Myths Surrounding Stalin in Khruschevs Speech
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Khruschev’s speech helped the creation of myths that surrounded Stalin to become stronger. Khruschev uses Lenin in his speech to counter Stalins behaviour/methods, and exaggerate it to a certian extent. Khruschev said that Lenin only used extreme methods in the most ‘neccesarry cases’, when the soviets were in harder times and ‘struggling for survival’ although Lenin estblished, ‘Apparatus of the repression that was of considerble size'(Mohan, book 1, 2009, pg 136-7), ‘In the immediate aftermath of revoulution and it was frequently used in the 1920’s by Lenin against those he regardedas opponents – even those who supported the goals of the revolution and the construction of a socialist society’ (Mohan, book 1, 2009, pg 136-7). This has caused different historians to disagree about Stalins crimes, some say it was Stalin’s personality or just how he was why his crimes were so bad and some claim the Lenin had just set an example for him and he followed Lenin’s footsteps. Khruschev goes on to say that even though Lenin used extreme methods in necessary times, Stalin ‘Used extreme methods and mass repressions at the time when the reveloution was already victorious’.
Here Khruschev is claiming that Stalin used severe methods at all times and to anyone. This helps the myth of Stalin become stronger as its howing people how cold hearted and ruthless he was and the brutality that he used. At the time of Stalin’s death the Soviet people were mourning and as historian ‘Sarah Davids’ Said ‘ The Stalin that existed in the minds or ordinary Soviet citizens was not the super human Stalin of much visual representation, But one who embodied for more traditional ideas of appropriate leadership. Stalin was seen by many as a father-like defender of the people’ (Davies, 1997, p116). His victory also helped the myth surrounding Stalin to become stronger, and figure 5.7 in the ‘Mohan, Reputations, Book 1, 2009, p 142) Stalins certificate of perticipation in the Moscow victory parade. many people showed to give him respect even people who did not agree with talin and his actions, decisions, or methods. Stalin had support around him which could have also be named a cult, which were shown in propaganda posters that were designed to show his support for the Soviet state but had more of a presence n the daily live of citizens.
Even people who supported stalin felt his ‘wrath’. Fedor Raskolnikov wrote a letter to Stalin who had declared him a enemy of the state even though they were on the same side. he managed to escape abroad where he wrote the letter. This letter supports the accusations of Khruschev, and also has helped to strengthen the myth further. Raskolnikov claimed the no one in the soviet union was safe or secure, he then goes on to say ‘ that no one, going to bed, can be sure that they will not be arrested at night. There is no mercy for anyone’ (Raskolnikov, Moscow, Yuridicheskaya literatura, 1988, p 198). This statement supports Khruschev when he says ‘Stalin often chose the path of repression and physical annihilation not only crimes against the party and the soviet government’. Both Raskolnikov and Khruschev Tell of how Stalin destroyed Lenins party and also was accused of building a new party which was led by himself, and the party of Lenin and Stalin was just a cover up. At the end of his letter Raskolnikov stated that the list of Stalins crime and victims is endless. This letter along with Khruschev’s speech show of how brutal Stalin was and that he would stop at nothing to gain power and become leader to get his own way, these accusation or maybe truth helped the myths surrounding Stalin become very strong and become a war leader. 611 words
part 2 – The Faber Book Of Beasts
Read the following poems by Thomas Hardy (The Oxen) and Seamus Heaney (Cow in Calf) in the Faber Book Of Beast (pg 195 and 62). In no more than 600 words, compare the ways in which the two poets represent cattle.
The two poem’s represent cattle in very diferent ways. As well as being two completely different Sonnets, although they do have some similarities. ‘The Oxen’ by Thomas Hardy as a common Sonnet form of 4:4:4 which is often used by nursery rhymes. This gives the poem a childlike feel, Which relates to the subject of the poem which appears to be a childhood memory of christmas. Parts of the poem relate to ‘Lukes Gospel’, ‘We picture the meek mild creatures, where they dwelt in there straw pen’. With there being no room at the inn the story is Mary and Joseph had to stay in the animal stables, where they were to be surrounded by people, angels and animals. The poem by Seamus Heaney has a very different meaning but both have a sense of birth and new life. On the other hand ‘Cow In Calf’ by Seamus Heaney has a split sonnet form of 3:6:5, which has a complicated rhyme structure, apart from the last three lines (lowing/Going). The description in the poem is made easier to digest with the combination of similies (Slung like a hammock). The way the cattle are represented and meaning’s behind the poem’s are very different with some things the same.
Thomas Hardy’s ‘The Oxen has a traditional feel throughout the poem. ‘Now they are all on there knee’s’ which would relate to the birth of Jesus when everyone and animal kneeled before christ. Thomas Hardy implies that the oxen kneel every christmas eve due to them being present at the birth of jesus. It could be said that Thomas Hardy may be implying that the speaker is a shepard recalling a memory on christmas eve with the line ‘An elder said as we sat in a flock by the embers in the hearthside ease’, by using the word flock in there may suggest that the speaker is sat surrounded by a flock of sheep, Or this may very well just mean he is sat in a large group of people . Seamus Heaney’s ‘Cow In Calf is reflacting on regeneration also with the poem being about a pregnant cow. The poem appears to describe some symptoms of pregnancy throughout the poem, ‘It seems she has swallowed a barrel’, ‘Her stomach is swung like a hammock’, are a few lines that suggest pregnancy symptoms. In the poem it also appears as if he is trying to move the calf to a different place o spot and the noise of his slaps have changed now the cows pregnant.
The slaps have become solid and dull ‘like slapping a great bag of seed’. The slap he gave the cow was so weighty that they made his hands tingle, and were followed by the dull echo’s ‘like a depth – charge far in her gut’. More signs of pregnancy are described in the last verse, ‘ The udder grows’. He then makes references to a certian wind instrument, ‘Wind bags of bagpipes are crammed there’. As the poem goes on Seamus Heaney reflects on the perpetual loop of a cows existance, ‘her cud and her milk, her heats and her calves’. on the other hand the line that appears to be a pregnancy symptom could also be a metephor for the enemy submarines in WWII. The sounds he may have heard them make. Both the poem’s have similarities throughout such as punctuation, line length, subject and that there are both about birth and regenneration. But on the other hand both poems have different meaning’s. ‘The Oxen’ is a Biblical memory whereas ‘Cow In Calf’ also could be a memory of a pregnant cow it appears to be more of a poems that relects either a war memory/metephor or is reflecting on birth and the circle of life.