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Corruption in India

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Objectives of this paper: To Identify causes,concequences and cures of Coorupition in India

To analyze the
1. Causes of corruption
2. Consequences of corruption
3. Cures for corruption

Socpe and relevancy of this paper:
The allegations of corruption and the peoples movement against corruption is one of the most debated topic in the last one year. The nationwide appraising for irradication of corruption from our democratic system, under the leadership of Anna Hazzare ,had already attracted the attention of government and international media. The latest sitituation is that the central government has been forced to reintroduce the LOK-pal bill , which has previously been unsuccessfull introduced 8 times in between 1968 and 2008. A strong lokpal bill is the n ned of the hour, as many of our cabinet ranked ministers are in the shadow or behind the bars on corruption charges. Accontability and transperancy are the pillars of every successful democracy.

What is corruption?
As one of the oldest and most perplexing phenomenon in human society, political corruption exist in every country in the contemporary world and it is not exclusively a problem of developing countries. The classical concept of corruption as a general disease of the body politics was stated by ancient political philosophers Plato and Aristotle. Corruption is deviant behavior associated with a particular motivation, namely that of private gain at public expense or corruption is seen as the use of public office for private advantage.

There is no denying the fact that there is widespread corruption in India. Petty corruption which affects the basic rights and services of the common man is highly rampant besides the grand corruption scandals which break out every now and then. A report on bribery in India published by Trace International in January, 09 states that – 91% of the bribes were demanded by governmentt officials. – 77% of the bribes demanded were for avoiding harm rather than to gain any advantage. – Of these 51% were for timely delivery of services to which the individual was already entitled. Example, clearing customs or getting a telephone connection. Indian economy is 6th largest in the world and it fares pretty well in some of the global competitive indices. In terms of the strength of the financial institution, business sophistication and innovation, we are among the first 30 countries in the world, while in terms of corruption we are ranked 85th by the Corruption Perception Index of Transparency International. That means half of the countries of the world are less corrupt than India. The Transparency International’s Bribe Payer Index for 2008 ranks India in very poor position – 19th among 22 countries. This means that Indian firms are perceived by international business as highly likely to engage in bribery when doing business abroad. Most of the corruption as well as governance indicators show that there is little change in India’s position over the years.

Causes of corruption in India

There are many causes of corruption in India. Nexus between Bureaucracrats, Politician and criminals is the main cause of corruption in every country. Lack of ethical qualities and morality among administrators and politicians, complete lack of public corruption, illiteracy among people, poor economic infrastructure – all these are corruption to tighten grip over the people. Complex laws and procedures to eliminate corruption discourage the people for taking steps against corruption. Corruption prevailed at large scale during election times and votes are bought with the help of bribery. The main causes of corruption are generalised as:

1) Lack of effective management and organisation:
Due to mismanagement and disorganization, there is a weak control on various departments and their working. This leads to lack of coordination and control among departments and levels of organisation. This uncontrolled and unsupervised administration gives rise to corruption on large scale. Besides, appointment of inefficient and incapable managers and executives on various levels of hierarchy also leads to mismanagement and disorganization. The only cause of this wrong appointment is corruption. Hence, corruption breeds corruption.

2) Lack of economical stability:
Economical crisis and price hike are major causes of corruption. Economical crisis leads to unemployment and change in standard of living. It develops a feeling of insecurity in the minds of affected people. Most of the people do not have patience and courage to face this situation. In order to regain their employment and to maintain standard of living and status, this affected people engage themselves in illegal and immoral activities. They do not want to work hard again for achieving the same position and post. They use various illegal short cuts for achieving them.

3)Lack of effective leadership:
Good leaders can only lead people towards growth, development and progress. They play significant role in eradication of social evils. In India, there is tremendous shortage of good leaders. Leaders convey message of citizens to the administration and government. They lead the people against corruption and social evils. A country cannot survive without honest and sincere leaders. There is urgent need of leaders like Mahatma Gandhiji. We need more Anna Hazares and Medha patkars.

4) Lack of support:
There are few good leaders in India. They strive hard to eradicate corruption from the society. But due to lack of support and cooperation from people, the voice and efforts of these great leaders are often suppressed. People of India are more concerned with their life than the development and protection of their country against social evils. Many citizens have accepted corruption as a part of their life. They think, it is useless and waste of time, to support leaders against corruption.

5) Lack of values:
Home and educational institution play a significant role in character building of citizens. Moral values are only taught in most of these institutions. But, they are not properly inculcated in individual. This is the basic cause of corruption. Many parents and teachers do not practise what they preach. Hence, their preaching does not bring out desired results. Children imitate parents. If parents are corrupt, it is more likely that children will also become corrupt.

