Effect of Orange (Citrus sinensis) and Calamondin (Citrus microcarpa) to Fruit Fly
- Pages: 10
- Word count: 2476
- Category: Fruit
A limited time offer! Get a custom sample essay written according to your requirements urgent 3h delivery guaranteedOrder Now
This study will test the effect of orange and calamondin on fruit fly. The researcher used these materials because of some proven related studies. The researcher started conducting this research last November 2012. This study used the following materials and specimen: The researcher prepared 500ml hot water, 1 cup of sour orange peels, and 11 pieces of calamondin juiced, blender and 2 slices of jack fruit. The following were grouped into two and labeled each as A and B. The jackfruits were used to test the product. The orange peels and hot water was mixed in the blender then set aside for 12 hours then added the calamondin juice.
The extract was sprayed on the jackfruit in group A then set aside for 30 minutes same with group B except that it didn’t receive any extract. The fruit flies that went on each group were counted after 30 minutes. The process was repeated 3 times to test more if it will be effective. On the results, the researcher found out that there is more fruit flies went over group B than group A. The test used the Analysis of Variance or ANOVA to test if there is a/no significant difference between the 2 groups. Based on the ANOVA table, there is a F-value computed of 8.7 and F-value tabular of 3.68. The computed was higher than the tabular value. The researcher concluded that there is a significant difference in using orange and calamondin to fruit fly and there is a significant differencebetween the product and the commercially used repellent.
This investigatory project will not be complete with only hard work. Thanks for those supporting people who helped me so much. First of all I want to thank God of making this possible. Second, to my parents that helped me the most. I want to acknowledge this to the principal of Sapang Palay National High School, Mr. Eduardo Cruz, to my adviser, Mrs. Carolina Abarilles for moral support, to my subject teacher in this project, Mrs. Esperanza Española who thought and assist me in making this. I want to give thanks to Janelle Morales, Angelica Lorenzo and to all students of Special Science Class Curriculum/ ESEP who supported me. Especially to Marleth Temporal, who helped me out of the problems I encountered. Without these people I will not be able to finish this Investigatory Project. Thanks a lot!
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
Insects are common problem today. Fruit flies are our daily problem in our home. These insects are said to be repelled by strong odor. Citrus fruit has strong odor that may repel insects. The most common citrus fruit that is used as insect repellent is Lemon. The researcher used other citrus fruits. The said fruits are the orange and calamondin. Oranges have strong scent especially its peels. Calamondin or calamansi juice have these too. So, the researcher used these two fruits as insect repellent.
B. Statement of the Problem
This study tested the effect of orange and calamondin to fruit fly. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:
1. Is there any significant difference in using orange and calamondin on fruit fly? 2. Is there any significant difference between the insect repellent made to commercially used repellent? 3. Is reasonable to used organic repellent than to commercially used repellent?
This study tested the following hypotheses at 0.5 level of significance:
Ho: There is no significant difference in using orange and calamondin on fruit fly. Ha: There is a significant difference in using orange and
calamondin on fruit fly. Ho: There is no significant difference between the insect repellent made to commercially used repellent. Ha: There is a significant difference between the insect repellent made to commercially used repellent.. D. Significance of the Problem
In the study, it may solve our problems about fruit fly and because this will use organic materials, we can repel these insects without taking risk of our health because of harmful chemicals from the commercially used repellent. Since these fruits are not hard to find and it is not that expensive, it will not use much energy and money. Even though it takes time to make it, it is safe.
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Conceptual Literature
As the researcher surf the net, many people said that they tried lemon peels to repel insects that bother them and it’s effective for them. Research was conducted and found out that Lemon is proven to be an insect repellent by many researchers around the globe. So the researcher of this study tried to find out what repels the insects and it is the odor. The researcher made a conclusion of using other citrus fruit. The researcher thought of using sweet orange and calamondin since it is a relative family of lemons. Orange peels are more powerful repellent compared to its pulp. It would be better because it will use excess from fruits so it will be cheaper than commercially used insect repellent. The calamondin has something that repel some kind of flies. Orange or sweet oranges to differentiate it from sour orange is bright orange to yellow orange in color, its tree grows 9 – 10m in height with oval shaped leaves that are 4 – 10cm long. The orange is an offspring possibly between mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and pomelo (Citrus Maxima).
