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Hrm & Potential Risks in Apple Inc.

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1. Introduction – HRM & Potential risks in Apple Inc.

Importance Of HRM

Human Resource Management is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment, management and provides direction for the people who work in an organization. (Headthfield) Human Resource Management is important for an organization to succeed and achieve their desire objectives, human capitals are considerable as an important asset in every successful organization. Crucially, human resource management assists organizations to create loyal and happy employees to readily offer their best in work. (McGraw-Hill, 2004) Apple is an American multinational corporation in California that designs, develops and sells consumer electronics, computer software and personal computers. (aworam, 2010) Basically, Apply Inc. have created and release one of the most effective and advanced consumer electronics, Apply products take over the PC market in all over the world. (WOODBURN, 2012) That’s why Apply Inc. need to appropriate introduction of elitists in order to innovate and create more electronic products and maintain success. It reflects how HRM is important in an organization.

Potential Risks In Apple

Even though Apple Inc. has been successful nowadays, there are still potential risks in HRM such as outflow of elitists, argument in teamwork and employees retraining and etc. Pitifully, Scott Forstall is the former senior VP of iOS in Apple Inc. and he has worked in Apple over 15 years. (Ingraham, 2012) As we know that he has left post and officially leave apple in 2013. Scott Forstall expects to work in Facebook or Amazon. (Ingraham, 2012) That’s outflow of elitist causes a serious problem that slow the production development and affect Apple’s ability to make profit. Therefore, Apple Inc. must look for new elitists to reorganize and lead new production development group as urgent affairs. There are three chosen practices below to help Apple, which are recruiting, selecting and training candidates.

2. Recruiting – Internal & External sources

Recruitment is any activity carried on by the organization with primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees. (SuccessFactors) Its goal is to encourage qualified people to apply for jobs and choose which candidates would be the best fit for the job. (SuccessFactors) Apple is always searching for recruiting world-class individuals for a rapidly growth, because currently many world-class companies realized on the value of human resource and employee development is more than ever before as Steve Job said “ the most value asset of Apple Inc. is employees” Who is used to be the CEO in Apple. (Lyana Ayob)

Internal sources

Internal sources defined as recruit candidates in internal-form within an organization. (Akrani, 2011) Even though Scott Forstall who is the former senior VP will leave Apple, there are still so many excellent elitists work in Apple. Apple is currently seeking a replacement executive for iOS software development department. On the one hand, as iOS Vice President Scott Forstall is leaving Apple at the end of this year, Apple should recruit Craig Federighi who is the Apple’s Senior Vice President of Software Engineering. (Dilger, 2012) Craig Federighi has worked in Apple many years and has experience in developing iOS and software, to create new leadership and lead his team to develop new software and version of iOS. It is more effective and efficient for developing Apple product because Craig Federighi and his team are relatively knowledgeable about Apple’s vacancies and minimize the possibility of unrealistic job expectations. (Dilger, 2012)

Therefore, Craig Federighi is the best candidate for iOS Vice President due to shortage in employment. Dan Riccio is another Senior Vice President of Hardware Engineering in Apple and he also expected to be recruited to hold a post of senior VP of iOS. (Dilger, 2012) Dan Riccio joined Apple in 1998 and has worked with Craig Federighi a long time. That will be advantageous for Apple product development if Craig Federighi and Dan Riccio work corporately together in iOS development. As job vacancies as an urgent affair, Apple has to recruit candidates to fill vacancies through internal resources that generally cheaper and faster than looking for elicits outside Apple.

External sources

External sources defined as recruit candidates in external-form outside and organization. (Akrani, 2011) Recently, external sources of recruitment are necessary for Apple Inc. Actually, Apple focus on recruit from external sources due to generate more competition of candidates that providing variety of choices and high potential to hire the employee. Apple generally recruits through these sources below. (1) Management consultants (Akrani, 2011) – In general, Apple Inc. recruits high-level stuff through management consultants. (2) Public employment agency – Providing a lot of blue-collar workers for Apple Inc. to recruit more selective. (Akrani, 2011) (3) Private employment agency – Some private employment agencies that work for Apple and have provided more high-level as white-collar workers.

