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Tourism Impact in Lumbini

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1. Introduction Lumbini, the birth place of Lord Buddha, is situated about 22 km. from Bhairahawa (Siddharthanagar), below the Churia range, 24 km. south from the foothills of the Himalayas, on the western bank of Telar river in Rupandehi district of Lumbini zone in Nepal. It is about 300 km. west of capital city Kathmandu. Kapilvastu, Rupandehi and Nawalparasi Terai districts of Lumbini Zone are around Lumbini, the birth place of Lord Buddha, which are fertile and densely populated. It is about 34 km. from Naugarh Railway Station on the North-Eastern Railway of India. Buddha, Known as the Lord of Asia, was born in Lumbini during the full moon day in the month of Baisakh in 623 BC. He was born under a sal (Shorea robusta) tree when Mayadevi was going to her maternal town on the occasion of delivery.

Lumbini is situated at the foothills of the Himalayas in modern Nepal. In the Buddha’s time, Lumbini was a beautiful garden full of green and shady Sal trees (Shorea). The garden and its tranquil environs were owned by both the Shakyas and Kolias clans. King Suddhodana, father of Gautama Buddha was of the Shakya dynasty belonging to the Kshatriya or the warrior caste. Maya Devi, his mother, gave birth to the child on her way to her parent’s home in Devadaha while taking rest in Lumbini under a sal tree in the month of May in the year 642 B.C. The beauty of Lumbini is described in Pali and Sanskrit literature. Maya Devi it is said was spellbound to see the natural grandeur of Lumbini. While she was standing, she felt labor pains and catching hold of a drooping branch of a Sal tree, the baby, the future Buddha, was born. The bas relief above depicts Maya Devi with her right hand holding on to a branch of a sal tree with a newborn child standing upright on a lotus petal, shedding an oval halo, around his head, while two celestial figures pour water and lotuses from vessels of heaven as indicated by the delineation of clouds. This nativity scene was installed by Malla Kings of the Naga dynasty from about the 11th to 15th Century in the Karnali zone of Nepal.

1. Background of the Study

• Lumbini is considered the birthplace of Gautam Buddha. Many a times referred as ‘The Light of Asia’, Buddha was the founder of Buddhism faith. His period is estimated to be approximately between 563 and 483 BC. • The place is famous for Maya Devi temple. It is believed that the present temple has been built at the place where Queen Maya gave birth to lord Buddha. Another important structure is the Ashoka pillar. Apart from that Lumbini has ruins of various Stupas and monasteries. Then there is Pushkarni pond where Queen Maya took bath before giving birth to Buddha. • The Lumbini region comes under Lumbini Trust, an NGO. Foreign pilgrims here have constructed new temples and monasteries. • The Buddhist associations of China, Myanmar and Gautami Nuns have their separate pagodas.

The ones by Japan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam are under construction. • Siddhartha Gautama, the Lord Buddha, was born in 623 B.C. in the famous gardens of Lumbini, which soon became a place of pilgrimage. Among the pilgrims was the Indian emperor Ashoka, who erected one of his commemorative pillars there. The site is now being developed as a Buddhist pilgrimage centre, where the archaeological remains associated with the birth of the Lord Buddha form a central feature. • Lumbini is one of four Buddhist pilgrimage sites based on major events in the life of Gautama Buddha. Interestingly, all of the events occurred under trees • The other three sites are in India: Bodh Gaya (enlightenment), Sarnath (first discourse), and Kushinagar (death).

2. Objectives of the study

The main objectives of this is to study and analysis the impacts which brought by tourism in socio cultural and economic and environment in lumbini. However, the general objectives of the study are:

• To study and interpret the economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts of Lumbini • To identify the problems and obstacles in the development of lumbini and effects to the local society. • To identify the ways through which the negative impacts can be controlled. • To study about lumbini as a place of meditation and spiritual renewal, a centre of cultural exchange and a symbol of peace.

