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TQM Tools and Techniques

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Every organization is different thus they require different combinations of tools and techniques to implement TQM. Examples of these are:
-Taguchi methods – DOE, QFD, TPM
-ISO 9000
Human Resources
-Total Employee Involvement
-Proactive management and Quality circles
-Quality improvement awards such as:
Malcolm Baldridge
Deming Award
European Quality Award
Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award Etc.

Area of Contribution of Quality Gurus

PDSA TQM Implementation
Shewhart originally developed the Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle and later on Deming modified it as PDSA cycle or Plan, Do, Study, Act.

-Establish objectives
-Establish a plan that will facilitate achieving the goal
-Establish a measurement system
-Plan for implementation and measurements
-Implement the plan on pilot basis
-Compare the results with the objectives
-Identify gaps
-Analyze the causes for gaps and exceptional results, if any Act
-Standardize procedure that met or exceeded the goal
-If there were gaps, improve the plan to carry out PDSA again Planning Phase of TQM

While it may be easier for the CEO to convince the implementation of TQM to workers and junior employees, the CEO may have problems convincing the first line and senior managers. This is because even if they admit that TQM is beneficial to the organization, they see it as a threat to their positions. Some of the possible reasons why they think so are because: 1) they think that they have to do more work in order to implement TQM. 2) TQM implementation often requires development of new relationships with other workgroups and team leaders or first line managers find it hard to establish authority within their new workgroups. In order for the Announcement phase to be more successful, the CEO must first discuss the matters regarding TQM implementation to the first line and middle managers so that they will be at ease that their authority won’t vanish once TQM is implemented.Also the CEO must convince the employees that implementing TQM doesn’t necessarily mean that they need to work harder but rather, they need to work smarter to avoid hassles in the future.

Select Consultant
Consultants being independent have the ability to give ideas not influenced by the organization and thus these ideas might bring change to the organizational culture. Also it would be easier for an employee to accept the consultant’s idea than an idea given by the employee of the same organization. Therefore the top management needs to hire a competent consultant that would be able to provide the organization the best ideas. They should analyze the consultant’s past experiences, credentials, values, outlook, abilities, communication skills and other attributes.

Corporate Strategic Planning
Corporate Strategic Planning requires important activities like formulating a vision, mission and objectives.

Vision Statement
A vision statement is the vision of the CEO about where will be the organization on the long run. A vision statement should be easily understandable and inspiring to the employees. The vision statement is the long-term goal relevant to the organization.

Mission Statement
The mission statement describes the purpose for which the organization is in business and provides strategies to achieve this purpose. The mission statement should communicate the guiding principles and values held common by the organization.

Quality Policy
The quality policy is aimed at improving the costumers’ perception about the organization and thereby improving the organization’s image. It should be ambitious, clear and unambiguous.

Quality Manual
In connection to the vision statement, mission statement and quality policy, the quality manual says what is to be done in order to implement TQM.

Quality Plan
While the Quality Manual states what is to be done, the Quality plan shows how it is to be done.

Plan for Quality Council (QC)
The TQM project should be steered by a Quality Council. (QC) The QC depends on the size of the organization. In a smaller organization there would only be one QC chaired by the CEO, with the managers and TQM facilitator being members of the QC.

Selection of TQM Facilitator
The TQM facilitator should be an independent person and should not be responsible for normal production as this may hinder him/her to do his/her tasks successfully. Most of the TQM facilitator’s job is to coach the employees. Also the TQM facilitator is responsible for the meetings held by the QC.

Employee Involvement
The QC may be in charge of TQM implementation however employees should also be encouraged to give suggestions for improvement. Also the QC is responsible for facilitating and guiding employees so that they would be able to do the tasks given to them confidently and successfully. The QC members should also hear out opinions from the employees for solutions to the problems they encounter and consider these opinions carefully. Employee involvement could also be improved with the existence of PAT.

Constitution of PAT (Process Actions Teams)
The formal structure of TQM consists of the QC, TQM facilitator and the support staff. Improvement teams are formed for each improvement task. As the PAT is dissolved after a certain job is completed, it is temporary and thus having the opportunity to give each employee a chance to be a part of the improvement team.

Identify Process
The QC should plan to identify processes for improvement. Business process benchmarking helps in the identification of the potential processes for improvement.

Apply PDSA for improvement

Do Phase
After successfully planning, the Do phase starts. The first task in the Do phase is the meeting of the QC. In the first meeting, the various plans should be authorized by the QC.

Study Phase
In every meeting of the QC, The results achieved through the implementation of TQM should be studied. Wherever plans are to be changed, they should be discussed and decisions are taken.

Act Phase
In the Act phase, the plans for implementing TQM should be confirmed. This PDSA cycle should be repeated continuously.

Goals for Improvement Actions
-Attaining technical excellence
-Improving quality
-Reducing defects
-Increasing productivity
-Reducing quality costs
-Improving uptime of equipment
-Reducing overhead costs
-Reducing delivery time

PDSA for Continuous Improvement

The Outer PDSA cycle represents the TQM for the whole organization while the PDSA cycle inside the Do phase is for each specific improvement project.

Determining the current situation, determining expected results and formulating the best solutions to achieve those results.

After the QC has given its seal of approval, the approved action plan has to be implemented in the Do phase on pilot basis.

The results in the trial basis of the Do phase are assessed. The team members need to evaluate the best alternative to give the best results. Then the process needs to be continuously monitored during the trial period. When the team is satisfied, they inform the QC and the next phase begins.

In this phase procedures are modified and issued. Thus, new processes as are defined and implemented on a continuing basis.

Getting Things Done

1) Recognition
Recognition of the employees’ efforts is important in order to motivate them. Recognition need not necessarily be in form of cash but something which will add to the employee’s pride. A simple appreciation may be a big motivation.

2) Praise and Punish
4 types of management techniques
-Authoritative and Benevolent

3) Personal Contact
The improvement team won’t be able do improvement alone. It is important that they have the support of the management. The CEO and the QC should have
personal contact with the employees. 4) Accumulate Small Gains

While one improvement may be small but when stacked together they make a big success. These small improvements should support each other and these small improvements should be appreciated. 5) Build Credibility – Inside and Outside

TQM doesn’t only improve reputation within the organization but also with its costumers. 6) Persist
The QC members and the CEO should be consistent. They should weigh the pros and cons before making a decision. And once a decision is taken, they should not look back. Therefore a CEO must be persistent and consistent.

Barriers to TQM Implementation
-Lack of top management commitment
-Lack of employee involvement
-Non-cooperation of the first line managers and middle management
-Lack of clarity in vision
-Losing track of business performance
-Not involving costumers and suppliers
-Belief that training leads to employee attrition
-Resistance to change at all levels

-Ineffective TQM facilitator
-Wrong consultant
-Lack of consistency and persistence by the management
-Haste and thereby waste
-Looking for immediate gains
-Not investing adequate resources
-Adhoc organization
-Quick obsolescence of products
-Losing confidence in the middle of the journey due to various reasons
-Working harder than smarter
-Tough competition leading to a frequent price war
-Unable to find any champions within the organization
-Not properly staffed – overstaffed or understaffed

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