Energy Crisis in Pakistan
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Exhausting of Energy Resources of the world . Shortage of energy in Pakistan. Leading Factors. Govt. Initiatives to abate energy crisis-Kinds of Energy.Renewable*Wind*Sunlight.Non Renewable*Petroleum*Gas*Coal*Nuclear Energy-Energy Crisis in Pakistan.Electricity Short fall.Gas Load-shedding-Causes of Energy Crisis .Circular Debt.Inefficient Management .Governance Issue.Corruption .Stealing of Energy-Implication on Economy.Textile Industry .Cottage Industry.Unemployment.Inflation-Effects on Public Life.Domestically.Psychological-Measures to combat Energy Crisis.Coal field Lakhara.Installation of More Nuclear Plants.Adoptability of alternate Energy Resources*Solar Energy*Wind Energy.Construction of Dams.IPI, TAPI ProjectsRemedies to reduce Circular Debt.Good Governance .Eradication of Corruption.Prevention of Stealing Tactics *Enactment of Special Law*Heavy Penalties*Prison Punishment.Appointment of Employees on Merit basis-ConclusionSince the industrial revolution, the non-renewable energy resources are the economic imperative for the economy of any country. Therefore, the leading industrial zones of world are dependant on Coal, Petroleum, and Gas.
In this context, the Pits-Burgh and Ruhr-Westphalia industrial district are flourishing on the coal of Appalachian region of USA and Ruhr valley of North Western Europe respectively. In this regard, the scientists have revealed that the non-renewable energy resources of world will be exhaust till 2050. For tackling this grave issue, the developed countries are switching over the renewable resources. It is quite difficult for the developing countries to transform their energy consumption on renewable resources; they have poor economic growth, political instability, and social disintegration. Unfortunately, Pakistan is one of these developing countries.“Let us mobilize our resources in systematic and organized way and tackle the grave issues that confront us with grime determination and discipline of a worthy of a nation”, said Quid-e-Azam. Though, the shortfall of electricity and gas load-shedding has aggravated the economical and social lives of the people. The energy crisis is not emerged unwittingly. It is the consequence of long term policy failure of successive governments. In fact, the corruption, inefficient management, and non-serious attitude of ruler, towards energy crisis, are major causes. Currently, it is appearing as a monster.
However, Pakistan is bestowed with plenty of natural resources. It has lofty mountains, perennial lakes, large reserve of fresh water in the form of glacier, and sun shine coastline for whole the year has the economic importance. Despite the abundance of natural resources, the government has failed to mitigate the enormity of energy crisis in Pakistan. Alternate Energy Resources are Renewable energy resources. Basically, the scientists have divided the energy resources into two categories, the Renewable energy resources and Non Renewable Resources. The renewable resources cannot be exhaust such as Wind and sunlight is renewable resources. On the other hand, the Non Renewable Energy resources exhausted once, it could not be use again. It consists of Petroleum, Gas, Coal, and Nuclear Energy. By the solar plates, the solar energy converts into electrical energy. It functions on the basis of Photo electric effect and Photo Voltaic cell perform major role in whole process. While, for production energy from wind, the wind turbine is used, this converts the kinetic energy into mechanical and electrical energy.
Being bestowed with natural resources, Pakistan is passing throw historic crisis of its history. The shortfall of electricity has shattered the whole country. In many cities of the country, the public is protesting vigorously against the load-shedding of electricity. However, the severe load-shedding is continuous intermittently in many cities. The total production capacity of electricity is 21000 mw. But, the production is 12000 mw and demand is 18000 mw. In these years, the short fall could not be recover and increasing with the passage of time. Moreover, the energy crisis of Pakistan resulted owing to many factors. One of the major factors is the circular debt. The circular debt is the consequence of the production of electricity from Furness Oil. Pakistan has to import this oil from the international Market. It is an extra burden over the foreign exchange of Pakistan. On the other hand, the recovery of WAPDA is very poor. While, many Government institutions have failed to pay the bill of electricity. According to the resources of WAPDA, the Government institutions are the defaulter of millions of rupees. Therefore, the increase in circular debt is the increase of the load-shedding of electricity in the country.