• To study about accommodation, catering & other facilities available in lumbini for tourism. • To study about basic infrastructure and basic requirement to explore tourism in Lumbini.

3. Assumptions & Limitation of the Study:
This project work is completed as a partial fulfillment of requirement for the degree of BTTS 6th sem. following are some of the limitations faced to carry out the study.

• Unavailability of required secondary data is another limitation of study as limited research and study has been done regarding impacts of tourismof lumbini. • This study is only for the partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Travel & Tourism Studies (BTTS) • Other limitations are time constraints financial problem and lack of research experience can place stories in the media to bring attention to a product, service , person, organization or idea. • The study is proposed to be completed within a limited time.

• Authenticity of information and substantial representative of sample population.

• Lumbini is listed in world heritage site in the world so it will be easier to collect primary as well as secondary data

1.4 Methodology & Tools Used

The study is based on the primary as well as secondary information. the study is mainly based on primary information through questionnaire survey. The secondary data for the study were collected from various articles, newspaper, published and unpublished records and websites, bulletins of different organization. As per the objective of study, the different data collected from Lumbini Development Trust (LDT) and Nepal Tourism Board (NTB) where specially considered.

The primary data were collected by the questionnaire method. The questionnaires were provided to the visitors of lumbini talking formal and informal interview with the visitors on the spot. The researcher stayed study area to observe the day to day flow and reactions of the visitors in different area in lumbini. The collected data are tabulated manually or scientifically as per the requirement of the study.

Collected information will be in appropriate table and charts. They will be categorized and tabulated according to the objectives of the study. The data summarized will be used for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis. For the purpose of data analysis simple statistical tools such as frequency, average, presented by using models such a tabular formats, bar graphs, pie charts etc.

Chapter Two
2. Lumbini as a tourist Destination of Nepal For centuries, Buddhists the world over knew that the general area of Lumbini was where the Lord was born. In the words of those famous Chinese pilgrims of antiquity, Huian Tsang and Faeihan, ‘Lumbini -where the Lord was born – is a piece of Heaven on Earth, where one could see the snowy mountains amidst a splendid garden, embedded with stupas and monasteries!’ However, the exact location remained uncertain and obscure until 1 December 1886 when a wandering German archaeologist Dr. Alois A. Fuhrer came across a stone pillar and ascertained beyond doubt it was indeed the birthplace of Lord Buddha. Since that day it has become a focal point for hundreds of thousands of pilgrims. Lumbini is the fourth largest tourist destination in Nepal. Nearly 20,000 tourists visit the area every year (Source: Nepal Tourism Board). Recently, UNESCO has declared it a World Heritage Site.

It has great potential to grow as the major tourist destination in years to come. Many of the places that were of importance to the Lord Buddha during his life retain a potent significance to Buddhists of today. Unsurprisingly, nowhere has a greater significance than the site of his birth. In the words of Buddha himself: “O-Bhikshus’, after my death when people and members of a new generation come and ask you, then tell them that here the Buddha was born, here he attained the full enlightenment, here he turned the wheel of Dharma twelve times, and here finally the Buddha entered into Parinirvana”. Hundreds of years have gone by, but the architectural splendours of that era are still standing and serve as a vivid reminder of the origins of Buddhist philosophy and doctrines. As a complement to the temples and shrines, our aim is to create a living environment in which Buddha would have felt at home during his life. 2.1 Tourism In Nepal

Nepal is a landlocked Himalayan country between India and China. The tourism in Nepal consists of its ethereal mountain scenery and also its unique brand of syncretic Hindu and Buddhist religious practices. he tourism in Nepal involves a large section of its general population. It constitutes the largest service industry of the Himalayan country. Nepal tourism is bolstered by the presence of the highest mountain in the world-Mount Everest. The country also is home to 8 of the10 highest mountains on earth. Nepal acts as a veritable magnet for persons following an active lifestyle. Mountaineers, rapellers and ski professionals regularly visit the country to hone their professional skills. The tourism industry in Nepal is responsible for a large portion of the foreign exchange coming into the country.

