Management is art, science and profession
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Q1. “Management is a combination Art, Science & Profession” Explain fully.
Management is a concept which cannot be limited to any specific area. It is a part of our day-to-day life. Management is managing oneself. It is a broad term which is a combination of Planning, Organizing, Controlling, Directing and Co-ordinating.
As rightly defined by Koontz Management has been defined as the creation and maintenance of internal environment in an enterprise, where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently & effectively towards the attainment of the goals.” It is the environment created for a better performance of work efficiently hence working towards attaining common goals.
Management has a specific economic & social objective hence is can be applied everywhere. It is a continuous, multidisciplinary, dynamic process. “Management is a multipurpose organ that manages a business manages a manager and manages workers and work” as defined by Peter Druker. Management is the combination of Arts, science & profession.
Management as an art:-
1.Art needs skills:-
As arts requires skills so does management. Skills like conceptual,technical,human relations & decision making comprise management. To perform management functions properly one needs to have clarity of concept as to what, where, how, why etc. Technical skills and know how is also important as it streamlines the functions & increases the efficiency. As management exists in everyday life comprising the human beings and dealing with human relationships is an art hence it’s a part of management too. Decision making is an important aspect of management .It can also be stated as an art because it requires a lot of inputs by way of facts & analysis.
2.Art requires knowledge:-
Management needs knowledge and information from various areas like finance, marketing, technology , production etc. As art needs inputs from other areas so does management. To manage effectively & efficiently one would require information from different fields. Information of how, what ,where in production, how & by what means in marketing, what is the latest update and how it can be used to increase the efficiency in technology & last but not the least the monetary aspect being the financial terms of how to obtain finance to complete the task in hand. All this requires Information ie Knowledge.
3. Art has creativity :-
Management is a form art as it requires creativity. The aspect of creativity is very prominent in marketing & competition. If a company plans to launch a new product in market then there would be a series of functions it would follow. As it would first do a market research, know about the competitors & their products. Then plan, & implement new marketing strategies for their products. All this requires artistic skills. The formula for success lies in implementing unique marketing strategy such as to attract the customers hence creating a need for the product.
4.Personalizing as an aspect of Management:-
Personalizing is as aspect of management as it is as integral part of art. As each person has his own way to personalize art ,he has his own style of doing it likewise in management each person can have his own style of managing.
5.Performance as an aspect of Management:-
As a good, bad or an average art performance has bench marks or so called performance indicators like wise Management can also understood by performance indicators like Profit, ROI(return on investment), Market share, equity etc.
Management as a Science:-
Management can also be considered as a science because it has certain features that are similar to it. Science can be social science. Management involves utilization of knowledge, innovative ideas, reasoning, analysis, implementation, directing, controlling & a feedback process to increase the efficiency of the employee. The features that science has as a subject are shared by management. Science can be divided into two types: perfect science and Social science.
1.Science consists of knowledge:-
As science is an organized body of knowledge likewise it also is an integral part of management. Knowledge of how, what, where, when etc, & the proper information of resources, for their effective utilization, information for efficient performance all is involved in science. Hence management also shows has these features.
2. Time factor:-
As science can be developed over a period of time so is management. No one can become an effective & efficient manager overnight. For an individual to become a manager one has to struggle & learn the aspects of management then implement it in a surrounding where there would be other individuals. Then over a period of time after sufficient experience the person can become a manager. After a time period spent over exercising & implementing management aspects.
3. The Action-reaction phenomenon :-
Science explains action & equal and opposite reaction ie cause & effect aspect. As per the 3rd law of Newton in physics “Every action has an equal & opposite reaction.” As science explains this aspect the same is also valid for management. In management whatever a manager takes decision will cause an effect the direction in which the company goes.
As science has predictive power so does management. If the management decisions are correct & taken after proper evaluation of the facts and figures along with the the consideration of the market and the competitors then this would determine the direction in which the organization goes. This can predict the future of the business and the market trends. This would also enable to take up a decision as to what should be the next course of action.
5. Constant renewal of Rules:-
As in science there is a regular change in the theories or rules set by experts depending on the new proven facts & figures like wise in management too the rules & regulations keep varying as per time. In management also there are changes that keep occuring depending on the new and improvised versions of fact and analysis of data so as to enable better forecasting of business. The old rules, terms and conditions are verified regularly and are replaced with new ones for better performance and result.