Nonetheless, the employees of WAPDA are also responsible for the low or poor recovery. They have issued private connection on personal behave and taking monthly from the individual. In addition, the employees are offering their services to people for Meter Jam, closure of Meter for specific period of time, and revising of Meter reading just on the cost 200-500 rupees. Due to these activities, the whole nation of Pakistan is suffering a lot. This factor is also contributing in raising the circular debt and a form of corruption. Hence, the seed of corruption has a strong root in our system. In 64 years of history, it seems difficult to mitigate corrupt activities in the country. On the other hand, the corruption is flourishing on full scale. In this grime situation, the role of Good Governance can play a decisive role. For the solutions of the problems, the government will have to take serious and vigorous measure to abate the energy crisis in Pakistan. However, the political and economic condition of Pakistan is deteriorating day by day. Being an agricultural country, Pakistan is paying heavy cost in terms of deterioration of economy and Industrial sector. The major crop of Pakistan is Cotton, which contribute sufficiently in GDP and a prominent source for foreign earning. Pakistan is also exporter of cloth in international Market.However, the textile hub of Pakistan is located in Faisalabad. Faisalabad has also the honor to be Manchester of Pakistan.
This Manchester of Pakistan is facing 20 hours of load-shedding daily. All the textile mills remain close during the load-shedding. It is terrible for the Economy of Pakistan as well as it is causing to raise the rate of inflation in the country. In Pakistan, the life of Industrial Labour population is miserable. Due to the load-shedding in Industrial area, the labour population is facing two menaces in the form of unemployment and speedy inflation. Such kind of situation is also causing in rise of street crimes and other ill activities in the country. In fact, Faisalabad is not only case in this regard. The economic zone of Pakistan is Karachi and the duration of load-shedding is 10-12 hours. But, Karachi has better condition than the cities of Punjab province. However, the definite measure may change the whole situation by the Government of Pakistan. One of the natural gifts in Pakistan is the coal mine of Lakhara. According to the statement of Dr.Samar Mand Mubarik that Pakistan can produce electricity for 500 years by the Lakhra mine. Though, the government is showing non-serious attitude towards the coal mine project. Though, the government has issued instructions to start the project after the availability of funds. Being a Nuclear Power, Pakistan has another option to produce electricity from Nuclear Plants.
In Pakistan, Four Civil nuclear power plants are producing electricity. It is approximately 2% of the total production. If, Government installs more nuclear power plants, it will be supportive to faltering Economy. Pakistan has dry climate and sun shine 95% days of the year. The climate is suitable for the PV system. In order to face the menace of electricity crisis, India has installed the largest PV system of the world. Similarly, the production of electricity from wind turbine is another form of alternate energy resources. By installing such system, the government can bring some relief in the terrible energy crisis. In northern areas, Pakistan is surrounded with lofty mountains and glaciers. These glaciers are the reserves of fresh water. During summer season these glacier smelt and add the fresh water to the river. Unfortunately, In Pakistan, this flow of fresh water causes huge flood. Due to the lack of dams, the large amount of fresh water falls in the ocean. Though, In Pakistan, the issue of dams has politicized. Therefore, the government could not construct major dams in Pakistan. On this part, the people of Pakistan will have to understand the gravity of situation.
They should make consensus on the construction of dams in any part of the country. Another, Remarkable projects are IPI and TAPI. . Iran offered this project to Pakistan and India in order to mitigate their energy crisis. However, Iran-Pakistan-India Gas pipe line project is under installation. This project will abate the demands of Gas in the country. While, Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Gas pipe line project is under consideration. However, America is pressurizing to Pakistan to give up the IPI project owing to the serious tension between Iran and USA. But, Pakistani Government has refused to relinquish from the project. Both these project will produce broad effect in future. Despite the adoption of different resources, the good governance can also bring positive change in the country. In order to decrease circular debt, the government will have to enhance its governance in the country. In Pakistan, the root cause of all ill is the corruption. Therefore, the government should adopt some measure to eradicate corruption. For this purpose, the ruler should first present itself for accountability.
The accountability of head will compel the employee to give up ill activities. It will decrease the corruption at department level as well as at government level. Following these polices, the government should embody some laws to restrict the corrupt activities at consumer level. They should charge heavy penalties even prison punishment in the case of stealing electricity. In Pakistan, the appointment of employees is not on merit basis in many departments. The official of concerned departments demands heavy bribe for the job. These employees find different ways to recover their amount which they have paid for getting job. Hence, the higher authorities must concentrate on this issue.
However, the neighboring countries of Pakistan are rich in energy resources. In this context, the geo-strategic location of Pakistan favors for exploiting the relation with neighbor states. Though, Pakistan is ranking up in most populated countries of world. Resultantly, the energy demand will increase in the future. However, the lack energy resource and weak economy could not meet with the energy demand. By analyzing the whole situation, it concludes that the government sincerity towards the issue of energy crisis will change the condition. Otherwise, it will be difficult to control and even to mitigate the energy crisis in the future