6) Lack of love for country:
Due to rapid modernisation and globalisation, people are becoming more and more selfish. They are only concerned with self enrichment and wealth accumulation. The only objective of many Indian is to become rich as soon as possible. They consider themselves as patriotic just by celebrating independence and republic day. They do not know the actual meaning of patriotism. They are not concerned with development of nation and rights of others. Due to this attitude, they easily get involved in corruption and immoral activities. During strike and protests, many politically affiliated citizens damage and destroy public property.

7) Lack of proper system:
In India, corruption exists in all levels and areas of system. Very few honest people survive in this corrupt system. Those who raise their voice against corruption are killed or forced to resign. This accelerates the growth of corruption. Most of the people involved in Indian system have take corruption as part and parcel of their duties. They don’t have hatred or ill feeling towards corruption. They think that without it, we cannot survive and sustain in this system. Besides, systems are interrelated and interdependent. As a result, corruption spreads like tumour in all the systems.

8) Lack of satisfaction:
Greed results from non-satisfaction. People are not satisfied with their current status, position and wealth. They want to become millionaire in a short span of time. Growth and richness is not bad. But it is sad to see that the Indian are adopting illegal and immoral ways to achieve them. Many Indians are engaged in unhealthy competitions of wealth accumulation(with relatives, colleagues and neighbours).

9) Lack of autonomy:
Establishment and expansion of private and business sector depend on approval of politician. Many politician misuse their authority and power. They have only one criterion for approval “Pay us otherwise you will not get paid”. Entrepreneurs consider bribery as tax like other official taxes. Bribery has become necessary for the establishment of organisation. Companies and contractors secure contracts and government projects due to bribe. Good quotations and work of company does not considered to be criteria for securing contracts.

10) Lack of good control and vigilance:
In India, some agencies are working day and night to stop corruption. But some officials of these agencies get tempted towards illegal commissions and leave corrupt people without any penalty and punishment. Corruption breeds corruption. To keep a check on crores of people, more agencies and more honest officials are required. Hence, there is a tremendous shortage of these agencies and officials in India. This results in lack of control and vigilance on illegal activities.

11) Lack of good remuneration:
In private sector, employer decides salary and employment benefits. He has complete freedom and there is no pressure on him from government. Due to this fact, many employers pay less for more work. They exploit employees of their companies. Even the working conditions in most of the establishments are worse.Employee does not have any social security and retirement benefits. Employees get frustrated and adopt illegal means to make their earnings better and future secure.

12) Lack of employment:
Many unemployed educated youth fall prey to corruption. They are willing to pay huge amount for jobs. Many employer take undue advantage of this situation. They take bribe and give appointment letters. The appointed employee uses all means (legal and illegal) to recover his lost money as early as possible. Hence,Corruption breeds corruption. When these employees achieve power and authority. They take bribe from candidates for jobs. These tradition of corruption continues from generation to generation without any check and control.

13) Lack of seats and educational institutions:
In order to fulfil dreams and ambitions of their children, parents pay huge donation to secure admission for their children. Hence, the basis of admission is not merit but money. Management use maximum utilisation of quota granted to them. Every year there is a increase in donation amount. Affluent students who secured less percentage in examinations, easily gets admissions by paying huge donations. Poor students who secured good percentage struggle day and night to get admissions. Many a time their efforts go in vain due to lack of seats and more number of applicants.

Consequences of Corruption

Corruption is a serious economic issue as it adversely affects the country’s economic development and achievement of developmental goals. It promotes inefficiencies in utilisation of resources, distorts the markets, compromises quality, destroys the environment and of late has become a serious threat to national security. It adds to the deprivation of the poor and weaker sections of the economy. Various attempts have been made to indicate the impact of corruption in quantitative terms. Some estimates show that govt. loses about Rs. 2 lakh crores annually due to tax evasion while about Rs. 40,000 crores is lost due to delay in projects. Transmission and distribution losses in the Power Sector are estimated to be about 50%, out of which about 30% is attributed to theft in connivance with the Electricity Boards employees. According to one estimate if corruption was not there, the Public Sector Enterprises would have improved their profit margin by almost 20%. According to a corruption economist (Mauro) if corruption in India is reduced to the level of the Scandinavian countries, then investment would rise by 12% annually and GDP would grow at an additional 1.5%. Consequences of corruption ar e listed below:

1) Loss of National wealth:
This is the greatest loss for the people of India. Since independence, India is showing tremendous growth in corruption (Jeep deal to 2 G spectrum scams). India lost billions and billions dollars of money in various scams. Instead of becoming independent affluent nation, India is dependent on international loans, grants and favours due to this tremendous of wealth in corruption.

