Effects Of Globalization on Migration
- Pages: 9
- Word count: 2215
- Category: Globalisation Immigration Migration
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Globalisation is a term which encompasses narrowing down of the interconnection of countries globally. Although, it engrosses the economy, politics, culture, society and environment, actually it also involves the technology, production, development, communication and the international situations globally. Globalisation has been widely discussed by different philosophers and each takes its own approach and reaches different conclusions. Overall, three general positions about ‘globalization’ by Held & et al (1999: 3-10), approach were found: the modernists, the transformalists, and lastly the critics. Firstly, the modernists think it as new trend (Harvey, 1995: 2), the actual wave of modern world system (Wallerstein, 1994: 16), and as it is characterised by being global and international instead regional and imperial (Alexander, ibid: 95). Secondly, the transformalists have three groups of defining globalisation; the first group refer it with the alteration in the political positions what Held & et al (1999) have called the hyperglobalists (Ohmae, 1995), this also emphasis on the transformation of economics with the disappearance of the national state as the natural consequence of the process through networks of production, trade and finance (Held et al. 1999: 3).
On the other, the other group of transformalists recognise ‘globalization’ as a new challenge to act as a force behind the economic changes that is shaping societies in order to transform them (Ibid: 7; Borja & Castells, 1997, Sassen 1996). The third group assume globalization as transformation of economic and political organisation through technological advancement. Thirdly, the more controversial approach is critics; here also three groups of thoughts. Firstly, Thompson (1999) define ‘globalization’ as a myth, secondly, a way to solve contradictions between the ‘global’ and the ‘local’ (Robertson, 1995, 27). Lastly, “inextricably linked with the movements of capital, commodities, people and cultural imaginations and practices” (Brah, A, et. al. 1999: 3). Overall, the above discussion could be summarized within these main topics that are multinational companies, trade, finance flows, communications networks, international migrations, culture and global impacts on environmental changes which are moving and defining the process at the international scale. After studying globalization in detail there is a crucial need to study its effects, as it leads to the global economic restructuring and global communication technology in both developed and developing countries.
Although resulting in unemployment, wage decline or job insecurity in dominant market economies, actually accelerating international migration globally. Before we discuss the effects of globalisation on migration in detail, we should first discuss migration. Migration is the movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semi-permanent residence. It is the physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. People who migrate are called migrants or, more specifically, emigrants, immigrants, or settlers, depending on historical setting, circumstances and perspective. According to the International Organization for Migration’s World Migration Report 2010, the number of international migrants was estimated at 214 million in 2010. If this number continues to grow at the same pace as during the last 20 years, it could reach 405 million by 2050. The inter-connections between globalisation and migration make us think about:
• Scale (internal or international?)
• Consequences (for whom? what type?)
• Complexity (there are elites to consider, as well as poor migrants)
• Critical thinking (do we see ‘exporting’ or ‘re-writing’ and ‘re-imagining’ of cultures?)
• An unfair world (when the rich can move about more easily)
• Citizenship (are we global citizens or Foreign Nationals?)
• Factors accelerating globalisation
History tells us that in ancient times the reasons for migration were wars, natural disasters, and search of food, water and shelter thus resulting in betterment of humans or environment. But the modern migration are basically due to the economy motivation as in the developed countries non citizen skilled or qualified persons are being paid more rather then in developing countries. It also results due to the opportunities and prevailing wage levels. These economic disparities sometimes also lead to the illegal immigrants. Few other types of migration are: forced migration due to social control, seasonal migration related to agriculture and tourism, rural to urban migration due to industrialization also referred as urbanization, urban to rural only in developed countries also called suburbanization and international migration due to the economic disparities and other causes discussed earlier. Here, I would like to quote a few examples of International migration that takes place at two levels of the economy. Firstly, there are highly skilled and often very rich individuals who are invited to work overseas by Transnational Corporations or governments.
