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Carabao Grass Paper

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Paper is believed to have originated in China sometime around A.D. 105. Its invention is credited to a Chinese artisan by the name of Tsai-Lun. Tsai Lun created the first type of paper by mixing macerated cellulose fiber with water. His method was simple. He beat rags to a pulp and diluted this with lots of water. He then drained the resultant mixture through a form of a sieve. The fibers matted together and, when it dried, formed what we know now as paper. This papermaking process was kept secret in China for several centuries. However, in the eighth century, Arab invaders were able to learn of the technique from Chinese prisoners. In the eleventh century, the Moors brought the craft to Europe through Spain.

At about the same time, returning Crusaders introduced papermaking to Italy. Over the years, various refinements were added to the papermaking techniques. In the early 1800’s, manufacturing paper became mechanized thanks to a machine invented by the Fourdrinier brothers. Also at this time, there was an increased demand in printed matter. The demand for pulp likewise grew but the sources of rags diminished. There was now a need for an alternative source of abundant and cheap cellulose fiber.

In 1800, an Englishman named Koops started producing paper made entirely from wood fibers. Paper made from wood came into full swing in 1839 when a German named Keller invented a machine which efficiently ground wood to a pulp. The use of woodpulp was further popularized when another Englishman named Burgess, invented a chemical method of producing wood fiber by boiling in soda. These advancements made paper manufacturing more efficient and cost-effective and readily available to just about anyone.

Today, increasing technology allows for the availability of paper is different shapes, sizes, weights, colors and textures. Paper is now used for a variety of things — from writing, printing and packaging to creating innovative art decors and crafts.

1.1 Highlights
Management and Personnel Feasibility

The organizational structure of CRASPER Manufacturing Incorporated will be from the partners; each proponent will be assigned and managed a specific function. There will be fifteen (15) to twenty (20) workers who will be assigned and specialized for the different procedures during mass production.

Marketing Feasibility

The demand for the carabao grass paper is projected to continuously increase for the succeeding years through innovations and improvements to be conceptualized. The presently available products offered in markets are usually poor in quality and not sufficient to satisfy the needs of the consumers. Quality paper products at an affordable price, cheaper than the existing goods, are what the Crasper Manufacturing Incorporated intended to promote in the market. As of date, the demand for papers is just enough for the current supply. Given that it’s indispensable in many expertise areas; its establishment will augment the level of demand and endow with these necessities.

Production and Technical Feasibility

The establishment will follow a standard operating process to have an organized business and to achieve its goals effectively and efficiency. Crasper Manufacturing Incorporated will have the cheaper prices yet high quality unlike those existing ones in the natural public market to attract customers. The structure is expected to expand or to form more branches if ever their sales will be good enough to start a new one.

Financial and Financing Feasibility

The business has an initial capital of P8,000,000. The owners of the business will contribute according to their agreed capital contribution. Based on the measures of project, the proposed business is worth pursuing as it satisfies all the decision rules stated in project planning and management. All of the funds will be provided by the business proponents themselves. In the case of insufficient funds, the owners will apply for loans and insurances in banks and lending institutions. In this project, the major investments will be the shop itself together with the equipment needed. The total project cost is Php. 5,110,469.

34 Socio-economic Feasibility

The proposed business will provide employment for the business. It is certainly owned and managed by the proponents itself. This will serve as source of income for the group as well as for the hired labors. Every business establishment is required to have a 12% tax deduction which will be paid to the government that will be the additional revenue for community development. Crasper Manufacturing Incorporated will also support recycling program, waste disposal will be handled properly so that it will not be a source of problem to the community. It will also stimulate more economic activity, higher labour productivity, and promote innovation, effectiveness and efficiency.

1.2 Conclusions to Feasibility

The proponents foresee to the implementation of the business is very possible since the location of the project is close to the expected consumers and the inputs needed are abundantly found in the site. The name of the business is expected to spread immediately because it is easy to remember. Another thing that can be one of the business competitive edges is the proponents made it positive that the hired labourers are knowledgeable about their assigned task to be given by the costumers, including their ability to manage each of their tasks frequently and efficiently.

The product offered has its comparative advantage over its existing competitors in terms of its price, quality and utility it brings including the business’ top priority of having an outstanding customer service. Finally, the feasibility study is proven feasible in all aspects; that’s why it is highly recommended for the business to operate.