2) Hindrance and obstruction in development:
Corruption is the only obstruction in the way towards development. We cannot become a developed and self sufficient nation until corruption is not eradicated from our country. Many developmental projects are taking unnecessary time for their completion due to corruption. Since, many officials consider these projects as special hens(hens which lay golden eggs every day). If project will get completed, these special hens will die. Hence, they take proper care of these hens.

3) Backwardness:
Due to corruption, India is behind in almost every field- sports, inventions, health, medicine, research, education, economy, defence, infrastructure, technology and so on. Many scientists do not have latest equipments and technology for research and development. Sportsmen do not have proper facilities, equipments, coaching and training. There are scams and corruption in defence deals. Many doctors lack specialised and modern skills of treatment and diagnosis.

4) Poverty:
Due to corruption, government is unable to eradicate poverty. Rich are becoming richer by snatching the rights and wealth of poor. Various packages, reservations and compensations for poor people, minorities and backward community are announced by government from time to time. But these disadvantaged sections of society hardly get any benefits. Since, affluent people freely consume benefits meant for poor.

5) Authority and power in wrong hands:
Ineligible and incapable candidates are selected for various important positions. They pay and get selected. Due to their inefficiency, there exist many faults and weaknesses in system and management. These faults get easily hidden through corruption. The deserving and creative candidates satisfy themselves with unsuitable jobs and positions.

6) Brain drain:
Corrupt employers and mediators offer jobs to unskilled and incapable candidates by taking bribe. They get their share of wealth. But nation loses its valuable share. Due to lack of good opportunities in India, many creative and talented Indian are serving developed nations. This is a tremendous loss for India. Since, we cannot become a developed nation without the contribution of talented and creative people.

Talented people who serve other countries are actually cheating with their own nation. They are made capable and efficient by their own nation. But they use their capabilities for increasing the efficiency of other nation. This is also considered as corruption.

7) Rise in terrorism and crimes:
One of the reasons for rise in crimes is corruption in police administration. Police departments grant security and protection to the citizens. When this departments get engaged in corrupt activities. Then there is no control on crimes and brutal killings. Since, criminals are given freedom and victims are tortured. Besides, corruption also leads to injustice. Injustice gives birth to crimes and anti social activities. Citizens take up arms for securing justice.

8) Rise in suicide cases:
Suicide cases are increasing in India by leaps and bounds. One of the major causes in several suicide cases is injustice resulting from corruption. Government announces various schemes and help packages for farmers but most of the time this financial help does not reach to the farmers due to corruption in administration. This leads to rise suicides cases among farmers. Candidates fulfil all necessary criteria for jobs or admissions, but then also they fail in their attempt to secure it. Because they do not have political contacts and money. This leads to hopelessness and depression which ultimately results in suicide.

9) Psychological and social disorders:
Due to corruption in judicial system and police administration. Culprits are left free and victims get punishments and injustice. Due to this injustice, many victims suffer from depression and serious psychological disorders. Many victims get frustrated with judicial system and develops feeling of revenge against culprits. As a results, the victims become culprits by engaging themselves in anti-social activities. It corrodes the healthy social fabric of nation.

Cures for corruption in India

We will have to have planned measures to fight corruption. Bureaucracy should be made more citizen friendly, accountable and transparent. More and more courts should be opened for speedy justice. Lokpals and Vigilance Commissions should be more powerful and of independent nature so as to provide speedy justice. Other measures are – strict laws should be made; political interference should be minimized; power to make policies in public interest should be vested with independent commission; people should have a right to questioned the elected representatives and get answer; funding of elections should be banned and there should be State funding of election expenses for candidates and persons with criminal records should be denied tocontest elections. More areas of public interest should be covered under Right to opposition against allowed Information, which will empower the citizens to ask for more information. Stringent actions will be taken against corrupt officials. Immediate function which needs to be done is to literate the people. The cures for corruption can be generalized as following:

1) Value education:
Parents and teachers should inculcate moral values in children. Practice is more persuasive than preaching. The best way to inculcate values in children is not only to preach but to set an example by actual doing. They should set themselves as models of good behavior. They should narrate stories based on moral values. Teacher should not only teach morals in value education period but they should inculcate values in pupils by correlating value education with various subjects and activities. They should not leave any stone unturned for achieving this great purpose.

2) Effective and regular vigilance:
Strict action should be taken against lazy and corrupt officials. Number of agencies and officials should be increased. They should be properly trained in the latest investigative skills. Government should supervise and monitor these agencies. They should be quick and active in their duties. They should not delay their investigation and inspection .Since, these delay is the cause for loss of tremendous wealth of nation.