It has sweetly fragrant white flower about 5cm wide, have a saucer shaped, 5-pointed calyx and 5 oblong petals and 20-25 stamens with yellow anthers. The fruit is oblate or somewhat oval, 6.5-9.5cm wide. The calamondin tree, ranging from 2-7.5 m high, is erect, slender, often quite cylindrical, densely branched beginning close to the ground, slightly thorny, and develops an extraordinarily deep taproot. The evergreen leaves are alternate, aromatic, broad-oval, dark-green, glossy on the upper surface, yellowish-green beneath, 4-7.5 cm long, faintly toothed at the apex, with short. The sweetly fragrant flowers, having 5 elliptic-oblong, pure-white petals, are about 2.5 cm wide and borne singly or in 2’s or 3’s terminally or in the leaf axils near the branch tips. The showy fruits are round or oblate and to 1 3/4 in (4.5 cm) wide, with very aromatic, orange-red peel, glossy, and dotted with numerous small oil glands; tender, thin, easily-removed, sweet, and edible.
The pulp, in 6 to 10 segments, is orange, very juicy, highly acid, and seedless or with 1 to 5 small, seeds, green within. Based on some researches and experiments, lemon is commonly used as insect repellent because of its strong odor that some insects don’t like. Lemon’s scent is from limonene which it has. Limonene gives its scent that can be smelled in other citrus fruit. Oranges (Citrus Sinensis) and calamondin obtains limonene too. D- Limonene is more common to citrus fruits especially to oranges. Orange oils are used in cosmetic products and perfumes. It is also used in hand sanitizer to give lemon-orange scent. Limonene is used as solvent for cleaning, model airplane glue and it’s considered as biofuel. Calamondin is used to soaps or candies. Since the researcher didn’t find out any conducted research about using these fruits to fruit fly, the researcher will test its effectiveness with fruit fly. B. Research Literature
Based on the study of Herrera, Alberto and Vieto, Sebastian, orange oils can be made as .Lavicide by adding isoctyl phenoxy polyethoxy ethanol to it, aerosol spray in this case the orange oils was mixed with piperonyl butoxide and insecticides that is made out of kerosene and orange oils. These were tested in a botanical garden. And it was said that it is really effective. Some research conducted found out that orange oils are irritating to laboratory animals. It was tested to guinea pigs and mice. It was tested also to humans. A volunteer study involving repeated exposures to this identified no sensitizing potential. In the research of Luc Leblanc, Jonah William and Allan J. Allwood about mango fly that it attacks citrus fruits. Especially ripe, But sour fruit are not frequently attacked. One of these is the calamondin. Based on the research of Mun-wai Cheong, Zhi Soon Chong, Weibiao Zhou and Shao-Quan Liu, The volatile composition of calamansi peel from Malaysia, were examined. It is found out that the distinc aromas alcohols, aldehydes, and esters.
Methodological Research Design:
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY
The method that was used by the researcher, though some of it was changed, was the method of Brian Airman which is the ant killer. A. Gathering of Materials and Specimen
The researcher will get 500ml hot water, 1 cup of sour orange peels, and 11 pieces of calamondin juiced, blender and 2 slices of jack fruit. Group the two with A and B. The jackfruits will be used to test the product. The group A is the experimental group. The group B is the control group. B. Preparation of Extracts
Add hot water and citrus peels to a blender. Remove the lid or center vent in the lid. Cover the opening with a folded kitchen towel. Before blending the ingredients set aside for a solid two minutes. This will avoid pressure inside the blender.
Cover the blender and leave it sit at room temperature for 12 hours. Add the calamondin juice .Pour the citrus ant repellent through a towel into a container. C. Preparation of Treatment
Spray the extract to group A. The Group B will not receive any treatment. The set ups will be set aside for 30 minutes. After setting aside, observe. Count the fruit flies that will go over the fruits. Get the results. D. Repeat of Trials
There are 5 fruit flies that went on the fruit on group A and there are 8 fruit flies went on the fruit on group B after 30 minutes. Some fruit flies are staying on the container which is the Group A. It seems that other fruit flies just went near the fruit but not on the fruit itself.
