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The research aims to investigate the level of awarenes on rabies among the community of San Vicente, Ilocos Sur
Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the following personal factors:
c. Civil status,
d. Highest educational attainment,
f. Family monthly income
g. Religion, and
2. What is the level of awareness on rabies among the community people of San Vicente, Ilocos Sur along the following factors?
a. Knowledge base,
b. Treatment/ management?
3. What are the practices of the community in managing animal bites or rabies?
4. Is there a significant relationship on the level of awarenes on rabies and sociodemographic profile of the respondents?
5. Is there a significant difference on the level of awareness on rabies between and among the different barangays of San Vicente, Ilocos Sur?
Scope and Delimitation
The study aims at providing human resource framework management that can be used to monitor and manage changes in nurses’ performance as to improve the performance of the professional nurses in Metro Vigan Ilocos Sur particularly nurses employed at Metro Vigan Cooperative Hospital (MVCH) in Bantay, St. James Hospital, Gabriela Silang General Hospital, Lahoz Clinic, Polyclinic, and Metro Vigan Hospital in Vigan.
The objectives of this study are to determine factors which positively and negatively affects the performance of professional nurses in Metro Vigan Ilocos Sur. Furthermore, it also aims to investigate if nurse managers are equipped to facilitate good performance of their subordinates. Lastly, it also aims to find and propose strategies that could improve the performance of professionl nurses in Metro Vigan Ilocos Sur.The personal-related factors considered in the study is limited to age, sex, civil status, Highest qualification in nursing, and number of years as a registered nurse. Likewise, organizationl demographic-related factors are limited to Type of hospital currently employed, Current employment status, Type of discipline/clinical ward currently allocated, Length of time working in the clinical area for the staff nurse while for the nurse managers, it includes Type of hospital currently employed and Current position/ title.
The study will use a quantitative research model using a descriptive and exploratory design. The respondents of the study will be the staff nurses and nurse managers/ supervisors of the different hospitals in Metro Vigan Ilocos Sur.
The data needed in the study will be gathered through the use of a questionnaire and through documentary analysis. Data to be gathered will be treated statistically through the use of frequency, percentage, mean and simple correlation analysis.
To have better insight into the factors affecting the performance of the professional nurses in different hospitals with in Metro Vigan, ideas from authorities and experts and research results were collected and presented in this section.
The implementation of the Local Government Code demanded a new role for the Department of Health. Health sector reforms, therefore have been developed. Organizational and policy changes and public investments are needed to improve the way health care is delivered, regulated and financed.Therefore, there is a Organizational and policy changes and public investments are needed to improve the way health care is delivered, regulated and financed.
Job performance is often examined in relation to stress and burnout associated with nursing practice. Parker and Kulik(1995) found that burnout is associated with poor self-rating as well as supervisor rating of performance, more sick leave, and more absence for mental health reasons. In Jordan, Abualrub (2004) found that perceived social support from co-workers enhanced job performance and decreased job stress. In Hong Kong, Siu (2002) found that organizational climate (both physical conditions and social aspects) to inﬂuence job satisfaction and absenteeism among hospital nurses. Supportive management practices were crucial to achieve high nursing performance (Drach-Zahavy, 2004). A recent study has also found a positive correlation between perceived supervisor support and nurse occupation-related outcomes (Hall, 2007).
The relationship between job performance with personal characteristics of employees such as competence, education, and years of experience were investigated by some researchers. In a study of maternal healthcare providers in Armenia, Fort and Voltero (2004) examined a conventional performance improvement model that outlined ﬁve key factors believed to inﬂuence performance outcomes: job expectations, performance feedback, environment and tools, motivation and incentives, and knowledge and skills. The study included 285 nurses and midwives, and utilized interview and observation methods to identify factors affecting performance. Results show that performance is inﬂuenced by several factors: training in the use of clinical tools, receiving recognition from employer or patient, and receiving feedback on performance (Fort and Voltero, 2004). In Taiwan, Tzeng (2004) found that nursing performance is related to nursing competencies, and suggested that education and training are essential for improving performance of nurses.
Several organizational theories are based on the notion that organizations that are able to create a positive environment and make their employees happy will have more productive employees. Over the years, scholars examined this idea that a happy worker is a productive worker; however, evidence is not yet conclusive on this regard. Empirical studies have produced several conﬂicting viewpoints on the relationship between job satisfaction and performance.