2.2 Proposed Name of the Business

As the proponents foresee their expectations in their product, they consider what will be the most appropriate name for the business, a name that will surely catch the attention of the buyers. The proposed business name is “CRASPER Manufacturing Incorporated”. The name CRASPER came from the main material of the product which is the carabao grass (CRAS) and the product itself, the paper (PER).

The said firm will produce a diverse kind of paper product from carabao grass. Carabao grass paper, a product innovation is obviously made from typical carabao grass which is abundant in our environment. Instead of being a wisp, it can now be a cheap source of a high quality paper for everyone to use. This paper product is made especially for scrapbooking, personalized cards and for other arts and crafts purposes.

2.3 Type of Business Organization

CRASPER Manufacturing Incorporated is owned and managed by a group of six persons. It is a partnership type of business which has partners who mutually share entity’s assets, liabilities and profits/losses in accordance with their capital contributions. The project proponents namely: Janneth S. Bocobo, Ma. Angeline G. del Rosario, Allison V. Esguerra, Daisy R. Laureano, Shadyn D. Montevirgen and Shiela A. Osorio are all general partners of the business. They will contribute assets for the success of the business.

The business partners have chosen partnership type of business among others because partnerships are relatively easy to establish, more available talents, judgments and skills are present, more capital can be easily raised with its tax advantages.

2.4 Location of the Head Office and Factory

The factory and the head office will be located at A.O. Pascual St., San Jose City, Nueva Ecija where an abundant source of carabao grass can be found. This is a great advantage for the business because the site is suitable for the inputs supply. CRASPER Manufacturing Incorporated will supply their products on Pandayan Bookshop, J & F, and Magic.

3.1 Personnel (Administrative)

Crasper Manufacturing Incorporated is a small manufacturing firm and since the business is new to the market, it will just employ small number of personnel. The proposed number of administrative personnel is fifteen (15) to twenty (20). The number is just enough to cover all the necessary steps to complete the process of forming the paper product. Organizational Structure

General Managers

Assistant Manager



Figure 1: Organizational Chart

The above organizational chart shows the chain of command of CRASPER Manufacturing Incorporated. Since CRASPER Manufacturing Incorporated is a small manufacturing firm, it has a functional type of organization. The highest authority belongs to the top, the general managers/owners of the business. They will be in charge for the overall activities of the business and will make all the major decision makings that are involved within the circle of the business. Next to him is the assistant manager who will be in charge of acting as a general manager whenever the general manager is not present, the assistant manager’s job is to help and accompany the general manager in his job.

The supervisor will serve as the communication line between the managers/owners and the workers and vice versa. The supervisor’s job is to guide and help the workers in their jobs, all the explaining of the rules and regulations, training of the employees, and all the job-related activities within the plant accounts to the supervisor. The cashier will be in charge of all the cash transactions of the business. This type of structure promotes employee involvement through a decentralized decision making process. More personal relationship can be seen with this type of organizational structure because of frequent direct communication between workers. Key Positions

1. General Managers/Owners
Job Description
* He/she is in charge in the overall activities of the business. * In control on the major decision makings of the firm.
* Assumes complete responsibility.
Job Specification
* The owners of the business will serve as the over-all-officer in charge to run the business. * High school diploma or equivalent. College Degree preferable. * Good verbal and written communication skills; is capable of communicating effectively with customers and co-workers; bi-lingual skills a plus. 2. Assistant Manager

Job Description
* Delegating tasks
* Training team members
* Problem solving
* Recruiting staff
* Improving customer relations
* Training and development
* Merchandising
* Work scheduling, handling last time orders, rectifying the complaints of the customers, supervising daily works and deftly delegating responsibilities as a challenge that needs patience and effective decision-making ability. * Enforcing business policies

* Assist the senior manager, guide and look after the efficiency of the employees as part of his/her team.
Job Specifications
* At least a graduate degree in management or arts-related
* He/she must be hard working.
* He/she must be honest and trustworthy.
* He should be a proactive person and mut display leadership skills. * Generally have relevant entry-level industry experience. 3. Supervisor
Job Description
* Assign employees to specific duties.
* Examine merchandise to ensure that it is correctly priced and displayed and that it functions as advertised. * Direct and supervise employees engaged in sales, inventory-taking, reconciling cash receipts, or in performing services for customers. * Instruct staff on how to handle difficult and complicated sales. * Perform work activities of subordinates, such as cleaning and organizing shelves and displays and selling merchandise. * Enforce safety, health, and security rules