6. Two aspects of Science:-
Science can be of two types namely: Perfect science and Social science. Management can be categorized as social science as it includes history of management thought. The probability factor in management is very similar as it is in social science. The probability factor like may or may be if’s and but’s apply to the scenarios where there are interlinked events. Like, by increasing the investment in marketing strategies of any organization there is a possibility that the response from the market will increase, in other words the sales would increase. This aspect of probability makes management as a social science.
Management as a Profession:-
Management is a subject prone to changes. It is very dynamic. Management can be described in two ways firstly as an academic approach, secondly as a practical approach.
The academic approach of management is a controversial aspect. In this ones has to compare Management with profession. On comparison of the features of management with that of a profession it can be made clear that there are lot of discrepancies. Features like :
1)As a trait of a profession there should be a specific time frame of learning whereas management is not qualification specific. Any person having managerial skills, logic, analytical ability and experience can become a manager. Management is managing oneself hence, each one has in himself just that a few people are able to exhibit it better hence they can take control of the situation.
2)In every profession be it law, medicine, engineering, teaching etc. there is a centralized authoritative body which sets up protocols. These protocols are the rules which the respective professional has to follow. Whereas in management there is no centralized authoritative body to govern or make rules. Each aspect or the specialized area of management like marketing, finance, or human resource has separate governing bodies , like the National institute of Personnel management, or IIPM ie International Institute of Production management , NIS National Institute of sales etc.
3)There is a set of rules that are to be followed, laid by the governing body for a profession. Like there are standard rules or laws for medicine, teaching, law etc. but as for management there cannot be any set standardized rules and regulations. However, the parenting governing bodies may roll out some set protocols but they cannot be considered as mandatory laws for management as a whole.
4)One can get a membership through attaining additional qualifications and certifications in any profession, even in management this is applicable but not always. In management one can become a member of the top management level by attaining higher degrees and qualifications but if the individual is born is a business class family then he is entitled to be in the top management level by inheritance. In such a case it is not necessary for the person to have additional qualifications.
5)To be able to conduct a profession one has to get a specified certification. Where as in management it is not mandatory for the individual to have a certificate of practice. However, the CPA certification, CS, ICWA, CA etc, in accountancy, one has to have the respective certification for practicing the profession as well as the respective professional qualification.
6)There stands a social accountability or obligation applicable to the individual of any profession. However the same holds good for management as a profession too. Though they cannot be enforced under any law.
Management is very dynamic. In this approach one can clearly define what is professional management, the working of professional managers. In the day-to-day management of an organization the professional approach is the one which usually practiced.
1)The management is separated from ownership. The organization or a company is considered as a separate entity or an individual. This entity is different from the aspect of owning the organization. The management and even the board of directors are considered as the employees of the organization.
2)Unlike individual and intuition based decision making management takes up decisions based on knowledge. Managers practices decision making based on understanding ,analysis done after a formal reporting of facts and figures.
3)The decision making is based on the expertise and experience of the manager in the respective field. Depending on the past experience and the trends of the business flow the managers take up decisions.
4)Managers are performance oriented. Managers are more focused towards their objectives and how to achieve their goals. Their decisions depend on the performance of their subordinates and the current business trends. They set up goals in certain specific time frame to be achieved and work towards it, constantly monitoring the performance and the results.
5)Managers help in decision making of the top management by building corporate strategies. Strategies focused in achieving the target within a specific time frame and for a targeted amount of numbers or rather returns.
6)Managers are said to be professional when they tend to meet competitive challenges of the business.
7)Professional Managers are the ones who are keen in achieving specialization in every field such as being updated with the latest technology in the market, the current trends in the market studying with respect to the competitors, globalization of business etc.
8)The managers showing the quality of dynamism and creativity with new and innovative ideas, analyzing calculated risks, undertaking and implementing them to maximize the returns on investments & profits, as well as enabling the organization in gaining majority in the market share are said o be professional.
9)Professional managers follow the management principles and practices based on information and experience.
10) Managers are said the be professional when they apply the theories of management to solve the emerging problems in the organization.
Hence, we can say that management is a combination of Arts, Science & profession as it shows all the features as explained above.