There are 2 fruit flies that went on the group A and there are 6 fruit flies on group B after 30 minutes. The results are almost the same with the trial 1 but only differ by the number.
There are 9 fruit flies that went on group A and there are 15 fruit flies on group B after 30 minutes.
As stated, the product is an effective repellent for fruit flies. Some will just stay near the set up on which the researcher applied treatment. The product may not be that strong but it repels more.
CHAPTER IV: RESULTS, AND DISCUSSIONS
The table shows the results and findings from trial 1 after setting aside the 2 groups for 30 minutes in an open air.
Set ups| No. of fruit flies went on the fruit|
Table 1 – Trial 1
It was shown that A is lesser of 3 points than in B. The extract is effective on the first trial.
The table shows the results and findings from trial 2 after setting aside the 2 groups for 30 minutes in an open air.
Set ups| No. of fruit flies went on the fruit|
Table 2 – Trial 2
It can be well seen that the extract is still working properly and still effective on the 2nd trial. The table shows the results and findings from trial 3 after setting aside the 2 groups for 30 minutes in open air.
Set ups| No. of fruit flies went on the fruit|
Table 3 – Trial 3
Up to the 3rd and last trial, still the extract is still effective. After summing up the results, the researcher used F-test and made an ANOVA table to test if the null hypothesis accepted or rejected.
Sources of variation| Degrees of Freedom (df)| Sum ofSquares(ss)| Mean Square(ms)| F- ValueComputed| F – ValueTabular| Between Groups(k – 1)| 2| 136.5| 68.25| 8.87| 3.80| Within Groups(N – 1) (k – 1)| 13| 100| 7.69| | |
Total| 15| | | | |
Table 4 – ANOVA
In this table the researcher used the anova table to compare the control group and the experimental group measuring the number of fruit flies went over the fruit. It can be well seen that there is a significant difference in using orange and calamondin for fruit flies. B. Analysis
Based on the comparison of the following groups I can conclude that there is a significant difference in using orange and calamondin as repellent to fruit flies.
CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the tests and experiments the following problems
1. Is there any significant difference in using orange and calamondin on fruit fly? There is a significant difference in using orange and calamondin on fruit fly. Based on the results, there are fewer fruit flies attracted by the jack fruit with the extract than with no extract.
2. Is there any significant difference between the fruit fly repellent made to commercially used repellent? There is a significant difference between the fruit fly repellent made to commercially used repellent. The repellent made of the researcher is organic and does not contain harmful chemicals since it came from fruits’ peels and juices other than commercially used repellent. Even though there is a long process to make for this repellent, it is cheaper and safe since the following ingredients are typically used to our food.
The researcher rejected the null hypotheses and accepts the alternate hypotheses based on the results and findings.
The researcher recommends testing it to other insects and trying if it can be insecticides. The repellent made by the researcher may be made as lotion or put it into something that can be worn so it may not irritate the skin of the user and not ruining the colors of what she/he id wearing without lessening the effectiveness of the product.
Fig. 5 – extracting juices from 11 pieces of calamondin
Fig. 6 – The extract
Fig. 7 – straining of the extract using towel
Fig. 8 – Observation of the set ups
“Insecticides Derived from Plants” <<http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/211604.html>> August 18, 2011
“D-limonene bug killer” by Zircon Industries
<<http://www.greenchem.com/607dlimbugki.html >> August 18, 2011
“Citrus” by Andrew Grygus
<<http://www.clovegarden.com/ingred/citrus.html>> January 14, 2012
“Orange” by: ch
<<http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/orange.html>>January 14, 2012
“Natural insect repellent” by unknown
<<http://eartheasy.com/live_natpest_control.html>> January 14, 2012
“Uses of orange peels” by unknown
<<http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-uses-for-orange-peels.html>> January 14, 2012 “Homemade Citrus Ant Killer” By Brian Airman
<<http://www.ehow.com/how_6779340_homemade-citrus-ant-killer.html>> January 14, 2012
“Calamondin” by ch
<<http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/calamondin.html>> January 14, 2012
”Insecticidal use of orange juice essence oil” by Herrera, Alberto and Vieto, Sebastian <<http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4195080.html>> February 27, 2012
“Toxicity Profile for Orange oil” by unknown