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Modern Methods of Cancer Research

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  • Pages: 9
  • Word count: 2176
  • Category: Survival

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Today in the medical world, cancer is one of the most researched and treated disease in the United States. Cancer comes in many types and forms that affects all different types of bodies. Many research has provided new insights into the formation of cancer and various treatments that are prone to increasing survival rates. This type of disease is formed as a mass of cancerous cells, known as oncogenes are disrupting normal functions of the body. The cell cycle is further explained to how cells forms, and how mutations that lead to DNA damage cause cancer. Other causes can be from a person’s lifestyle and environmental factors that trigger cancer is formed. A person who has been diagnosed with cancer now looks upon causes and treatments. Each treatment is based on the individual and specifically their type of cancer. Cancer treatment is crucial to provide the best way of treating a disease that has been prone to cause death. This disease is crucial where it disrupts our bodies and the main functions of the human body.

Cell Division, this process happens in our bodies day-to-day to produce new functioning cells. As each cell is configured it is essential to our bodies to maintain homeostasis. Our bodies are constantly in need of cells, knowing we are frequently losing cells. Cells play a role in tissue repair, where our body makes cells to repair and tissue growth. The cell cycle is a complex series of phases and cycles the involve one cell to be duplicated and the result is forming two new daughter cells. The first phase is interphase where the cell is preparing for a division and cell growth. The time the cell spends in this phase on the average is about 23 hours. This phase has three different subgroups that perform a distinctive function in cell division. The first subgroup is G1 phase where growth and preparation of DNA are occurring. In S phase DNA is being replicated, where it follows different steps to replicate. The first step of DNA replication is to uncoil the DNA strands from enzymes. Enzymes are used to break the hydrogen bonds down the middle of the strand. Hydrogen bonds must be broken as they link paired bases. The second step follows once the hydrogen bonds have been broken down and are now separated, the binding proteins secure the strand are being apart.

The next step is for the strands that are already separated to acquire new DNA strands. The enzyme DNA polymerase is crucial in this step as it shifts the separated strand to join new nucleotides into a new DNA strand that is compatible with the strand. Lastly, the final state for DNA to return into a double helix. After DNA replication, the last stage of interphase is the G2 phase. In this stage, the copied centrioles are finished, where they will be needed in mitosis. Other structures and enzymes for mitosis have been synthesized. Through interphase after G1 and G2 phase both have checkpoints. These checkpoints serve as a guide to know if the cell after each phase was correctly divided and grown. The G1 checkpoint is important as it checks the number of nucleotides that are needed to duplicate DNA and can wait until all the resources are there to the cell. The cell can also receive a signal to stop based if their environment is preventing them from diving. The next checkpoint is after the G2 phase which consists of any irregularities or damage that could of happening during the cycle. Proteins are review also in this checkpoint, where they are needed to mitosis. Once the cells are clear from these checkpoints, they proceed to the next phase known as mitosis.  After interphase, the cycle continues with mitosis where it undergoes into four phases. This phase undergoes on average an hour for two daughter cells to form.

The first stage is prophase is where DNA and protein have formed into chromosomes and become noticeable. The chromosome then forms into sister chromatids, where the nucleolus breaks. The centrioles are then moving and the end of the poles, where microtubules that contain spindle fibers. In this stage, the nuclear envelope disappears, where it makes possible chromosome to move up into the cytoplasm. The next stage is metaphase where the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers by connecting with the centromere. The chromosomes then line up in the middle of the metaphase plate. Before going to the next phase there is the M checkpoint where it checks upon the sister chromatids if they are attached to the spindle fibers. Anaphase then comes next where the spindle fibers caused chromosomes to be pulled apart and move away to opposite ends of the poles. The last phase is telophase where chromosomes are at the ends. The chromosomes uncoil, the spindles break apart, and each nucleus has a nucleolus. A new nuclear envelop forms around each chromosome. When the cell cycle passes through these phases and mitosis has ended, cytokinesis is the last part. In this stage the cytoplasm forms, which separates and forms two daughter cells. Throughout the cycle, we have different gene checkpoints that occur to check if the cell is being processed right.  III. What is Cancer? and Causes Cancer is a disease caused by abnormal growth of cells that attack our tissues in the body.

This disease can create a disruption in our body normal functions or attack specific organ systems. The cause for cancer cells has been linked upon many factors. Hereditary can be a factor as many can be prone to have gene mutations in their DNA causing loss-of-function mutations or in mismatch repair gene. A person’s DNA can contain gene mutations that they have inherited from their mother or father and has been passed down from generations. These types of mutations cause a change in cell formation. Cells that are formed through these mutations can be oncogenes.