3) Responsible citizen:
If an individual is corrupt, he cannot expect those in power to be free from corruption. Hence, it is essential for every citizen to perform his duties faithfully and to the best of their abilities . Every citizen should strive hard to eradicate corruption. People of India should report cases of corruption to vigilance department immediately without delay. They should follow up the cases of corruption. Since, merely reporting the evil practice is not sufficient for its complete eradication.

4) Strong and Effective leadership and administration:
All those who are granted powers and authority by people should fulfill their promises and pledge. They should strive their utmost to eradicate corruption from systems and administrations. They should give up hypocrisy. Government and vigilance agencies should keep a check on their source of income and bank accounts. If any leader is not performing his duties properly, then he should be immediately terminated from the position. It should be performance based position. Government should do performance appraisal of leaders regularly.

5) Media:
Media has wider coverage and impact. It plays an important role in changing the life of people. It should frequently expose the cases of corruption. It should educate people against corruption on regular basis. Journalists and editors should give complete information about the issues related to corruption in their newspapers. Reporters should give more importance to the news and information on corruption; they should report corruption cases immediately.

6) Legislation:
Government should frame strict and stringent anti-corruption laws . Severe punishments and penalties should be imposed on corrupt people. The justice and proceedings should not be delayed. Immediate action should be taken against corrupt people. The punishment should act as a good lesson for other corrupt people.

7) Social organisation:
Non government organisations should work in coordination with people and vigilance departments for prevention of illegal activities. They should devise and plan innovative strategies and methods against corruption.

8)Declaration of wealth and assets:
It should be made mandatory for political leaders and government officials to declare their wealth and assets. Investigation agencies should strictly and properly check their claims and declaration.

Every process of selection, dealing and appointments of different fields should be made transparent. People should be made aware of reasons and merit for selection of candidates, contracts, tenders, etc.

10) Advertising:
Advertising and marketing agencies should educate and aware people against corruption. There should be appealing ads on internet, vehicles, bus stops, railway stations,sign boards and television.

11) Serials and films:
Films are powerful medium of mass communication. Films have powerful influence and widespread appeal. Films can be used to create public opinion against corruption.Producers should make certain popular serials and movies against corruption. Serials should have different episodes dealing with various types of corruption and their cures.

12)Appointment and admissions:
Selection of students, managers, officers and executives should only be based on merit. It is the responsibility of candidates and parents to critically examine the selection and appointment procedures. They should report irregularities to the higher authorities without delay.

13) Religious sermon:
In India, people show very strict adherence to their faith and belief. They are very sensitive towards religion, place of worship and religious leaders. They have deep attachment and great respect for preachers and spiritual orators.They try to adopt the teachings of their spiritual leaders in day to day life. Hence, religious leaders should give sermons against corruption.

14) Loyalty and patriotism:
Every citizen of India should become patriotic in true sense.He should give priority and preference to the development of his nation. He should always remain loyal to their beautiful culture, ethics and country. Social workers, political leaders, media and teachers should inculcate true patriotism in the citizens of India.

15) Dedicated and diligent leaders:
There should be more dedicated, devoted and diligent leaders like Medha Patkar and Anna Hazare. These leaders dedicated their whole life for eradicating corruption. It is the responsibility of every citizen of India to support and cooperate with leaders who are sincerely striving against corruption.

16) Coordination and control:
All government and non government agencies should work in coordination with media, educational institutions and corporate sectors to control and eradicate corruption. They should be united in their efforts against corruption.

17) Creative writers:
Pen is mightier than sword. Creative writers should write appealing articles and books against corruption. They should write interesting short stories based on honesty.

18)College and Universities:
These institutions should educate and train the youth against corruption. They should organise symposium, debates,group discussion, seminars and lectures for this purpose.

19) Gratitude:
We Indian should show gratitude towards all those honest people who sacrificed and laid their lives for eradicating corruption from our beautiful country. It is now our turn to take this greatest responsibility and make our nation free from corruption.


The life and future of the nation is secure only when the nation is corruption free. Corruption is destruction and it cannot control unless citizen of country become an active partner to control it. Co-operation of the people to tackle this problem is must. Honest and dedicated persons in public life could be the most important instrument to tackle corruption. Priority should be given to make all public offices more people-friendly in reality. The fight against Corruption may well begin with simple acts of documentation. Media also can play a significant role to abolish the corruption by exposing the corruption. In last, for the development of the country, it is the duty of every citizen to make joint efforts to free the country from the clutches of this Narakasura- corruption.


* Corruption in India. , N. VITTAL
* Breaking free of Nehru , Sanjeev Sabhlok
* Corruption in India: agenda for action ,Sanjivi Guhan and Paul Samuel * www.thehindu.com

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