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Development of Education System In India: A Brief Book Description

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About the Book The book includes a comprehensive survey and analysis of the development of Education system in India from the Vedic times to the modern times. The book is divided into six segments – Education in ancient India; Education in medieval India; Education in India during of the British period; Education in post Independence era; Contemporary educational problems and Issues; Educational Statistics, Graphs, and Figures.

The book may be useful to all those interested in the development of Education in India.

US$ 35
11th January 2004

About the Author J.C. Aggarwal, a former Deputy Director of Education and Executive Director of the Delhi Bureau of Textbooks, Delhi Administration has written extensively on Education, History and contemporary affairs. Before joining Delhi Administration, he taught in a Post-graduate Teacher Training College.

Contents Unit I Education in Ancient and Medieval India

Education System in the Vedic Period
Introduction : Rich Educational Heritage of India; Periods of Ancient Indian Education; Sources of the Vedic Age Education : Vedic Literature; The Vedas; Significance of the Vedas as the Chief Source of Information; Philosophy of Life in the Vedic Age and Education; Significance of Education in Ancient India and Ultimate Objective; Main Features of the Vedic Education; Aims, Ideals and Objectives of Vedic Education; Education of Women; Teacher as Spiritual as Well as Intellectual Guide; Process of Instruction; Admission and Evaluation System; Autonomy of Educational Institutions; Studentship; Vocational and Professional Education; Curriculum; Evaluation of the Vedic System of Education

Later Vedic Education (1200 B.C. to 200 B.C.))
Main Source of Education During the Later Vedic Age; Upanishads; The Smritis; The Bhagwad Gita; Educational Implications; Main Features of the System of Education; Institutes of Learning; Eligibility for Higher Education; Women Education; Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction; Teacher’s Duties and Qualifications; Studentship; Convocation or Farewell Address; Curriculum : Subjects of Study; Process of Instruction; ‘Yoga’; Universal Education; Most Prominent Scholars of the Later Vedic; The Gurukul System of Education; Sanskars (Ceremonies or Rituals) Associated with the System of Education in the Vedic Period; Comparison between the Educational Objectives in Vedic India and Modern India

The Buddhist Education
Introduction; Sources of Information About Buddhist Education; Philosophy of Buddhism and Teaching of Buddha; Basic Principles of the Philosophy of Education as based on the Philosophy of Buddhism; Main Features of Buddhist Education; Educational Implications of Buddhist Philosophy

Religion-Oriented Ancient Education: Institutes of Higher Learning in Vedic and Buddhist Period Religion Environment and Education in Ancient India; Comparison Between Vedic/Brahmanical System of Education and Buddhist System of Education; Centres of Higher Learning/Universities in the Vedic and Buddhist Period;Important Centres of Learning (Temple Colleges) in South India;Seats of Higher Learning in India (other than Temple Colleges); Overview of Ancient Indian Education System

Unit II Education in Medieval India

Education in Medieval Period With Emphasis on Muslim Education Introduction; Chief Characteristics of Muslim Education; Chief Features of Primary and Elementary Muslim Education; Development of Muslim Education During the Rule of Various Dynasties and Rules; ‘The Madrasahs’ or ‘Madrasas’; Centres of Learning of Muslim Education; A Critique of Muslim Education

Hindu System of Education During the Medieval Period
Introduction; Chief Features of Hindu System of Education in India during the Medieval Period; Higher Education in Medieval India; Concluded Observations

Unit III Education in India During the British Period

Macaulay’s Minute (1835)
Brief Life Sketch of Macaulay (1830-1853); Essence of Macaulay’s Minute; Circumstances Leading to Macaulay’s Minute; Extracts from Macaulay’s Views which became the Cornerstone of the System of Education in India; Appraisal of Macaulay’s Minute : Was He the Torch Bearer or Evil Genius?; Acceptance of Macaulay’s Minute and Lord William Bentinck’s Resolution of March; Downward Filtration Theory of Education; Oriental – Anglicist or Occidental Controversy on the System of Education in India and Macaulay’s Minute; Adam’s Reports; Indigenous System of Education in India at the Beginning of the British Rule in India

Woods Despatch (1854) and Indian Education Commission (1882) Nomenclature of Wood’s Despatch; Circumstances Leading to Wood’s Despatch; Essence of the Report : Policy Declaration; Main Recommendations/Policy Decisions; Merits of the Despatch; Demerits and Shortcomings of the Despatch; Impact of Wood’s Despatch; Evaluation of the Despatch Views of Educationists; The Despatch – A Magna Charta of Education or Not

Lord Curzon’s Educational Policy and National Education Movement Arrogance of Lord Curzon : Curzon – the Most Hated Viceroy by the Indians; Chief Educational Events During Curzon’s Period; Educational Conference (1901); Indian Universities Commission (1902); Indian Universities Act (1904); Government Resolution on Government Policy (1904); Measures for the Improvement of Education; Critical Evaluation of Lord Curzon’s Contribution to Education

Growth of National Consciousness: National Education Movement Introduction; Phases of National Education Movement; Mrs Annie Besant on National Education; Spread of National Education Movement; Sad End of the Movement; National Universities

Gokhale’s Bill, Government Resolution on Education and Sadler Commission (1917-1919) Gokhale’s Efforts and Bill for Compulsory Primary Education (1910-12); Extracts from Gokhale’s Resolution, 1910; Gokhale’s Second Attempt (March 18, 1912); Impact of the Bill; Government Resolution on Education Policy (1913); Sadler Commission or Calcutta University Commission (1917-1919); Essential Features/Main Recommendations of the Sadler Commission; Evaluation of the Sadler Report : Fore-runner of the New Pattern of Education 10+2+3.