The idea that job satisfaction leads to better performance is supported by Vrooms’ (1964) work which is based on the notion that performance is a natural product of satisfying the needs of employees. Empirical evidence from research on nurses found job satisfaction to be linked to several aspects of job performance, including: patient satisfaction (Krugman and Preheim, 1999), overall job performance (Judgeet al., 2001), turnover; productivity (Butler and Parsons, 1989; Robinson et al., 1991).
In Jordan, Al-Badayneh and Sonnad (1993) studied job satisfaction of a sample of (303) registered nurses in ﬁve government and ﬁve private hospitals. The study identiﬁed a strong relationship between nurses overall effectiveness and overall satisfaction, as well as a moderate relationship between nurses’ job satisfaction and performance. Knoop (1995) found that job satisfaction leads to a number of consequences among nurses, more productivity, high quality of care, and intent tore main in the organization.
Job dissatisfaction on the other hand was found to lead to absenteeism, grievances (Shaderet al., 2001), decreased productivity and poor performance (Butler and Parsons,1989; Robinson et al., 1991). In a review of literature, Borda and Norman (1997) concluded that job satisfaction affects turnover intentions as well as absenteeism among nurses. In a meta-analysis of the literature, Judgeet al. (2001) found a positive correlation between job satisfaction and job performance of nurses. In North Vietnam, Dieleman et al. (2003) conducted a qualitative study to identify factors for job motivation of rural health workers, and recommend strategies for performance improvement. The study showed that motivation is inﬂuenced by both ﬁnancial and non-ﬁnancial incentives; however, the main motivating factors were appreciation by managers, colleagues and community, a stable job and income, and training.
The main discouraging factors were related to low salaries and difﬁcult working conditions. Researchers have examined the relationship between performance and various aspects of job satisfaction. Abdel-Halim (1980) reported a correlation between performance and satisfaction with several aspects of the job: work, supervision, coworkers, pay, and promotion. Some earlier research found a signiﬁcant correlation between overall effectiveness and several aspects of job satisfaction: pay, coworkers, supervisor, job security, promotion, beneﬁts, hours, and work conditions. Correlation was identiﬁed also between overall job satisfaction and speciﬁc aspects of job performance of nurses: technical competence; ability to organize workload; planning nursing care; attendance; amount of work performed; adaptability to emergencies; completing work on schedule; quality of work; willingness to perform duties; observation of rules; communication skills; and overall effectiveness.
Some researchers supported the notion that performance causes satisfaction, and found a low but consistent relationship existed between performance and job satisfaction. Their argument is that performance leads to extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, which eventually lead to satisfaction. Extrinsic reward (pay, promotion), and intrinsic reward (recognition and self-actualization) lead to satisfaction.
Some researchers found no relationship between job performance and job satisfaction. Packard and Motowidlo (1987) studied the relationship of subjective stress, job satisfaction, and job performance among hospital nurses, through self reports that were obtained from 366 nurses, and performance ratings from 165supervisors and 139 co-workers nominated by the original respondents. The ﬁndings were that stress, primarily acting through depression, is associated with lower levels of job performance, and that job satisfaction is unrelated to job performance.
Organizational commitment and job performance
Interest in organizational commitment is based on the assumption that employees who feel attached to, and identify with their organizations, work harder. Organizational commitment is characterized as a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values, a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and a strong desire to maintain membership in an organization (Mowdayet al., 1982). Mathieu and Zajac (1990) see commitment as an attitude reﬂecting the nature and quality of the linkage between an employee and an organization. Mowdayet al.(1982) deﬁne commitment which portrays a committed individual as one who has a string belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values; a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization; and a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization. Meyeret al. (1989) identiﬁed three types of organizational commitment: affective,continuance, and normative commitment.
Several scholars identiﬁed a positive relationship between organizationalcommitment and job performance (Mathieu and Zajac, 1990; Al-Otaibi, 1993; Wardand Davis, 1995; Yousef, 2000; Samad, 2005).Meyeret al. (1989) found a relationship between job performance and commitment, however; they concluded that the direction of the relationship depended on the type of commitment. Affective commitment was found to have a positive relationship with job performance, while a negative relationship was found between continuance commitment and performance.
Mathieu and Zajac (1990) found low positive correlation between organizational commitment and performance, which lead to the belief that there are moderating variables that moderate this relationship. Similarly, Samad (2005) found a moderate positive relationship between organizational commitment and job performance, and concluded that job satisfaction moderates the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance, indicating that employees, who are committed totheir organizations, would have better job performance if they were satisﬁed in theirjobs. Samad (2005) emphasized the importance of motivational factors, such asrelationship with supervision and peers, the quality of supervision, policy andadministration, job security, working conditions, salary and the nature of work itself,achievement, and possibility of growth.