The tourist industry in Nepal employs 42% of the total working population in Nepal. It is the main source of economic sustenance after agriculture. Many Nepali people depend upon foreign tourists for their livelihood. The growth of organized tourism in Nepal has given rise to higher wages of the Nepali population depending upon tourist activity for their economic sustenance. Responsible tourism is practiced by the government to ensure that environmental degradation does not occur as a by-product of tourist activities. 2.2 Lumbini

Lumbini is the birthplace of Lord Buddha and a World Heritage Site. This pilgrimage site in southwest Nepal attracts devout Buddhists from around the world, who arrive to pay homage at the Sacred Garden where the ‘Enlightened One’ was born. A famous landmark is the Ashoka Pillar raised by the great Emperor who converted to Buddhism. Today Lumbini has been enlivened by the multitude of architecturally beautiful temples, stupas and monasteries built by various international Buddhist communities. Geographical Location

Latitude 270 20′ and 280 27’North Longitude 830 10′ and 840 25′ east Area 1366 sq. km. Height 152 m- 1936m above sea level

Zone Borders
East Narayani Zone
West Rapti Zone
North Gandaki & Dhaulagiri Zone
South Boarder of India

Political Division
Development Region Western
Zone Lumbini District Headquater Bhairahawa

Climate
Temperature Maximum 46 Degree Celsius & Minimum 4 Degree Celsius

Getting there
Take a 45-minute flight from TIA in Kathmandu to Gautam Buddha Airport in Bhairahawa or catch a bus that leaves from the Gongabu Bus Park. Bhairahawa can also be reached by bus from other parts of the country. Buses to Lumbiini leave every hour or so from 6 am to 5 pm from Bhairahawa. 2.3 Tourism Attractions in Lumbini

Here one can see Maya Devi temple, the place where she gave birth to the lord, and an Ashoka pillar which has inscriptions identifying the spot as the birthplace, ruins of ancient stupas and monasteries, and Pushkarni pond where Queen Mayadevi took bath before giving birth. The Lumbini region has been developed through Lumbini Trust, a none governmental organization. Newer temples and monuments are being developed by foreign pilgrimage here. All temples found in this region form this place a royal Buddhist pilgrimages destination. The China temple located in Lumbini is a complex of pagodas, prayer rooms and meditation cells developed by the Buddhist Association of China. There is also Myanmar Temple also known as Lokamani Cula Pagoda which soars into the sky. The International Gautami Nuns temple is also found here which is a replica of the Swayambhu stupa in Kathmandu. Many other temples are currently under construction, these include Japan temple, Sri Lanka temple, and Vietnam temple. The Maya Devi Temple:

The Maya Devi Shrine complex is the heart of all monuments at this holy site. The complex also bears the testimony of several layers of construction over the centuries. The main object of worship here is the nativity sculpture. The restored Maya Devi temple was reopened on May 16, 2003 on the 2547th birth anniversary of Lord Buddha. Government of Nepal and LDT jointly restored the temple. The ground floor consists of the remains of the foundations of the early Maya Devi Temple that dates back to 3rd century BC. The sanctum sanatorium is the birth spot of the Lord Buddha. Lumbini Museum

Other places of interest are the Lumbini Museum, Lumbini International Research Institute, and Kapilvastu Museum situated 27 km west of Lumbini in Tilaurakot. In the Kapilvastu museum can be seen ruins of the ancient capital of the Sakya kingdom where the Buddha grew up as Prince Siddhartha.

