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Misfortunes in Madrid

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Filipino Colony – the Asosacion Hispano – Filipina and the
Liberal Spanish Newspapers ( La Justicia, El Globo, La Republica, El Resumen, etc. )

M.H. del Pilar – acted as the lawyer of Dr. Jose Rizal
Dr. Dominador Gomez – secretary of the Asosacion Hispano – Filipina Señor Fabie – Minister of Colonies
El Resumen – a Madrid newspaper which sympathized the Filipino cause

” to cover the ears, open the purse and fold the arms ”
– Spanish colonial policy

Silvestre Ubaldo – his brother-in-law
– brought a copy of the ejectment order by the Dominicans against Francisco Rizal and other Calamba tenants.

Saturnina – his sister
– in which he learned the deportation of Paciano ( Rizal ), Antonino ( Lopez ), Silvestre ( Ubaldo ), and Dandoy ( Dr. Rizal’s relative ) to Mindoro.

September 6, 1890 – the unfortunate deportees were arrested in Calamba and were shipped out of Manila.

Narcisa – Antonino’s wife
– Rizal’s parents were living in her house when they had been forcibly ejected from their home.

Becerra and Maura – liberal Spanish statesmen

Queen Regent Maria Cristina – ruler of Spain during the minority of Alfonso


Jose Ma. Panganiban – his talented co-worker in the Propaganda Movement , died in Barcelona on August 19, 1890 after a lingering illness.


Towards the end of August 1890, Rizal attended a social reunion of the Filipinos in Madrid.

Antonio Luna – his friend who had a frustrated romance with Nellie Boustead
– he blamed Rizal for his failure to win her and uttered unsavoury remarks about Nellie

• Angered by the slanderous remarks, he challenged Luna, his friend to duel. Fortunately, Luna , when he became sober, realized that he had made a fool of himself during his drunken state , apologized about what he said and they became good friend again.


Wenceslao E. Retana – bitter enemy of the pen
– a talented Spanish scholar and a press agent of the friars in Spain.
– he used to attack the Filipinos, including Rizal, in various newspapers in Madrid and other cities in Spain.

La Epoca – an anti-Filipino newspaper in Madrid
– Retana wrote an article asserting that the family and friends of Rizal had not paid their rents so that they were ejected from their lands in Calamba by the Dominicans.

• Such an insult stirred Rizal into action then he challenged him to duel but Retana published a retraction and an apology in the newspapers.

Retana – with the incident , his pen against Rizal became silent. He developed a great admiration for the latter, and years afterward he wrote the first book-length biography of the greatest Filipino hero, whose talents he came to recognize and whose matyrdom he glorified.


Teatro Apolo – Rizal and his friends attended a play and there, he lost his gold watch chain with a locket containing the picture of Leonor Rivera.

Leonor Rivera – his beloved sweetheart

December 1890 – he received a letter from Leonor Rivera announcing her marriage to an English man ( choice of her mother ) and asking his forgiveness.

February 15, 1891 – his friend Blumentritt sent a letter to Rizal consoling him.


M.H. del Pilar – fearless lawyer-journalist
– he had purchased this fortnightly periodical from Pablo Rianzares ( first proprietor ) and had replaced Graciano Lopez Jaena as its editor.

January 1, 1891 – the Filipinos in Madrid met to patch up the differences and to intensify the campaign for reform.

Responsable – the leader and be chosen to direct the affairs of the Filipino community and to determine the editorial policy of La Solidaridad.


First week of February 1891 – the election took place , the Filipinos were divided into two hostile camps — the Rizalistas abd the Pilaristas.

First day of the voting – Rizal was winning but he could not obtain the required two-thirds vote to be proclaimed Responsable.

Second day of balloting – the result was indecisive — Rizal won but the votes cast for him did not reach the required two-thirds.

Mariano Ponce – appealed to his countrymen with stirring eloquence to vote for Rizal.

Jose Rizal – declined the coveted position. He was a man of honor and dignity. with a high sense of delicadeza. He knew that some of his compatriots who supported Del Pilar despised or disliked him. So he preferred to abdicate his leadership rather than be the cause of disunity and bitterness among his countrymen.

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