Government of India Act (1935) and Wardha Scheme of Education Government of India Act (1935); Provisions in the Act for Education; Significance of the Act in the Context of Development of Education; The Wardha Scheme of Education (1937); Origin of the Scheme; Wardha Scheme of Education at a Glance; Evaluation of the Wardha Scheme of Education

Sargent Report (1944)
Nomenclature of the Sargent Report; Acceptance of the Basic System of Education; Chief Features and Major Recommendations of the Sargent Report; Targets

Overview of the System of Education During the British Rule
Introduction; Phases of Development of Education in India During the British Rule (1800-1947): Policy Documents and Committees and Commissions; Demerits/Limitations/Negative Effects of the System of Education During the British Period; Merits of the system of education

University Education Commission (1947-48)
Appointment of the University Education Commission; Major Observations and Recommendations; Evaluation of the Recommendations of the Report of the University Education Commission

Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
Appointment of the Secondary Education Commission; Major Recommendations of the Commission; Aims of Secondary Education; Significant and Structure of Secondary Education According to Secondary Education Commission; Curriculum at the Secondary Stage of Education According to the Secondary Education Commission; Diversification of Courses at the High and Higher Secondary Stage; Multipurpose or Multilateral Schools; Evaluation of Report and Its Impact

Education Commission (1964-66)
Introduction; Circumstances Leading to the Appointment of the Commission, Its Composition and Terms of Reference; Essence of the Report Needed Educational Revolution; Major Recommendations of the Kothari Commission; Qualitative and Quantitative Programme; Evaluation of the Commission and Its Recommendations; Implementation of the Recommendation of the Education Commission; National Structure of Education – Proposed by Kothari Commission; Education Commission on Curriculum Reform; Education Commission and Teachers; Education Commission and Three Language Formula; Miscellaneous Recommendations

National Policy on Education – NPE (1986) and Programme of Action (1986) Need for Formation and Contents of the National Policy of Education; Formation of the NPE; Policy Indicators and Main Features of NPE; National Policy of Education and Early Childhood Education and Care (ELEC); Evaluation of the NPE; Implementation of the Policy : Programme of Action (1986); Main Schemes Launched as a Result of the Programme of Action (1986) in Pursuance of the NPE (1986); National Policy of Education and Reconstruction of Curriculum; Navodaya/Jawahar Vidyalayas (Pace-Setting Schools)

Modified National Policy of Education (1992)
Formulation of the National Policy on Education (1992); Major Original Provisions and Revised Policy Changes

UNIT V: Contemporary Educational Problems and Issues
Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE)
Meaning of Universalisation of Elementary Education; Significance of UEE; Non-fulfilment of Constitutional Commitment to Universal Elementary

Education; Progress in UEE since Independence; Causes and Problems for Non-fulfilment of Constitutional Provisions Regarding UEE; Measures for the Achievement of the Goal of UEE; New Initiatives in Universalisation of Elementary Education; Drop-outs at the Elementary Stage of Education – A Major Issue in UEE; Strategies for Universalisation of Elementary Education : Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007)

Women’s Education
High Status and Widespread Education of Women in Ancient India; Importance of Women’s Education; Progress of Women Education; Teachers; Slow but Encouraging Progress of Girls and Women Education; Measures for the Promotion of Women’s Education; Committees and Commissions on Women Education; NPE (1986 and 1992) and Programme of Action (1992)

Distance Learning
Meaning of Distance Education and its Nomenclature; Chief Characteristics of Distance Education; Correspondence Education, Open Education, Formal Education and Distance Education; Main Objectives of Distance Education; Merits and Limitations of Distance Education; Brief History of Distance Education in India; Distance System of Education at Work; Open System of Education; Problems of Distance Education and Measures for Strengthening it; Summing Up; Some Well Known Open Universities of the World

National and Emotional Integration
Meaning of National and Emotional Integration; Why National and Emotional Integration : Need for National and Emotional Integration; consequences of Lack of National and Emotional Integration; Favourable Factors for National and Emotional Integration; Barriers to National and Emotional Integration; Role of Educational in Developing National Integration; Appointment of the Emotional Integration Committee (1961) and Its Recommendations; Programmes Undertaken for Promoting National Integration

Medium of Instruction
Importance of the Medium of Instruction; Mother-Tongue as the Medium of Instruction; Demerits, Limitations and Shortcomings of Foreign Medium of Instruction; Opposition to Hindi as Medium of Instruction Can there be a Uniform Medium of Education in India?; Documents on the Medium of Instruction; Present Position of Medium of Instruction : Popularity of English as the Medium of Instruction; Multilingual Education and UNESCO

Education of Weaker Sections
Meaning of Weaker Sections; Why Promotion of Education of the Weaker Section’s Children?; Education of the Scheduled Castes; Present Status of the Education of SCs; Education of the Scheduled Tribes; Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Their Education; Popularising Education Among the Weaker Sections

Adult Education
Meaning and Definition of Adult Education; Need for and Objectives of Adult Education; Major Efforts Made in India in the Field of Adult Education; National Literacy Mission – NLM (1988); NPE (1986 and Modified 1992) on the Scope of Adult Education; The Role of Schools and Universities in Adult Education; Role of Voluntary Organisations in Adult Education; Illiteracy and Its Eradication; Causes of Slow Progress in Adult Education and measures for the Expansion of Adult Education

Quality Control in Higher Education
Meaning of Quality Control in Education; Why Quality Control in Higher Education?; Main Factors Exercising Quality Control in Education; Administration and Management of Higher Education; Quality Higher Education – National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC); Autonomy in Higher Education; Qualitative Improvement in Higher Education – NPE and Programme of Action; Qualitative Improvement Programmes for Higher Education in the Tenth Five Year Plan (-)

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