The Sacred Garden is best visited in the morning. Spread over 8 sq. km., it possesses treasures from the past. Today as part of the global initiative to promote Lumbini, many Buddhist communities from various countries have built or are building temples, monasteries or stupas near the Sacred Garden in the International Monastery Zone. Monasteries built by these communities showcase the architecture and culture of their respective nations and are part of the attraction of Lumbini today. The Monastery of Royal Thai (Thailand), Chinese Monastery (China), Vietnam Phat Quoc Tu (Vietnam), Mahabodhi Society of Kolkotta (India), International Nun’s Society (Nepal), The Great Lotus Stupa (Tara Foundation, Germany), Myanmar Monastery (Myanmar), Manang Sewa Samaj (Nepal), Linhson Monastery (France), Sokyao Temple (Japan), Geden International (Austria), Sri Lankan Monastery (Sri-Lanka), Korean Mahabodhi Society (South Korea), Dharmodhaya Sabha (Nepal), Drigung Kagyud Meditation Center (India), Cambodian Monastery (Cambodia) Panditarama Meditation Center (Myanmar), Vipasana Mediation Center (Nepal), Lumbini Museum, Lumbini International Research Institute, World Peace Pagoda, Eternal Peace Flame, Peace Bell and Crane Sanctuary add beauty and serenity to Lumbini.

Lumbini Grove
This is the sacred site of Lord Buddha’s birth, which is today a small village in Nepal, 27 Km from Sunauli on the Indo-Nepal border. The sacred site of the Buddha’s birth is at the southern end of Lumbini grove. Excavations have revealed a series of rooms and a stone slab, which is now believed to mark the exact location at which the Buddha, (or Siddhartha as he would have been known then) was born. The whole place has an air of remoteness except when the occasional busload of pilgrims from different corners of the Buddhist universe arrives.

Dharmaswami Maharaja Buddha Vihara
This Tibetan gompa belonging to the Sakyapa order, is also outside the complex. His Eminence Chogya the complex. His Eminence Chogya Trichen Rinpoche and the Raja of Mustang established it. Every morning around sixty monks who reside here conduct the Tara Puja. At the end of September, two thousand monks congregate for a 10-day Puja and on 13th December each year for the Mahakala Puja, which also lasts for 10 days.

Natural History Tours to Lumbini
Farmlands of Lumbini has been identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA) having high biodiversity and unique ecosystems in Nepal. Bird specialties include; Sarus Crane, Lesser Adjutant, Indian Spotted Eagle, Critically Endangered 2 species of Gyps and several birds of prey, owls, etc. Mammals include Nilgai, Asiatic Golden Jackal, Jungle Cat, Grey Mongoose etc.

Pillar in Lumbini : The Ashokan Pillar-In 1895, a German archaeologist, white wandering about the foothills of the Churia range, discovered a massive stone pillar erected by Emperor Ashoka in 250 B.C. to pay homage to the birth place of Buddha. It is said that the Indian Emperor visited Lumbini Garden in the twentieth year of his coronation. Gotihawa:

Gotihawa lies 5-km southwest of Taulihawa town and is considered the natal town of Krakuchanda Buddha. The place has ruins of ancient habitation, stupas and monasteries. The place was visited by Ashoka as evidenced by a pillar with inscriptions. The pillar is broken with the upper part missing. The Marker Stone:

This stone conglomerate located deeply buried in the sanctum sanatorium pinpoints the exact location of the birth of Lord Buddha. This was discovered after meticulous excavation of the Maya Devi Temple site in 1996. The exact size of Marker Stone is 70×40×10 cm. This is now covered with a bulletproof glass. | | | |

2.4 Lumbini Development Trust (LDT)
Lumbini Development Trust was formed by the Lumbini Development Trust Act 2042 (1985) for the purposes of restoring the Lumbini Garden under the master plan. In the national level LDT was constituted in order to present before the people of the world and commitment of Government of Nepal to project goal and ideal of development of Lumbini. Lumbini Development Trust (LDT) is an autonomous, non-governmental and non-profit making organization established by the Lumbini Development Trust Act 2042 (1985) for the purpose of restoring the Lumbini garden under the Master Plan. In the national level Lumbini Development Trust was constituted in order to present before the people of the world the commitment of Government of Nepal to project goal and ideal of development of Lumbini more effectively and operate the Lumbini Development Plan in a more coordinated and smooth manner.