They are probably young adults or are middle-aged and are likely to be approaching the peak of their profession. In addition, there are the extremely poor (and usually unskilled) migrants who are desperate to better themselves at any cost. To summarize the above discussion related to the migration, it could be stated that mostly it is due to the changes or modernization, acceleration, industrialization, economic discrepancy and technology and communication transformation as a result of globalization. To explore the main topic of the discussion that is the effect of globalization on migration, it is important to discuss other effects of globalization as these are directly or indirectly related with this major issue. Although economy disparities among developing and developed countries lead to migration, actually it is effecting employment, as high wages level in developed countries lead to the migration of skilled and qualified worker, thus leaving behind relatively unskilled workers in developing countries. This is also leading to the inequity in industrial development thus increasing structural unemployment. This could bitterly be studied with the given information about unemployment in the world:
|Year |Total |Male |Female | | |million |million |million | |1995 |157.3 |92.7 |64.7 | |2000 |177.2 |104.7 |72.5 | |2002 |191.4 |113 |78.5 | |2005 |191.8 |112.9 |78.9 | |Source: International Labour Office |
Moreover, the impact of globalisation on different nations’ employment structures is due to the movement of firms, branch plants and inward investment patterns – bringing new work to some places, taking it away from others. Also the movement of significant numbers of key workers, altering employment structures of receiving and sending nations and it also suggest that globalisation has a role in the movement of (ex-primary sector) migrants to cities, where they become manufacturing or service sector workers Then it comes towards the impact of globalisation on the economic development; although it provokes income inconsistency actually developing such an industrial development era again. Thus could leads to economic instability. With regard to the impact of globalisation on the UK economy, as it created the openness towards the global market, encourages the technology and knowledge to be transmitted to other countries and specializes in the production of their goods and services and also accelerates the trade of UK with other countries.
Although, these all changes in UK economy were mostly due to the increase in the merger of other national and international companies with UK and overseas investment, actually increasing industrialization in UK. Hence on one hand globalization brought a lot of changes in the UK economy but on the other hand it brought economic discrepancy worldwide. Deeply studying the impact of globalization on migration gives us contemporary views as it is not only due to the economic forces but migration also accelerates due to the globalization of communication technology. Although, in the past there was also a trend of migration but sometimes people who migrates from one place to another due to high wages actually, they tried to return back to their origin country towards their family as having less or no contact with home. This was due to the lack of modern communication technology network. Thus the modern global communication technology provided a positive support to the immigrants. Moreover, on one hand this global technology network also accelerates the foreign exchange process but it also accelerates the rate of socialization on the other hand.
It is also important to discuss the impact of migration on the countries of origin, as the skilled and qualified immigrants earn money in other countries and send it back to their families thus raising the standard of their families, eventually affecting the economy of their home country. These were a few positive impacts but on the other hand migration also results in isolation, separation between husband and wife, adaptation of foreign culture may results in disrespectfulness of their own culture. Sometimes these all circumstances may results in leaving the originality far away from oneself. Now on the other hand we should also discuss the impact of migration on the immigrants receiving countries. Although, immigrants bring their customs, practices and traditions from their home country actually, resulting in ethnicity in the immigrants receiving countries. Sometimes immigrants also have to live with the partners from different communities or other illegal immigrants and if these illegal immigrants are deported thus the innocent immigrant could also suffer, resulting in the awful name for home country in receiving country.
The major perspective which is discussed nowadays in each and every issue is the gender perspective, so I will also discuss gender perspective in migration. Although, in ancient time mostly males were considered to be the immigrants actually females were thought to be involved only in upbringing of children and taking care of other family members. Globalisation also effects on this phenomena thus accelerating the ratio of female immigrants due to the growing demand of female labour in international markets. Although, in the beginning female immigrants have to face problems like low wages actually these were demanded only for low paid occupations. In some of the receiving countries women also have to face problems due to stereotypes or male dominating society trends. Furthermore, another important issue in women migration is the trafficking of women in the global markets. Although, Non-government organizations (NGOs) forums have contested on these global issues actually, have tried to make the women migration safe and secure. Another major area that is impacted due to the Globalisation is solidarity in different areas like regional, national and international.
This solidarity gives strength to the people in each and every aspect. This solidarity could only be maintained if the people work for their own country prosperity. This doesn’t mean that there would not be migration or global interaction; it’s a food for thought for the whole globe how to manage or change the negative impacts of globalisation into positive trends. Overall, the above discussion proves that we are sitting on a time bomb! Migration will be one of the major issues in the future ahead and it’s in our hand to convert this bomb into a useable component for the whole globe. In the end I would like to give a few suggestions to diverse the effects of globalisation on migration into positive impacts that globalisation should be utilized to develop economical equalization rather than opening the doors to immigrants by offering them higher wages in other countries. Another would be to develop fair trade in all the developed and developing countries thus generating equal employment opportunities in the whole globe.
Due to the global interaction, developed countries should invest in developing countries rather than generating opportunities for the skilled and qualified workers in developed countries. On the whole, it could be summarized that although, globalization had brought acceleration in modernization of communication technology, global economy, national and international employment and trade actually accelerated migration. This migration acceleration is regardless of gender, class i.e. Elite or poor, difference in quality of workers i.e. skilled or unskilled and educated or uneducated globally. Hence transforming the whole globe as a small village where each and every one is responsible for each others’ survival. It is also linking the movements of capital, commodities, people and cultural imaginations and practices throughout the globe. These all circumstances on one hand open the doors for national and international markets and on the other hand develop industrial era through producing opportunities and high wages in the developed countries, thus improving the percentage of immigrants in all parts of the world due to globalization.
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