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Discursive Essay

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1) Content and Structure
Be consistently well developed, logical stages in an overall, at times complex, argument. Each stage is linked to the preceding one, and sentences within paragraphs are soundly sequenced. 2) Style and Accuracy

Appropriately used ambitious language
Complex sentence structures where appropriate

Nowadays, tourism is one of the largest and dynamic economic sectors. In analysing it, we can draw out positive and negative perspectives. Economic, environmental and cultural effects flood various countries all around the wide world, due to tourism. There are many hidden costs and benefits to tourism which can have unfavourable and favourable economic effects on communities. Most highly developed countries, such as Austria, have accumulated a big deal of their economic welfare profits from tourism. For instance, Austria, being Europe’s ski resort, is depending on the money gained from their huge number of slopes used by worldwide tourists. Economically speaking, tourism creates poor paid, seasonal jobs that might not always be the source of money one’s having. Also, the money generated by tourism doesn’t always benefit the locals, as it leaks to huge hotel chains and agencies. This is why destinations dependent on tourism can be adversely affected by a local economic collapse.

On local ecology, tourism often grows into mass tourism and this leads to either pollution or preservation. In many countries of Asia and the Pacific, tourism is the main source of income and the friendliest to the environment, as it is better than chopping trees or destroying coral reefs. This helps to promote wildlife by making animal preserves, marine parks and safaris with entrance and guide fees. Kenya is one of the numerous examples, as it doesn’t only attract tourists, but also creates sources of employment. On the other hand, tourism might be viewed as a threat to a region’s natural resources through overuse and a great amount of pollution. Traffic emissions, littering, noise production and building constructions are just some of the few negative possibilities. Tourism has the power to affect cultural change of local identity and values, too.

It can turn local traditions to conform to tourist expectations, but they must, at the same time, not be too new and just attract tourists, like the well-known American fast food restaurants. Also, the cultural diversity created by tourism is a positive aspect, as one might get to know more and more unfamiliar faces. Communication between various kinds of people starts to develop. However, culture started, little by little, to degrade as tourism took over. This is mostly due to local community craftsmen that have responded to the growing demand of travellers and have made, for instance, to their hand-made, old-aged, but fascinating products. This adaptation brought them more into line with the new customers’ tastes. Greece and Italy are some of the few examples. Considering both sides of tourism, it can be sustainable only if it is carefully managed, so that the potential negative effects on the host community and environment not to be permitted to outweigh the benefits resulted.

It almost goes without saying that many preventive activities are a good thing. Clean water supply, surgeons washing their hands before operations, stopping smoking, having exercise are great examples. But once you have got past such obviously useful activities, the benefit to harm ratio can rapidly become far less straightforward. This is why prevention might work in some cases, while a cure might work in others, so this depends on the disease the person has. Malaria is a disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes through blood. A single bite is enough to transmit the infection. Rather than getting malaria, one better prevents it. Simple measures, like wearing covered clothes, using mosquito nets and using an insect repellent, helps in preventing bites.

Complete avoidance of bites is unfortunately impossible, however the number of bites may be reduced as much as possible. It is better for one to treat the cause than the effect. In addition, some things cannot be cured and this is why prevention, costing less, is the answer. Cancer is a challenging and expensive disease and has a low survival rate. One should better prevent it by trying to live a normal and healthy life. One of the simplest methods that might help is reducing smoking or not even approaching smoking in one’s life. Smoking is considered to be the overall cause of diseases mostly because it doesn’t only affect the one responsible for it, but also the neighbouring people. Reducing the amount of fat in one’s body is also considered to be a significant factor for the prevention of cancer. Conversely, some things cannot be prevented, such as broken legs. They are more or less caused by anything. For instance, by playing a sport one can damage his leg, even though playing a sport is a really healthy and good way of preventing diseases.

Similarly, prevention might as well fail due to the fact that education doesn’t approach the public properly. Smoking cigarettes, for example, was banned by some states in public areas. People, at first, obeyed this rule, but as time passed by, they started breaking the law. One other strategy was the act of motivating people of not buying packs through a common quote written on all cigarette packs. This unfortunately failed, too. A final plan was raising prices of cigarette packs that would, therefore, disable users to buy as many as before. This, like the others wasn’t successful. A cure is better than a prevention in this case. A well-funded health system requires both prevention and treatment. Therefore, it is much better to stop any harm from approaching us than wait and try to remove it because the waiting is far more injurious for us. Hence, bad habits once acquired are difficult to be shaken off.