(4) Campus recruitment – Organizations interview and recruit students who are going to graduate from universities and colleges. According to students’ intelligent, academic records and communication skills, Apple Inc. would recruit suitable students for job-practice in order to encourage young blood with new ideas to enter the organization. (5) Electronic recruiting – Apple has been set up their online recruitment system with a website to easier for applicants apply job vacancies. (6) Direct applicants – Apple can recruit applicants faster and efficiently in order to save the cost of recruiting. (Holland, 2011) (7) Recommendation in recruitment – Apple Inc. may recruit candidates based on the recommendation received from existing managers or sister companies. (Case) Recommendation gives a quality guarantee for candidates and Apple may not to worry about selecting candidates wrongly.

Apple Inc. manages to handle outflow of elitists and job vacancy through recruiting in internal and external sources. Beneficial recruitment is directly concern with reputation of Apple and can be the competitive advantage in order to help to support Apple’s strategy in term of differentiation. It also gains the advantage of low-cost strategy.

3. Selection-Five steps in the selection process

Personnel selection is the process through which organizations make decisions about who will or will not be allowed to join the organization. (F L Schmidt, 1992) Personnel selection is made up with five steps, which are screening applications and resumes, testing and reviewing work samples, interviewing candidates, checking references and background, make a selection. (McGraw-Hill, 2004) Apple has received applications from applicants after recruiting. Therefore, Apple Inc. is expected to create a selection process in support of its job descriptions. When Apple makes a selection, candidates must be identified with the necessary that knowledge, abilities, skills and other characteristics. (McGraw-Hill, 2004)

Screening applications and resumes

Screening application and resumes are the first step of selection process. Apple’s human resource manager should ask candidates for background information and certain standard categories of information such as providing contact information, work experience, educational background and applicant’s signature. (Hillman, 2008) Apple’s HR manager must strictly require applicants with high education in order to ensure applicants whether are knowledgeable or not.

For example, Apple required minimum education level is degree for applicants and who are going to be rejected with the lower. (Apple Inc.) Working experience is also important to pass the screening application. An abundant work experience is very helpful as long as possible for applicants. For example, 10-years-work experience is exactly rather than 2-years-work experience. In this way, the screening application help organization to narrow the pool of candidates to a number it to afford to test and interview. By the way, every applicant is required to fill up a form of resume and submit it. That’s easier to checkout and identifies the applicants whether match the requirement created by Apple.

Testing and reviewing work samples

Employment testing consists of aptitude test and achievement test. For instance, Apple would train their employees and training results are depends on how well they learns or acquires skills and abilities as aptitude; (Doyle) Excellent learning aptitude is efficient for training. Otherwise, it would slow the training schedule. Achievement test is to measure those candidates’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and performance in existing job. (McGraw-Hill, 2004) Apple’s HR manager realized that how well did these candidates perform in their existing job that would indirectly affect whether hiring them. At the same time, HR manager would like to test candidates with work samples. Apple may analysis and judge candidates’ performance and ability by a given working situation as a work sample. (CHANGINGMINDS)

Interviewing candidates
Most of organizations use interviewing as part of the selection process. (McGraw-Hill, 2004) HRM interviewers in Apple may ask several types of questions through interview techniques for candidates who conduct the interview. (1) Nondirective interview -Apple HR interviewers have to evaluate candidates’ self-analysis and own assessment such as their strengths, weaknesses and career goals, work experiences etc. (Fraser Sherman) On the basis of these assessments, interviewers would select depending on their answers. (2) Structured interview – There are always higher chances for candidates pass Apple’s interview, who have basic qualifications and stuff like that good at using computer, language skills and so on.

(Heathfield) (3) Situational interview – Apple is requiring their employees have great reaction and responsiveness in a described situation. Therefore, interviewers should test candidates more effective through situational interview. (Heathfield) (4) Behavior description interview – According to the past behavior, Apple’s interviewers would determine these candidates whether reach the basis requirement of responsiveness in handled a situation previously. (Heathfield) These four interviewing techniques would assist HR managers to judge which candidates are fitted to jobs.

Checking references and backgrounds

Generally, one of the best indicators of future performance is a past performance. Therefore, reference checks are a critical step to help with making a hiring decision. HR manager who works in Apple should check candidates’ reference out probably to ensure the highest-validity of their information. (Washington State University) At the same time, candidates’ backgrounds are also required to check by Apple’s HRM authority clearly and strictly. In fact, not all of candidates are open and honest. For example, a candidate committed a crime on the job previously and then didn’t report into his references honestly. Eventually, Apple HR manager discovered the person’s criminal background causes this a candidate wouldn’t be considerable to be hired, because hiring candidates who have criminal background will damaged for Apple’s reputation. (Washington State University) Therefore, Apple HR manager must absolutely ensure hiring candidates with great backgrounds.