Government of Nepal reconstituted the Lumbini Development Trust under the Chairmanship of Minister of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation. The Trustees are nominated by the Government of Nepal. The act also provides for nomination of representatives of international Buddhist organizations and such other persons associated with the preservation of world cultural heritage

In 1970, the 13 Nation International Committee for the Development of Lumbini was formed in New York under the Chairmanship of the Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Nepal to the United Nations. These nations – Afghanistan, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakishtan, Singapore, Sir Lanka and Thailand – later formed an advisory panel to the world-renowned Japanese architect, Professor Kenzo Tange, in his preparation of the Master Plan for Lumbini’s development. Three additional countries, namely Bangladesh, Bhutan and the Republic of Korea, later joined the effort.

Today the Lumbini Development Trust administers and coordinates the on-going effort to restore Lumbini. That effort, led by Government of Nepal, includes technical assistance from the United Nations Development Programme as well as international contributions from many nations.

2.5 Master Plan in Lumbini
n 1978, the Master Plan designed by Prof. Tange was finalized and approved by the Government of Nepal and United Nations. In the meantime, Government of Nepal was directly involved in the planning and development of Lumbini through formation of Lumbini Development Committee. The committee acquired necessary land, relocated the villages and commenced the development of basic infrastructures including forestation program in the planned area. The master plan thus changed the face of Lumbini. In 1985, the Lumbini Development Trust Act came into existence and Lumbini Development Trust (LDT) was formed accordingly. Now the Trust is responsible for the implementation of the master plan and for the overall development of Lumbini, and other Buddhist sites of Kapilavastu, Devadaha and Ramagrama. The Lumbini Development Project was conceived and development programme was divided into three parts: 1. Drawing up a Master Plan

2. Arrangements for improving existing infrastructure 3. Implementation of the plan Prof. Kenzo Tange, a famous Japanese architect, did the designing of the
Master Plan. It was finalised and approved by United Nations and the Government of Nepal in 1978. Expansion of airport facilities, some construction work, tree plantation, provision of water and electricity supplies, road construction from Bhairwa to Lumbini, renovation of various chaityas and stupas, archeological surveys etc. was done by the Government of Nepal. It was estimated to cost about 60 million rupees (3 million US dollar). The third phase is the implementation of the Master Plan. Twenty million US dollars are expected to be spent on this phase. This amount will be raised purely as donation. The main donor countries are Japan, Korea, Thailand and Sri Lanka. Other countries like India, Iran, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nigeria, Mauritius, and United States are also involved in fund raising. The Master Plan for Lumbini Development covers an area of three square miles and divided into three zones: a). The Sacred Garden Zone

b). The Monastic Zone
c). The New Lumbini Village Zone.

a). The Sacred Garden Zone
The Sacred Garden will include the area related to the birth of Gautam Buddha and will reflect the great ideals of peace, compassion, purity and brotherhood. It will include the Maya Devi temple, Asokan Pillar, various stupas, chaityas and old remains of garden and trees. b). The Monastic Zone: It is divide into East and West Monastic Zones. East Monastic Zone is reserved for construction of Theravada monasteries from various countries. Burma and Nepal have already completed the construction of their monasteries. Others have either started the construction or have reserved the site for future construction. Beside the monasteries a Vipassana meditation centre also will be constructed in this zone. West Monastic Zone is dedicated to construction of about 15 Mahayana tradition monasteries from all over the world. A magnificent Chinese monastery is already complete and the rest are either under construction or will start constructing in near future. About 49 stupas and Viharas (monasteries) would be constructed by various individuals, associations and countries in monastic zone. In the middle of this area, there will be a road with Sal trees on both sides, a garden, an open stage, court yards etc. c). The New Lumbini Village Zone:

