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Income Taxation Solutions Nursing Theorist Grid

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1. Theorist Selected: Madeleine Leininger

2. Description of key points of the theory: Cultural diversity is a key point of Leininger’s theory. Cultural diversity are differences that can be found between different cultures. Nurses should be able to recognize these differences and realize not every patient will respond the same to the same nursing care.

3. Theory’s historical background: Alligood (2010) stated “Leininger formulated her ideas related to nursing based on her academic background in anthropology” (p.411). She envisioned that nursing would be focused on comparative health care, health, and well-being (Alligood, 2010). Leininger helped nurses understand the meaning of all cultural components regarding cultural diversity in healthcare.

Complete the following grid based on the selected theorist information.

Define each term according to the selected theorist.

Explain how the selected theorist’s approach to each element of the metaparadigm applies to the following:

Nursing practice
Nursing education
Nursing research


Applied to Nursing Practice
Applied to Nursing Education
Applied to Nursing Research

All members of society. All humans on global level.
All people across the world requiring health care regardless of race, religion, or ethnicity. Leininger believed her theory provides the base for cultural nursing (Alligood, 2010). Transcultural Nursing Society was developed in 1974 to serve nurses worldwide. Health

Overall condition of a person’s being.
Being able to use the nurses knowledge of most cultural differences will help the patient feel at home and well cared for. Keeping current on all issues regarding cultural differences will help educate nurses and provide up to date care. Continually keep updated on research provided by Transcultural Nursing Society yearly. Nursing

Professional care provided by nursing staff who have had higher education. Increasing the nurse’s knowledge in different environmental context and cultures will help deliver more tailored care to each patients. Nurses must know their population and keep up dated on any cultural differences, changes, or events to help deliver culturally competent care. There is nursing research in most nursing fields available. Finding the research that fits the nurse’s practice best and using it for every patients. Environment

Hospitals, in public nursing settings, or home. Where ever care is given or needed. Nurses must adjust their care according their environment. The environment may change but nursing care should not vary too much. If a nurse is able to learn and keep current on most environmental availabilities it will allow the nurse to adjust care as needed and give the most up to date care. Keeping current on any new ideas of environment and how it changes nursing care regarding cultural differences may be needed when giving nursing care.


Alligood, M. R. (2010). Nursing theory: Utilization & application (4th ed.). Maryland
Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Cohen, J. A. (1991). Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists, Leininger and
Watson. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16(8), 899-909. doi:10.1111/1365-

King, K. B., & Farley, C. L. (2002, 09). American women giving birth abroad. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 17, 24. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/212857261?accountid=35812

Ray, M. (2012). Remembering Madeleine M. Leininger, PhD, LHD, DS, RN, CTN, FAAN,
FRCNA, 1925-2012. International Journal for Human Caring, 16(4), 6-8.

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