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Factors Affecting the Decrease Population in Hotel and Restaurant Management Course

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It must be acknowledged that Ifugao State University, Alfonso Lista Campus has some of the best higher education institutions in the Region with well equipped workshops and laboratories and professionally staffed with a variety of scholarly professionals. These institutions turn out a large number of associates, graduates and post graduate students in various disciplines and professions. In addition with these, institutions reform their curricula and course programmes at regular intervals to be able to keep abreast with the needs of the rapid technological, societal and institutional changes to be able to meet the requirement of clients. However, once these graduates are pushed out of the walls of the institutions which trained them, they are forgotten.

They are not followed through the use of the tracer study paradigm to find out about what they are doing with the training they received and what they need to help them improve their knowledge and skills on continuous bases to be able to meet the challenges of the flux of changes in science and technology. In short, they are forgotten and neglected as well. One wonders about the basis for curricula and course programmes reform in the higher education institutions to be able to introduce new courses to provide current knowledge and skills for their clients. This paper provides documentary analysis about the need to use the tracer study paradigm for the enhancement of the quality of course programmes offered in the College of Home Science and Industry in Ifugao State University, Alfonso Lista Campus, to be able to meet the demands of changing educational, socio-economic, industrial and technological demands of the new century.

The quality and relevance of the Hospitality and Tourism Management (HTM) in every Colleges and Universities in the Philippines are problems which attracted the attention of the school authorities, policy makers and government as well as the private sectors. The problems of the graduates of most colleges and universities are unemployment, under employment, mismatch employment, poor performance in technical and professional exams, and shortage and surplus of high level professionals.

The Hospitalty and Tourism Management (HTM) includes in-campus and off-campus trainings. The in-campus training are those activities undertaken by the students in preparation to be a competent hotelier and restaurateur or manager in terms of theories, knowedge and skills while off-campus training is the “on-the-job training (OJT) also known as practicum taken by the graduating students to the various affiliated companies. HTM is a continuous process, it does not stop after graduation for it continues where in the graduates are able to apply and enhance their acquired knowledge and skills which is very essential for them to become globally competetive.

In the CHED memorandum order no. 11 s.1999 or known as the Revised Policies and Standards of Teacher education reiterates the needs to produce teachers who are efficient promoters to the youth. Disimulacion (2007) mentioned that the teachers are the very heart of effective instructions and the greatest strength of education lies on them. Thus, IT educators should be equipped with professional growth which reflects in his methods, in his willingness to change, in his working relationships with children, peers and superiors and his overall efficiency as a teacher.

The quality and relevance of the Hospitality and Tourism graduates of Ifugao State University, Alfonso Lista Campus, Ifugao from 2009 to 2011 should be undertaken. This study will be a basis for the development of the curriculum as well as the growth and development of equipments and facilities of the school.


The Tracer Study. The ILO Thesaurus 2005 defines a tracer study as an impact assessment tool where the impact on target groups is traced back to specific elements of a project or programme so that effective and ineffective project components may be identified.” In educational research the tracer study is sometimes referred to as a graduate or alumni survey since its target group is former students. Schomburg(2003, p.36) notes that graduate surveys are popular for “analysis of the relationship between higher education and work.” They provide quantitative-structural data on employment and career, the character of work and related competencies, and information onthe professional orientation and experiences of their graduates.

Graduates. Students/ or person who finishes a study under the bachelor of science in hotel and restaurant management.




Generally, the main purpose of a tracer study is to examine, evaluate and study the current and subsequent career and other employment patterns of graduates from institutions of learning. To be specific, tracer study can be used, among other things to find out about:

* The number of graduates who are not able to find work in their chosen field and who are currently unemployed.

* The number of graduates who take alternative jobs outside their knowledge and skills training environment.

* The number of graduates with professional degree but work at sub-professional jobs.

* The number of graduates who received professional qualifications and degrees from abroad and may be struggling to locate themselves appropriate jobs commensurate with their training

* The number of graduates who have migrated out of the country as a result of their acquisition of appropriate knowledge and skills.