Decision to hire

Selection decision is the process that based on objectives to judge about which candidate will make the greatest contribution for organization. At the end, candidates managed to pass the rest of selection, Apple Inc. needs to make decisions about which candidates to place in which job on the basis of multiple-hurdle model and compensatory model. (the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology,) (1) Multiple-hurdle model is based on a process of putting the candidates through a series of test in order for them to be considered for positive position. On the basis of the highest scores in test, who would get the score is considerable to hired in Apple. (2) Compensatory model is another process that which a very high score on one type of assessment can make up for a low score on another. Reasonably, Apple’s HR manager would hire the person who are most fit in the job rather than some candidates who scores very high on an ability test might be “overqualified”. For the long-term benefits, Apple’s HR manager prefers to hire the right person into the right job.

These five steps in the selection process are assisting the Apple’s HR managers to hire the person who is best for the job and most contribution eventually. Good employees are always the key point to maintain Apple’s success.

4. Training and development – Stages of designing

Training is required to cover essential work-related skills, techniques and knowledge, and much of this section deals with taking a positive progressive approach to this sort of traditional training. (Ledbetter, 2010) The training is focusing on individuals’ development and Group Corporation in order to improve customer service and product design, prepare employees for future position, etc. Former Chief Executive Officer Steve Jobs has done at holding a training and development to entice the media in managing Apple’s human resource.

Needs assessment – Organization analysis

Organization analysis is a process for determining the appropriateness of training by evaluating the characteristics of the organization. (meetpanku, 2010) For Apple Inc., the organization analysis is more important than others, which are personal and task analysis because it is more relevant and underlying for achieving Apple’s desire objectives. As well as Apple is an international company; HRM department always looks at training needs and stuff like that the organization’s strategy, resources available for training and management’s support for training activities. (1) Organization’s strategy – licensing Apple stores in different parts of the world in order to expand its scale (Tripp); purchasing new machinery to develop productivity to fill the shortages of supply because shortage of iPhone 5 causes Apple’s stock market crashed; improving customer and service on the Apple’s purpose of building and maintaining profitable relationship with customers.

(2) Resources available for training – budging the cost of training Apple’s employees; ensuring complete training in a limited time efficiently. (Apple Inc.) (3) Management’s support for training activities – purchasing training from an outside individual or organization in order to learn different skills and knowledge to develop Apple’s processing system; Putting training system with an experienced trainer into Apple Inc. to improve their operating ability. (Hawkinson, 2012) According to Steven Job’s approaches of “ TELL, SHOW, DO” as Apple Inc. processes training and development needs through these three.

Readiness for training

Readiness for training is a combination of employee characteristics and positive work environment that permit training. (McGraw-Hill, 2004) (1) Employee characteristics – Employees who work in Apple need to have foundation of computer operating, awareness of employment laws and rules, and cognitive ability. (2) Positive work environment – Apple should provide a safe and competitive working environment. At the same time, Apple’s HR manager should encourage training that motivating, sharing information and knowledge, and openly discuss with employees on the purpose of expressing positive attitudes toward in Apple. (H) Ensuring Apple’s employees training is most effective and efficient.

Planning training program

The assessment about Apple’s training programs is objectives and select trainers. ([email protected]) (1) Apple’s training objectives – improving computer-operating, achieving great awareness of employment laws and rules, and expertise cognitive ability. (2) Trainers selection – selecting a trainer who is experienced and deeply aware of Apple’s process. Trainer is also required having patience, knowledge and leadership. Reasonably, a good trainer is a guarantee for good quality training.

Methods to implement training program

Apple’s training program must be implemented through several methods in order to encourage employees to acquire knowledge and skills. (HRCOUNCIL) (1) On-job-training – Make employees to realize what are they exactly doing in their job such as produce iPad operation and faster achieve objectives. (2) Classroom instruction – Centralizing training Apple’s trainees is more efficient and saving resources and times to reduce the cost of training. (3) Team training – Promoting Apple’s employees work as a team in order to improve the effectiveness in their work such as developing a new product.