* Monitor sales activities to ensure that customers receive satisfactory service and quality goods. * Plan and prepare work schedules and keep records of employees’ work schedules and time cards. * Hire, train, and evaluate personnel in sales or marketing establishments, promoting or firing workers when appropriate. * Review inventory and sales records to prepare reports for management and budget departments. * Plan budgets and authorize payments and merchandise returns. * Examine products purchased for resale or received for storage to assess the condition of each product or item. * Estimate consumer demand and determine the types and amounts of goods to be sold. * Keep records of purchases, sales, and requisitions.

* Plan and coordinate advertising campaigns and sales promotions, and prepare merchandise displays and advertising copy. * Formulate pricing policies for merchandise, according to profitability requirements. * Establish credit policies and operating procedures.

Job Specification
* At least a graduate of 4-year business college degree.
* He/she must be hard working.
* He/she must be honest and trustworthy.
4. Cashier
Job Description
* Receive and disburse money in establishments other than financial institutions.
* Usually involves use of electronic scanners, cash registers, or related equipment.
* Often involved in processing credit or debit card transactions and validating checks.

Job Specifications
* Must be a graduate of any 2 or 4 year course.

* Must have at least experience working as a store or boutique cashier.

* Must have knowledge in customers service.

* Knowledge in basic Mathematics.

* Good analytical skills.

* Must have good communication skills.

* Must be highly motivated and must be keen to details.

5. Workers
Job Description
* Collecting raw resources for processing, measuring, mixing and cooking raw materials.
* Cleaning and sterilizing the plant processing area.
* Drying or bleaching materials, pressing, and stretching or waterproofing materials.
* Mixing and cooking of the product, molding or shaping the product.
* Controlling the automated [process for making products.
* Monitoring during the maturity time and taking samples of product.

Job Specifications
* Degree in any field such as dairy science, technology, pharmaceuticals and etc. * At least high school diploma.

6. Security Guard
Job Description
* Coordinate all anti-crime activities with the Police; report and document incidence of crime activity to Police personnel – official arrests shall be made by Police personnel. * Resolve any customer complaints in a friendly, courteous manner and advise the General Manager or designated manager of all serious complaints or incidences.

* Ensure proper follow-through on all directives, bulletins, schedules and accounting from the General Manager or designated manager or other corporate sources. Maintain a good flow of communication with other auction personnel. * Recommend new customer services and procedures to the General Manager or designated manager. * Inspect the fence line for indications of unauthorized entry or potential security risks.

* Permits authorized persons to enter property. Observes departing personnel to guard against theft of company property. * Practice and promote teamwork at all times. Set a good personal example of attitude and performance. * Insure the offices, auction building and grounds are secured at established times. Note any security, safety or fire hazards. * Warns violators of rule infractions, such as loitering, smoking, or carrying forbidden articles, and apprehends or expels miscreants.

* Sounds alarm or calls police or fire department by telephone in case of fire or presence of unauthorized persons. * Watches for and reports irregularities, such as fire hazards, leaking water pipes, and security doors left unlocked. * Report and record data such as property damage, unusual occurrences, and/or disturbance for use by Administration and Police. * Required to familiarize himself/herself with location of gas, water and electrical shut offs for assigned facility/building in case of emergency.

* Secure gates at established times and patrol auction property. Check for unlocked doors. Maintain radio contact with the main gate. * Inspect equipment and machinery if necessary to ascertain that tampering has not occurred. * Observe departing personnel to guard against theft of property. * Provide adequate protection against fire, theft, illegal entry, and other acts of crime tampering the safekeeping of facilities. * Examine doors, windows, gates other building entries and exits to ensure they are secure. Job Specifications

* High School diploma; and
* One (1) year of experience as a security guard or police officer; or a combination of education, training, or work experience which provides the required knowledge, skills and abilities to perform the duties of this position. * Ability to providing quality customer service.