In the United Arab Emirates, Yousef (2000) examined the mediating role of organizational commitment in the relationships of leadership behavior with job satisfaction and job performance. The study concluded that employees who perceive their superiors as adopting consultative or participative leadership behavior are more committed to their organizations, more satisﬁed with their jobs, and their performance ishigh. In nursing, leadership behavior was found to have a great inﬂuence over organizational commitment and productivity. Organizational commitment was found related to leadership behavior, and that several aspects of leadership behavior inﬂuence commitment, including clear vision, empowerment of workers, motivation, recognition, and effective communication (McNeese-Smith, 1997). In Taiwan, organizational commitment and intention to leave among 2,197 hospital nurses was studied and it was concluded that organizational commitment is positively related to performance and productivity, and that it is one of the determinants of intention to leave the organization.
Luchak and Gellatly (2007) found a positive relationship between affective commitment and three commonly studied work outcomes (turnover cognitions, absenteeism, and job performance). Wright and Bonett (2002) conducted ameta-analysis to investigate the relationship between attitudinal commitment and job performance for 3,630 employees obtained from 27 independent studies. The study found that tenure had a very strong moderating effect on the commitment-performance correlation. Job performance was found to be inﬂuenced positively by both professional and team commitment as well as by perceived organizational and team support(Bishop, 1998). Intention to quit the organization went down as organizational support and commitment went up, and intention to leave the profession similarly was related to team support and commitment.
Hanan Al-Ahmadi, (2009) found that job performance is positively correlated with organizational commitment, job satisfaction and personal and professional variables. Both job satisfaction and organizational commitment are strong predictors of nurses’ performance. Job performance is positively related to some personal factors, including years of experience, nationality, gender, and marital status. Level of education is negatively related to performance.
The study will be guided by the paradigm presented below:
Independent VariablesDependent Variables
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined operationally for an easier understanding of this study.
Performance. This refers to the carrying out, accomplishing or fulfilling a certain task.
Personal-related factors. These refer to the personal attributes of the staff nurse.
Age. This refers to the chronological age of the respondents in the course of the study.
Sex. This refers to the characteristic of the nurse which is attributable to being a male or female.
Civil status. This is the staus of the nurse whether single, married, widowed/widower.
Educational attainment. This refers to the highest degree of education attained by the nurse.
Organizational Demographics. These refers to their profile in the institution the respondents are employed
Type of hospital. This refers as to whether the hospital is a private or a public institution.
Status of employment. this refers as to whether the nurse is employed as a permanent employee, casual employee, or volunteer employee
Clinical ward. This refers to the area the respondent is allocated whether medical, surgical, maternal, pediatric, out patient, critical or intensive care
Length of service.this refers to the number of years the nurse is rendering her service to the organization
Position/title.this refers as to thether the respondent is a chief nurse or nursing supervisor
Work-related factors. These refers to factors found in the workplace which includes the competencies of the respondents, performance assessment, worspace and incentives and organizational processes
Competencies. This refers to the knowledge, skill and attitude acquired through training, education and experiences, and performed to specific standards under specific conditions.
Performance assessment. This refers to the observation and assessment of employee performance.
Workspace. This refers to the environment the respondents are working.
Incentives. This refers to the motivations given to the respondent.
Organizational processes. This refers to the profile of the organization the respondents are employed.
The researcher will maintain the following assumptions in the conduct of the study:
1. The instruments to be used in data gathering will be valid and reliable
2. The respondents will be honest in their responses to the questionnaire.
Based on the problems presented on the study, the following hypotheses will be considered:
This section presents the reserch design, population of the study, data gathering instruments, data gathering procedures, and statistical treatment of data used in the study.
Research Design. The study will employ the Quantitative research model using an explorative and descriptive design. The descriptive method will be employed to describe the profile of the respondents and to find out the performance of the nurses in terms of the specified factors. The explorative design will be utilized to look into the factors that positively and nagatively affect the performance of the nurse. Furthermore, to be able to come up with strategies to improve the performance of the nurses.Population and sample. The population of the study will be the staff nurses and nurse managers working in the different hospitals in Metro Vigan.
Data gathering Instrument. The questionnaire will be the primary instrument to be used to gather necessary data and information in the study.
Data Gathering Procedure. The researcher will ask permission to the Directors of the different hospitals to float questionnaires in their respective hospitals for the staff nurses and patients.
Statistical treatment of Data. The data to be gathered in the study will be analyzed through the use of the following statistical tools.
Frequency and percentage to determine the profile of the respondents;