a SWOT analysis can be conducted, and partnerships created. Insights can be developed which highlight the benchmarks and key business metrics relevant to other industry leaders (Andreis, 2012). The SWOT analysis identifies 4 key metrics for any business. Strengths- Water turbines are renewable energy sources that are sustainable. Weaknesses- Water turbines can only be implemented in certain areas of the world. Their success in generating enough energy depends on geographic locations and demographics of inhabitants.

Opportunities- Currently, there are very few companies that develop these systems so the opportunities are infinite and always in development. Threats- Although there are very few entities against water turbines, the usual suspects are out there: the Status quo from fossil fuel companies and other interlopers (mostly environmentalists). Although technology is the one of the key elements of the development of water turbine energy, the long range and short term financial strategies must also be considered. Key market trends will determine how far scientific research can go with this resource. Just like in small businesses, initial capital and investors will be gathered and possible acquisitions are also to be considered, and sometimes Government assistance. An example of one countries determination and strategy of moving towards sustainable energy is Germany. Recently Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany came to a meeting of the minds with other statesman to step up the efforts to expand renewable and sustainable energy resources other than just wind energy (Chambers, 2012).

Her plan is to move the country off of the nuclear energy grid they currently rely on in many states. She and the parliament engaged in serious talks on the strategy to coordinate the switch from the status quo to new energy resources. “The energy switch is a Herculean task which we are all committed to,” Merkel said after the meeting with Germany’s 16 regional leaders, adding that participants agreed energy supply must be secure, environmentally sustainable and affordable. “We have a lot of work ahead of us but we agreed to work together,” Merkel told a reporter for Reuters (Chambers, 2012). Merkel’s plan for Germany is to have the country using at least 35% of renewable and sustainable energy by the year 2020 and 80% by the year 2050. Currently, Germany is using 20%. Merkel plans on having meetings on this subject at least twice yearly to evaluate progress on the strategy. She will need the cooperation of the utility companies in the country to work alongside her on this plan as well as assertive lobbyists to stay on her side. In the next government meeting, she hopes to achieve a concrete plan for the grid expansion she desires (Chambers, 2012). Conclusion and recommendations

The future of alternative energy depends on a variety of criteria. Just like all new or controversial ideas, they require simmering until they are ready to serve. There are also a group of naysayers that will do whatever they can to disprove the essence of any new idea.

The first part of getting this type of alternative energy into fruition is to actually place the units in the water, in place where the hypothetical calculations have been postulated, and form actual real world evidence they will work. Bruno Andreis of Safremaenergy of Sarasota, Florida, is currently working on placing his units near offshore to begin real world testing. For years, his team has developed vertical turbines for the practice of collecting energy from ocean currents to provide energy to a grid for a municipality or town. Like others, Bruno also thought about ways to protect the turbines, augmenters, and generators from the harsh conditions of the ocean: he developed a unit where the controls are above the water instead of being immersed. This concept will protect the moving parts as well as making them more easily accessible for repairs and maintenance.

This raises the question of maintenance on the units and how much and how often. Since there has been little long term real world testing, it is hard to tell how the units will hold up when they are actually in the water and how long. The few companies who produce these marine units can possibly take ideas from hydroelectric plants on maintenance and confer with their measurements on a schedule.

Environmentalists and other interest groups also have a field day with new ideas that involve alternative energy. The cause for the environmentalist is how the alternative energy may possibly have a negative effect on the flora and fauna. A recent example was 3 years ago in the North Sea when Germany’s plan was to build an extremely large windmill farm offshore large enough to produce enough electricity for approximately 50,000 homes. Environmentalists’ concerns revolved around the marine life that could be negatively affected because of the years of construction, destruction of the ocean floor, and the marine birds that could be injured from flying into the windmills. In this case, the energy companies who were sponsoring the project were able to conclude, based on other similar projects they had completed, and concrete evidence, there was no basis to the concerns of the environmentalists, and they received the approval to complete the project in the North Sea (E-ON, 2012).

The few companies who produce these marine units must once again take cues from current hydroelectric energy suppliers around the world to see how they dealt with environmentalist because the concerns regarding flora and fauna and marine life is real. Another similar objective for the wave/current energy producers to overcome is the concerns of the fisheries and fisherman who work the seas where the construction projects for these alternative energies are planned. The fisherman are convinced these structures will have a lasting negative effect on their industry because the fish will be distressed by the cacophony of first the construction and then when the units are in production. They believe the fish will migrate to another area because of the activities, possibly an area where the fisherman are forbidden to go with their boats (World Energy Council, 2012). The other concern of the Fisherman is when the units are in place, because of the dangers of getting near the mechanical devices producing the energy and the possible government sanctions, they will be unable to again fish where they traditionally had open waters.

The few companies who produce these marine units must realize a plan to negotiate with the fishing industry. Because the research shows these units will most likely be planned near offshore instead of deep offshore where fishing usually takes place, it is possible this will become a non-issue. Therefore is the firm SSPA from Sweden (Andreis, 2012), an environmental consulting firm, very important. The company specializes in hydrodynamics, acoustics, vibrations, etc. of marine mechanisms. The company’s ISO status as well as their health and occupational safety qualifications create the right opportunity for them to assist the few companies who fabricate the water turbines for producing energy through the wave of obstacles getting in their way of full production. One recent example is the energy company, Safrema who has engaged SSPA as a partner in their endeavors to bring to fruition the vertical water turbines and put the units in place for real world testing. SSPA is familiar with all the codes and international marine regulations necessary to create and implement a structure acceptable to those parameters.

Because similar battles have been fought by other hydrokinetic energy producers, there are many cases to lean on for the alternative energy councils to combat those concerns of the environmentalists and the other concerned groups. Much research has been done and years of studying the effects of alternative energy sources have been documented and are easily available to everyone.

Moving forward, the sustainability of the water turbine industry is still questionable because the industry is fairly new. Like the inception of other alternative industries, history takes time to develop. Part of the development lies on the acceptance of the general public and the support of government. Currently, the governments of Italy, Portugal, Germany, and England support sustainable energy and qualitative research behind any industry involved in alternative energy. Their support is financial in the form of subsidies of the energy produced and the control of the grid.

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