* Ability to handle typical and crisis situations efficiently and effectively at client site. * Knowledge in security techniques and procedures.
* Neat and professional appearance.
* Friendly and professional demeanor.
* Ability to prepare clear and accurate reports and be able to speak and write effectively. * Negative result on pre-employment drug screen.
* Ability to maintain satisfactory attendance and punctuality standard. * Ability to work under stressful conditions, have keen observation qualities to remember details on incidents and locations. * Ability to perform all physical requirements of the position; agree to maintain a Drug-Free workplace. * Ability to perform essential functions of the position with or without reasonable accommodation. * Work cooperatively, courteously, yet firmly with all segments of the general public. * Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships with other employees, Community Officials, and the general public. 7. Researcher/Developer

Job Description
* He/she will be the one to conceptualize innovations and improvements of the products through conducting different researches and studies. * He/she must be updated with the latest trends in the market. Job Specification

* He/she must possess the attitude of being responsible, efficient and effective in every decision he/she makes for the business. * He/she must be a graduate of Bachelor of Science in Business Administration major in Management (with background in Marketing, Finance or Accounting is an advantage) * He/she must be hard working.

Personnel’s Proposed Salary Rates and Benefits
The amount of salaries of the owners is based on the amount of their capital contribution in the company. Sales minus expenses equals profit, 20 – 30% of the overall profit will be save for the further expansion of the business in the near future. All the proponents will have their turn of taking care of the business, they will be assign when to be the person on the front desk, in charge of all the activities of the business. The assistant manager will receive a salary of Php5000 per month and special incentives. The supervisor will also receive a salary of Php5000 per month. But aside from that, the manufacturing firm will also give special incentives.

These incentives include food allowances, and other negotiable health benefits. The researcher/developer will come from one of the general managers/one of the owners of the business. The researcher/developer’s job is not like the job of the general manager, the assistant manager, the supervisor or the cashier that is needed the whole way through. There is just a certain time/period when his/her services will be needed. He/she will be employed during the time when the new market of this paper product has been recognized and accepted by consumers.

After this new product has been a success in the market, the proponents can now innovate something new to augment the new expectations of the consumers and this is the time that a researcher/developer is needed. The researcher/developer will be engaged in the business for a month and the salary is Php4000 per month. The workers of the business will receive a salary of Php2500 per month. The firm will offer basic benefits to the laborers like food allowances every day. The security guard will also receive a salary of Php2500 per month and benefits of food allowances everyday.

3.2 Management Proposals

The manufacturing firm uses the Theory Y as the management style to run the organizational workforce. Management should empower the workers to be able to involve or to have commitment of objectives in order to achieve business objectives.

General Policies

8. Workers must be given fair treatment such that they should be the partners of the business. 9. Employees should be able to serve and make the costumers feel comfortable. 10. All employees must be a good observant on all the things that is going on that may affect the business standing whether positively or adversely. 11. Workers should exert their best in performing their jobs. 12. The workers must be well trained and oriented first before engaging in performing their task designation.

Rules for Employees

13. Workers should always come in time for their jobs.

14. During working hours, visitation and using cellular phones are not allowed. (Except for emergency purposes). 15. Workers must observe cleanliness in the working areas at all times. 16. Workers must be in their proper attire at all times.

17. Workers must be committed to their assigned jobs.

Employee Training and Orientation

The manufacturing firm will provide training for the workers. This aims to teach them all the things about the jobs that must be performed to be able to do the product successfully. This includes all the stages of doing the product. Also, it aims to enhance the intrapersonal and interpersonal skills of the workers and as well as the other staffs that will result in their effectiveness and efficiency.

Input Materials:

1.1.1. Carabao Grass

Many people consider carabao grass as a pesky weed; people don’t know that it has many valuable uses especially in the agricultural sector. Almost all types of livestock consider the grass as food – goats, horses, cows and sheep. It not only provides food for livestock, it is also a great ground cover. It helps prevent open areas from turning into barren, dry lands.

To utilize its many functions, the proponents will use it as the main input material for a innovative product, the carabao grass paper.

1.1.2. Bleaching Agent

An agent that makes things white or colorless. The bleaching agent will be use to remove the chlorophyll. 1.1.3. Starch A naturally abundant nutrient carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, found chiefly in the seeds, fruits, tubers, roots, and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice, and varying widely in appearance according to source but commonly prepared as a white amorphous tasteless powder.

The starch will be use together with water to form the mixture that will be form to be a paper.

1.1.4. Water

The water will be use to boil the cut carabao grass, boiling the carabao grass after being cut, bleached, and rinsed will break the carabao grass’ cell wall and will remove the chemicals absorbed during the bleaching process.

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