Cultural And Political Changes Of Ancient Rome
- Pages: 6
- Word count: 1261
- Category: Rome
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In year 27 through 600 C.E. Roman civilization went through some cultural political changes as some continuity. Tarquin the proud soon established Roman Republic, then turned into an empire by Julius Caesar and Augustus. Starting off, Roman Empire was one unified eastern and western Empire to then what we later call Byzantine Empire, what stayed same between them to what changed over time. Around year 400 even though it was considered one empire, it was already being governed separately; such as west being governed by Rome to east governed by Constantinople. As Rome changed from a Republic to which we now call empire, their main goal was to conquer despite and above anything else as their militaristic views never changed. Rome was being controlled by Etruscans were later Romans overpowered them and a government is created to elect people that fit each role in representing them. They had a lot of power and all power resided in them. They were executive, legislative, judicial, and had religious power. Men and women were citizens; however men had more right to vote. For instance, women couldn’t and didn’t have the capacity to vote or even do things on their own. For women there wasn’t much of that free will as men had. Overtime things started to change little by little and women started to gain power and had the ability to vote to even own their own lands.
The role of women in ancient Rome they allowed them very modest degree of rights and privileges. One thing that does seem clear women weren’t always limited to secondary roles. In some areas of Roman society, women were allowed more freedoms than in many other ancient civilizations. According to the article, “Woman in Early Roman Law,” states public law of Rome did not recognize woman at all… and struggles for equal rights (Couch, 42-43, 1894). Rights for women started to be a limited one such as it primarily consisted being at home with family. In addition, men were respected as head household, but his authority wasn’t challenged by the spouse. As for Roman law women went from the authority of their fathers to authority of their husbands. Wives are treated as property by their husbands and their roles was to take care of their children but most importantly their household. Later on women slowly gained more freedoms, such as owning land and voting.
Moreover, Rome from its start has been an open city, a safe haven for outcasts, murderers, and runaway slaves. Rome offered migrants a unique opportunity to become fully fledged citizens. This made Rome its biggest metropolitan city in ancient world. Romans themselves believed they are descendants of refugees from middle-east who had survived the Trojan War. According to the article “What Happened to Latin,” states Romans ignorant of languages other than Latin and Greek, people who spoke other languages appeared to be deceitful and untrustworthy (Geary, 2009, 862). These people invented Latin alphabet by adapting Greek letters for their own needs. Latin was seen as an original trademark for Roman Empire. Many needed to learn but know Latin in order to be able to communicate amongst one another to be able to understand each other. Its society was built on certain ideas which included slaves. Most slaves were subjugated and conquered in other lands. There was a large population which included no rights, also considered as slaves. Romans conquered all nations of Mediterranean such as Greece, Egypt, Syria, and France, Germany, but also Iberian and Celtic people.
Adding that people who lived from Roman rule are a few citizens. Citizens are male landowners but within the citizens they further divided between patricians. Many thinks of them as nobility these are people and they became patrician based on what family one was born into. This literally comes from its idea that you are descended from founding fathers of Rome. As for all other citizens they are Plebeians. Most Patricians held power as most of its wealth for a significant amount of time. But when we analyze its Republic period plebeians start to gain more and more power as for some started to gain wealth, while some Patrician families do end up poor.
Roman society was divided into several groups like Patricians (nobles) they had a lot of power. Also, they are politicians and military men. Rich as powerful below them were plebeians. The people are farmers, artisans, and workers in general and finally in the lowest part were the slaves who used to be prisoners from war. War is a very important activity for Romans. Armies were healed and phoned by fearsome soldiers called legionaries. Also, thanks to them they conquered all corners of Mediterranean. Strength of Roman military was the string holding Roman Empire together for long as it lasted. Military was made up of strictly disciplined men whom were ready and willing to serve their emperor. Therefore, legions appearance was extremely important to Romans.
When its civilization became an empire, now not ruled by one person but soon divided into East and West. At first, they decided that if the empire survived it should be divided into smaller division to easier rule units. In year 395 mighty Roman Empire was split in half separating emperors were designated to East and West. According to the article, “The World of Rome,” states over the next five centuries, Rome defeated Carthage and the Hellenistic states, taking complete control of Mediterranean world… Roman laws were not written down but only interpreted by patricians (Oliver, 1901, 116). Rome was maintained capital of Western Empire and Greek city of Byzantium. Early Roman republic drove to conquer Western Europe through a series of Punic wars. Roman culture, language, but people spread throughout Western Europe around Mediterranean into North Africa and some parts of Middle East. Eastern empire took most trade away from western empire. This unequal distribution of wealth led to steady decline of Western empire as eastern empire flourished.
Furthermore, rise of Christianity made its lifestyle much challenging. Romans moved from polytheism to monotheism. This refusal made its faith to be wrong and those who chose to keep such practice were in trouble. However, people were being murdered for practicing such faith, while what became more common was Christianity. Romans were compelled as well attracted to such faith once seeing Christians putting their lives at risk for this belief. Roman religion as most other religions were based entirely on gods, therefore, to understand Roman religion one has to understand Roman beliefs concerning gods. Such changes established beginnings towards Byzantine Empire. However, Rome was unable to control its large lands. An important political change formed; therefore, Rome had to go through modifications in cultural and political views. Its successions succeeded maintaining many philosophies, laws, in remaining culturally diverse. Overall, Rome faces governmental change moving from a republic to an empire. Roman Empire was considered to be one of its greatest eras of time despite its ups and downs. They faced obstacles and many more. It was first a monarchy and later became a republic into which slowly moving into an empire. Rome was founded by Romulus in 753 B.C. its expansion began almost immediately first conquering lands of Italian people while extending its domains until an empire was created which stretched from Atlantic coasts of Iberia to Euphrates River. The empire was an immense domain that included its entire known world at the time its legacy was one of its most powerful in world history. Continuities widespread were primarily used for Latin and Greek. These changes affected most global perceptions for many centuries to come.