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Historical Perspective Essay

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There are many nursing theorist that have influenced the development of nursing research. Nursing Theorist have provided the interrelated frameworks of ideas which focus on nursing practice. Through clinical application and information, nursing science adds relevance to the care of patients in health and disease. Nursing theories provide guidance to researchers and educate nurses (Keefe, 2011) to look at different approaches in caring for their patients. This paper will show how one theorist most influenced the development of nursing research. The 1990’s was the decade for research and expanded nursing theory. This period elevated the use of evidence-based and best practices in nursing (George, 2011). Transcultural Nursing was introduced in 1992 by Madeline Leininger. Leininger’s theory says that the goal of nursing care is to” provide care congruent with cultural values, beliefs, and practices’ (Alligood & Tomey, 2010).

The cultural and sociocultural factors of each person affects how they take on factors, meanings, and expressions of health and caring systems. This theory has wide applicability in different settings. The interest is focused on nurses becoming culturally competent so they can provide appropriate nursing care to a growing culturally/ethnically diverse patient population. Nursing paradigms show a clear relationship among the existing theoretical works in nursing. Leininger is the proponent of Transcultural Nursing and Human Care Theory. According to Cohen (1991), Leininger’s definition of caring states “caring is the central and unifying domain for the body of knowledge and practices in nursing”. The key to Leininger’s belief is that human caring is universal, but the expressions, processes, and patterns vary among cultures. According to the Nursing Theories website, nursing theories focus on relationships among four major concepts called “metaparadigms” (2014). The four concepts are; person, environment, health, and nursing.

Leninger’s Metaparadigm in Nursing focuses on the person as the recipient of care who has spiritual, psychological, and sociocultural components. The environment is the existing force impacting the patient who responds according to cultural norms and beliefs. Health is seen as being universal across cultures but distinct within each culture in a way that represents the beliefs, values, and practices of a particular culture. Leininger gave three types of nursing actions that are culturally-based (George, 2011). These are cultural care preservation/ maintenance, accommodation/negotiation, and re patterning/restructuring. There are many nursing theorist that have influenced the development of nursing research. Nursing Theorist have provided the interrelated frameworks of ideas which focus on nursing practice. In the early 1990s, Transcultural Nursing was introduced by Madeline Leininger. Through her theory of providing care in congruence with a patients cultural values, beliefs, and practices, nursing research has been elevated to high standards.

Alligood, M. R. & Tomey, A. M. (Eds.). (2010). Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier. Cohen, J.A. (1991). Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists, Leininger and Watson. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(6), 1211-1221. George, J.B. (2011). Nursing theories: The base for professional nursing practice (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education. Nursing Theories (2014). Metaparadigm in Nursing: Definition of Nursing Metaparadigm. Retreived from nursing theories.info/metaparadigm-in-nursing.

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