* The number of women graduates who qualify but decide to leave their professions to become housewives.

* The generation of data-base on status of employment of graduates.

* The generation of important information related to gainful employment.


1. Analysis of the economic and social status of beneficiaries after the completion of the course programmes.

2. Analysis of the current employment status of trainees in different disciplines.

3. Analysis of the absorption patterns of the trainees in different sectors of employment.

4. Analysis of the pattern and the rate of absorption of trainees into the labourmarket.

5. Identification of the obstacles faced by the trainees in the process of securingjobs in the labour market.

6. Identification of factors to be surveyed further

7. Identification of gaps as observed by employers and trainees includingmismatch between industry acceptances and skills of trainees.

8. What are the retrospective views of graduates on higher education based on their career Experiences.

9. To what extend do graduates consider their education and training as a wastage or an opportunity.

10. How are the outcomes of curricula aiming to create new types of learning and

11. qualifications to prepare for newly emerging types of occupation and work task.

12. How broad or narrow is knowledge fostered in individual degree programmes incomparison to occupational tasks or major occupations?(Schomburg, p. 38)

13. To determine the factors that influenced the respondents (graduates and students) choice of higher institution of study (Universityor Polytechnic).

14. To ascertain the study (University or Polytechnic) conditions obtainable in the respondents’ institutions of study or graduation.

15. To find out how the respondents obtained their first employments (main employment for graduates and IT for students) as well asany considerations that motivated them to take up such employments.

16. To determine whether or not the respondents specific work assignments (for graduates) are related to their fields of study.

17. To investigate the usefulness or otherwise of both the theoretical and practical aspects of the respondents’ education to their jobperformance.

18. To ascertain the employment, wage and welfare structures of respondents in terms of the immediacy of sideline jobs, disposableincome and fringe benefits at work place.

19. To access the respondents perceptions and attitudes towards their occupational characteristics, career expectations, actualization and changes.

20. To unravel the coping capacity of respondents vis-a-vis their working conditions, experiences and employers expectations.


The need for theory and methodology of tracer study must be considered in this respect for in-depth introspection. It is a tradition that in any research study, the exact theoretical underpinnings and research methodology or a combination of methodologies (triangulation) may be required (Patton, 1987 & 1980a; Mouton, 1996 & 2006). In the process of making a methodological choice their philosophical underpinnings should be thoroughly established as well as the exact method or methods to be chosen and used. In this respect the philosophy will include a theory of when and why to apply; for instance qualitative rather than quantitative and the awareness of the limitations of equally applicable and relevant various methods. Is it going to be qualitative, quantitative, action, participatory or a combination of a selected few (Boaduo, 2005). The three levels in the methodological paradigmatic dimensions is represented in figure 1 below.

Figure 1: Levels of Methodological Paradigmatic Dimensions

Epistemological Assumptions Ontological Assumptions

Quantitative Qualitative Participatory

Methodological Paradigms

Research Methods – Sampling – Data Collection – Data Analysis & interpretation

Research Instruments– questionnaire – interview – observation –Research Goal

Source: Mouton, 1996:39 with modifications by the author of article

Figure 1: Levels of Methodological Paradigmatic Dimensions

Epistemological Assumptions Ontological Assumptions

Quantitative Qualitative Participatory

Methodological Paradigms

Research Methods – Sampling – Data Collection – Data Analysis & interpretation

Research Instruments– questionnaire – interview – observation –Research Goal Source: Mouton, 1996:39 with modifications by the author of article

Quantitative Qualitative Participatory

Methodological Paradigms

Research Methods – Sampling – Data Collection – Data Analysis & interpretation

Research Instruments– questionnaire – interview – observation –Research Goal Source: Mouton, 1996:39 with modifications by the author of article

It must be hinted at this point that methodological choices and applications are task specific and the task may be determined by the objective(s) of the study; and the objective(s) of the study can be made clearer through the proper specifications of the research question(s) whose answers would be the bases for finding solution(s) to the research problem(s). The main emphases in this respect are that: the research methods and techniques are task-specific and the task is often defined by the research goal; different research studies use different methods and techniques because they have different objectives. Methodology of analysis must be considered from three perspective namely databases, tracer survey and indicators.