These types of cells are prone to be cancerous as they form cell into tumors that are now in our bodies. During the cell cycle, mutation can cause mitotic checkpoints to become weak, where tumorigenesis is more likely to form in the body. The mitotic checkpoint is then compromised where cells are not properly being inspected thoroughly. A cell that is created with no examination in the cell cycle checkpoints can have damaging DNA. Once DNA has been damaged the body is more prone to develop cancer. DNA damage can cause alterations in chromosomes number and structure that alter cell behavior, confer a selective advantage and drive the development of cancer. Cell behavior can cause cells to rapidly grow, especially if these cells are cancerous where it creates more cancer being produced in the body. Cell functions can also be influenced if the wrong DNA is produced, making them unsuitable to the body function. As the cause of our genes can result in cancer formation, outside environments may contribute.

Environmental factors can be a consequence of being diagnosed with cancer. Factors vary upon an individual and their lifestyle and exposure they have on the body to the environment. Environmental factors agents cause DNA damage and mutation that alter genome. For example, smoking is a lifestyle choice that can cause in cells lesions which are prone to develop the process of cancer. The development of a cell then is compromised where the cell has irregularities. Environmental causes such as industrial chemicals caused by cell reproduction oxidation of DNA bases. Toxic gases are prone to deteriorate DNA as components of the cell are damaged too. Oxidative metabolism can occur and harm DNA bases. Different factors of the environment cause mutation that lead to a greater chance to develop cancer. IV. Breast Cancer and Treatments

In the United States, the total estimate of new cases of breast cancer adds up to 252,710, about 40,610 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2017. Breast cancer is one well-known cancer that affects most women in the U.S. This type of cancer is a cancerous cell that forms in breasts. Breast cancer is diagnosed by following several of exams, that provide an in detail diagnosis. A breast exam can be first done, where a doctor would check around the armpits and breast. If lumps are found near the breast, it would conclude a mass in the breast. A doctor may order a more detailed test know as a mammogram where the X-rays of the breast to get a better image of the mass. This test is useful to detect early stages of breast cancer.

Lumps that are found near the breast are an abnormal growth, where it would consist of doing a biopsy that tells if the mass is cancerous or non-cancerous. Breast cancer is staged at different levels where it depends on the person’s prognosis and treatment.

An invasive treatment that a person might look upon is surgery. The reason to choose surgery for the beginning stages of breast cancer is achieving control of the tumor. People who have been diagnosed with breast cancer have different types of surgery that depend on cancer they contain. One type of surgery can be breast conservation that targets cancer and the tissue that surrounds it. This surgery is looking upon as it gives women a chance to save their breasts. Following this type of surgery, a person must do radiotherapy, in case of reoccurrence of cancer happening. A person has the option to look upon a mastectomy, where it divides into different types. Simple mastectomy is the removal of just breast tissue. Modified radical mastectomy is then the removal of breast tissue and axillary lymph glands. The most invasive mastectomy is radical where breast tissue, axillary lymph nodes, and muscles are removed. They consist of taking out parts of the breast to reduce cancer progression or growth. These types of surgeries might depend on a person after surgery to get treated by chemotherapy of still have the chance to reoccur in the future.

Chemotherapy is another for treatment that many doctors recommend for a cancer patient. This type of treatment can decrease cancer recurrence that may follow by surgery that has been done on a person. Chemotherapy has had a great used among people who have been diagnosed with breast cancer. This type of treatment is a drug treatment that detects and destroy cancer cells from growing and dividing. It can be given in cycles or intervals for a person. Chemotherapy can insist on being a targeted therapy where specific antibodies are used to either stop the process of growth of cancer cells. Targeted therapies are used to focus more on the tumor itself. As a person is diagnosed with breast cancer they must take into consideration how this type of cancer can be dangerous where treatments might not be able to work. Throughout the U. S and other countries many treatments are being researched that give a high chance for survival rates.

Cancer is a disease that affects a person either from knowing a family member who has been diagnosed or knows some. This disease is an epidemic that is costing many lives in the United States. My grandmother was diagnosed with stomach cancer in the late stage. As her cancer was found in the late stage, her survival rate was small since her cancer has spread throughout her body. Her cancer had spread rapidly to her other organs and systems. Chemotherapy was giving her a chance to have more time but also caused in her body to be fragile. Her treatments included chemotherapy that lasted up to 3 months. This treatment was hard to understand as it was injection infectious agents in her bodies that would cause her to have negative effects on her bodies. The doctor mention to us that our family had a more likely chance to develop cancer as it could be hereditary. We are prone to having cancer and we might contain mutations or genes that can cause damage to our DNA. As the years passed there hasn’t been one treatment that cures all types of cancers or in a short amount of time. Many researchers have found new technologies that try to decrease death rates among people get diagnosed with cancer. Treatments are getting more advanced and are responding well, that creates hope for many to be cured.

The formation of cancer is a complex understanding where the cell cycle is compromised. Within this cycle, it creates a more extensive knowledge of how DNA damage and gene mutation can take a toll in cell formation. The formation of cancer can be a broad subject where many factors can contribute to it. From my experience taking a deeper look at the cell cycle and how it affects our body can help us understand cancer. Knowing that if our cell cycle performs irregularities through our body they can be dangerous to the point where cancer is in our body. Cancer is a complex type of disease where different treatments depending on the person diagnose and their approach to treatment. In our family where are pronged to being diagnosed with cancer.

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