3) HAVING LOTS OF RULES IS BETTER THAN HAVING LOTS OF FREEDOM ……….In ancient times, various leaders of tribes and villages discovered that for controlling a huge number of people regulations are necessary. These people, high up in the hierarchy, initiated laws. People began realizing that they should be respected in order for something successful to be achieved. This system of rules started functioning, in later years, in the governing of a country, and in education. However, people realized that freedom was essential too. The government of a country is responsible for almost all that is happening in that country. Without laws being introduced to the population of the country, the ruling of the country would have not succeeded. Politically speaking, the people involved in the high ranks of the country have started to respect each other when the laws have been applied. Also, the situation in the country is stable, as there is no chaos on the streets, due to the police being present and active.

This made people look at the police with respect and also made them know that if they aren’t respecting traffic signs, for instance, they could be sentenced to prison. Laws being initiated have contributed in the ruling of the country. In education, rules have been applied for children and students to follow. Teachers are also having some rules, but as they are more mature they are expected as being capable to know and respect them without being told to. For instance, in the past, alcohol, drugs and cigarettes weren’t that commercialized, but nowadays they became very popular especially in the teenager life. This is why, most schools have inaugurated a rule stating that alcohol, drugs and cigarettes aren’t allowed. If they will not respect them, there are laws that say that they are illegal, and the teenager might get severely punished by the police if found guilty of disrespecting it. Usually, in education, rules have an effective result.

However, freedom is also necessary. Freedom should be allowed, but only to a certain point. This means that in universities, for example, college students could get some restrictions, but also a little freedom of smoking only in areas where it is allowed. Without some kind of freedom, one cannot live. People want to experience new and different things and without disrespecting rules, they cannot get to do adventurous stuff. The head chiefs in universities are usually understanding the college life and the fact that there should be rules respected, but also some freedom allowed. For instance, rules and freedom are proportionally divided in the university life. Nowadays, as all the technology developed and as the cigarettes and drugs have become more and more popular in the teenagers life, the leaders of countries, schools and colleges divide the rules and freedom in equal parts. They agreed that rules are very important, but also freedom is important to a certain extent.

Should we allow ourselves to depend on machines and electronic gadgets?
As technology improves, more and more people are depending on machines and electronic gadgets. Some people really enjoy using machines and electronic gadgets: if they can, they will never do things by hand. But other people worry about this tendency – they encourage people not to depend too heavily on electronics. Personally, I believe that a strong dependency on machines and electronic gadgets can be a bad thing.

Some people believe that since the technology exists, it is pointless for us to not use it. While it is okay to use machines if it will make our lives easier, we must retain the knowledge of how to cope if they fail. Last term, my roommate needed to do some research for a history paper but the internet wasn’t working. I told her to go the library but she didn’t understand how to search through the books and magazines to find the information she needed for her report. When we become too dependent on machines, we forget how to live without them.

Using machines and electronic gadgets makes people lazier and lazier. It is all too common for people to drive everywhere they want to go instead of walking – even if it’s an easy or short walk. People rely too heavily on cars to get them places and as a result, both the environment and our personal health take a beating. Global warming and rising levels of obesity are both rampant problems in society: walking sometimes instead of driving could help with both issues. Another problem with depending on technology is that our skills and abilities are starting to deteriorate.

Since nearly everyone has a mobile phone which can store phone numbers, most people do not take the time to memorize their contacts’ information. And since we can constantly look up statistics or answers on the web, our memory skills are not what they used to be. In addition, people are becoming weaker in spelling and grammar skills because computer programs auto-correct for mistakes and many jobs that used to be done by humans are now filled by machines! Over all, machines help us quite a bit: they produce goods faster, do things humans cannot, and provide lots of enjoyment to us. But the worry is that if we come to depend on them, we will become lazy and incapable of thinking on our own. Even though I wouldn’t want to live in a world without such technology, I do think it is important to depend on machines and electronic gadgets in moderation.

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