The alumni of the institution should have database to be able to provide contact information about past graduates. A tracer survey can also be conducted. Indicators could be used to measure the benefits and costs associated with programmes in the institutions that trained the graduates (Tracer Study VII, 2007). In most research cases the research methods and techniques must be appropriate and relevant for the study being conducted and this should apply to all the aspects of the research study – sample and sampling, questionnaire and interview schedule, data collection, treatment, analyses and interpretation.

Suggested procedure for contacting past graduates in the course of a tracer study.

Normally, higher institutions of learning have a data-base for their past and present students. This can be the beginning of contact. The information provided could be used to reach them. Apart from this, the media, both print and non-print can be used through announcements and advertisement requesting past students to provide required contact information. Another significant occasion that could also be used is the usual graduation day when the past graduates and the general public are invited to attend. Furthermore where the institution has an alumnus, it will be the most perfect starting point to get in touch with past graduates (World Links Impact Evaluation Series, 2002; Tracer Study Report, 2005). What must be required from past students should be simple and specific so that only relevant information for the compilation of report for the survey could be obtained – for instance:

* Name used while in the institution

* Student identification number

* Year of entry

* Year of graduation

* Course taken (Major and minor)

* Degree obtained

* Contact physical address

* Contact postal address

* Email address

* Profession/job you are engaged in

* The position you are holding in your work

* Contact telephone and mobile numbers

* Contact information of known colleagues and past graduates

If the form in the table is used for the collection of data during the survey, it can provide information that will enable the institution conducting the tracer survey to keep in a database for subsequent use during similar studies that require information about past graduates.

The designed form should contain all the information bulleted above including additional information, for instance contact with colleagues who are past graduates of the institution and may be working nearby or staying in the same suburb. The information form can look like the one provided in the tablebelow. It should contain simple instruction which requires the user to fill in the space after reading the statement provided. For instance, fill in the spaces provided after reading the short statement.

Please provide information of any past graduate from the institution you know:- Name and contact e-mail or mobile:

The table above can be used when advertising in the print media or made available to attendants during graduation ceremony or special anniversary day of the institution.

To sum up, this chapter will deal the methods and procedures that will be employed in the study. It will discuss the methods of research, respondents of the study, instruments to be used and statistical treatments that will be used to gather the data.

Research Design

The study will used the descriptive methods of research to find out the status of the Information Technology and ACT graduates from 2005 – 2010. Uriarte (1989) stated that the descriptive method is a method that simply looks with intense accuracy at the phenomena of the moment and then describes what the researcher sees. He further said that this method of research is a careful, critical, and disciplined inquiry in techniques and methods according to the nature and conditions of the problems identified, directed toward the clarification of the problems or conditions.

Research Environments

This study will be conducted at the Research and Development Unit at IFSU, Alfonso Lista Campus. Data and instruments to be gathered will be analyzed, treated confidentially and submitted as inputs and variables of the study.

Data Gathering Instruments

The survey questionnaire will be prepared, validated and will be reproduced ready for administration to the respondents. The questionnaire will be administered to students not included in the study.

Statistical Treatments

The data will be subjected to statistical treatment and will be analyzed. Frequency counts and percentage will be utilized to determine the personal profile of the graduates. The weighted mean will be used to determine the level of assessment of the BHRM/BSHM and DHRM graduates on the quality and relevance of their education and trainings obtained in the College of Home Science and Industry at the Ifugao State University, Alfonso Lista Campus. Frequency count and percentage will also used to find out the perception of the respondents on the teaching facilities of the said Department.


Boaduo, N.A-P. (2005). Methodological Choice and Application in a Research Study: A Framework for Practitioners. An online African Educational Journal. Volume 5. Number 3. September 2005. Pp. 19-33.



Patton, M.Q. (1980a). Making Methods Choices. In Evaluation and Programme Planning. Volume 3. Pp. 219-228.

Tracer Study VII, (2007): Joint Japan & World/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program (JJ/WBGSP), May 2007.

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