Evaluating results of training

Evaluating results of training is exactly measuring training implement whether is effective and efficient or not. (Carter McNamara) Thus, to measure the result of training in Apple should on the basis of performance improvements and employees whether learn new skills and knowledge. (1) Performance improvement – Apple’s trainees are faster in their work and produce more outputs after implemented training. (2) Employees whether learn new skills and knowledge – evaluating Apple’s trainees can apply knowledge learnt and innovate and make new decisions. And they are also expected to design new products for Apple. According to the results of training, that is an effective and efficient training and development if the results are achieving the expectation and assisting Apple being successful.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, Apple Inc. faces outflow of elitists and handles such that risks by recruiting, selecting employees and training them. Apple Inc. makes a plan to recruit exist staffs and new applicants and make a selection to decide hiring which candidates. Then HR manager plans a project to training their employees and developing their process systems. These three practices can significantly help Apple to succeed in the next five years. On the basis of creating more new designed products and expanding to over the world that is important for Apple to maintain their success.

6. References

Headthfield, S. M. (n.d.). What Is Human Resource Management? . Retrieved from About.com Human Resource: http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryh/f/hr_management.htm McGraw-Hill. (2004). Foundamentals of Human Resource Management. (A. N. Raymond , R. H. John , G. Barry , & M. W. Patrick, Eds.) New York, America: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Wikipedia. (n.d.). Apple Inc. Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Inc. Dilger, D. E. (2012, Aug 29). How Craig Federighi & Dan Riccio were selected to leadership roles at Apple . Retrieved from Apple Insider: http://appleinsider.com/articles/12/08/29/how_craig_federighi_dan_riccio_were_selected_to_leadership_roles_at_apple.html SuccessFactors. (n.d.). Find the hires that drive your business forward . Retrieved from SuccessFactors Recruiting: http://www.successfactors.com/recruiting/overview/ aworam. (2010, May). Apple Incorporated Recruitment Process . Retrieved from studymode: http://www.studymode.com/essays/Apple-Incorporated-Recruitment-Process-334087.html Lyana Ayob. (n.d.). Apple Inc E-Recruitment. Retrieved from Lyana Ayob: http://hrs.wsu.edu/FRTK%20BGC%20Ref Akrani, G. (2011, July 26). Internal and External Sources of Recruitment – Merits Demerits. Retrieved from KALYAN CITY LIFE : http://kalyan-city.blogspot.sg/2011/07/internal-and-external-sources-of.html Case, M. J. (n.d.). Recommendation – Apple Japan Inc. . Retrieved from
BOYD&MOORE EXEUTIVE SEARCH: http://www.bmes.com/testimonial/recommendation-apple-japan-inc Holland, J. (2011, Feb 4). How to get a job at Apple. Retrieved from Electricpig: http://www.electricpig.co.uk/2011/02/04/how-to-get-a-job-at-apple/ Ingraham, N. (2012, Oct 29). iOS VP Scott Forstall and head of retail John Browett leaving Apple, Jony Ive taking interface design role. Retrieved from Theverge: http://www.theverge.com/2012/10/29/3573226/scott-forstall-leaving-apple F L Schmidt, D. S. (1992, Feb). Personnel Selection . Retrieved from Annual Review: http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ps.43.020192.003211?journalCode=psych Hillman, E. (2008, Oct 10). Application screening . Retrieved from ToolBox: http://hr.toolbox.com/wiki/index.php/Application_screening Apple Inc. (n.d.). Apple Consultants Network. Retrieved from Apple Incorporation: http://consultants.apple.com/au/join Doyle, A. (n.d.). Employment Tests Pre-Employment Testing and Selection. Retrieved from  Job Searching: http://jobsearch.about.com/od/careertests/a/employmenttests.htm CHANGINGMINDS. (n.d.). Work Sample. Retrieved from Changingminds: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/hr/selection/work_sample.htm Fraser Sherman, e. C. (n.d.). What Is a Non-Directive Interview? . Retrieved from eHow money: http://www.ehow.com/info_8147727_nondirective-interview.html Heathfield, S. M. (n.d.). Job Interview Tips: How to Interview Potential Employees. Retrieved from  Human Resources: http://humanresources.about.com/od/interviewing/a/one_stop.htm Washington State University. (n.d.). Reference Checks. Retrieved from Human Resource Services Reference & Background Check: http://hrs.wsu.edu/FRTK%20BGC%20Ref the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology,. (n.d.). Principles forthe Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures. Retrieved from scribd: http://www.scribd.com/doc/67900503/77/Multiple-Hurdles-Versus-Compensatory-Models Ledbetter, J. (2010, Sep 17). Apple’s Training and Development Seminar. Retrieved from +Service: http://plusservice.wordpress.com/2010/09/17/apples-training-and-development-seminar/ meetpanku. (2010, Sep). TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS. Retrieved from Studymode:

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