This zone is purely allocated for physical facilities like hotels, pilgrims’ inn, post and telegraph offices, a hospital and a school. There are also provision for construction of a museum, a library, an International Buddhist Research Centre and a Tourist information centre. Also within this zone, the highest World Peace Pagoda of Asia has already been completed by Japanese Buddhists. This was the place where a hideous crime of murdering a Japanese Buddhist monk, Nabatame took place in 1997. In 1998, a world Buddhist Summit was held at Lumbini from 30 November – 2 December in collaboration of His Majesty’s Government of Nepal and Lumbini Development Trust. The summit proposed to adopt Nepal’s declaration of Lumbini as the Fountain of World Peace and the Holiest Pilgrim Centre of the Buddhists and peace loving people of the world. The second Buddhist summit was held at Lumbini from 30th November to 2nd December 2004. A ten point declaration was issued at the end of the summit.

Chapter Three
Impacts of Tourism in Lumbini

Positive Impacts of tourism
• Creates employment opportunities for local people of Lumbini. • Promotes cultural awareness and can help preserve local culture and traditions of Lumbini like: Tharu culture,Monastries etc. • Income from tourists can be used to develop local infrastructure and services e.g. new roads and airports.Money can be spent on developing access to education, clean water and sanitation etc. • Foreign currency can help local people

• Natural features that attract tourists in the first place can be protected using income from tourism Negative Impacts of tourism
• Tourism can have a negative environmental impact. This is at a range of scales. The increase in air travel has contributed towards increased carbon dioxide emissions. On a local level natural features that attract tourists are themselves under threat due to human actions.

• Often local people are employed in low skill, poorly paid work in unsatisfactory working conditions
• Travel agents, airline companies and hoteliers benefit more than local companies when holidays are booked to destinations in Lumbini. They also create more competition for locally run guest houses • Help destroy local culture and monuments.

• Local goods can become expensive because tourists will pay more • Shops stock products for tourists and not everyday goods needed by locals • Demand for holiday homes makes housing too expensive for local people • Demand for development of more shops and hotels

• Jobs are mainly seasonal, low paid with long hours

Economic Impacts:
Most of the studies on the economic effects of the tourism they show the benefits generated by this industry. Fundamentally, as far as the contribution of the sector to the balance. Of the balance of payments, to the impact on the income of the government and to the creation of use. These destination have been determining so that, considering to the tourism like panacea of the development, very few have taken care to analyze their negative effects. The negative economic impact has effect on local scale, are the destiny areas those that can be suffered economically when they depend on the tourism. Normally, the development of tourist goods and services reverts positively in any area, but when the tourism is not limited to appear as a form of diversification in the local economy, but that it totally supplants to the originating gains of the traditional activities. They open the economy to the instability, due to the changes in the tourist routes, the diminution of the publicity, the influence of tourist, “fashions” to the seasonal productive variation, etc. Before this situation, the small economies can decide on a dependency in the sector or can go towards their duality. In this case, they try to balance the two sources of income (traditional tourism and economic activities), obtaining one more a more rational operation of his possibilities.

If that duality does not take place, frequent enough situation, the tourism can cause an inflationary tendency. This inflationary tendency takes place by the pressure that settle down on the ground and prices and taxes that directly affect the local population, without considering the previous uses and customs. That is to say, in the zones where the tourism becomes an institutionalized activity the inflation becomes patent in the disturbed ascent of the Earth, the goods, the food etc. For that directly they are involved in the tourist development the benefit is high, but not thus for the rest of the local population. Also it is important to consider that in the areas of tourist development the entrance of capitals and I interest financiers external lead to the loss of the local air traffic control on the activity, that grows very out of proportion and disarticulates the traditional productive sectors. When one is foreign capital the impact is not limited a local negative effect since it leaves from the benefits do not remain in the receiving country, takes place a loss of currencies.

The generating tourism as of use also can have important economic costs. Although the correlation between the generation of income by the tourism is recognized and the use creation, the created positions, that as a whole reduce the figure of unemployment, is it on time partial or on time complete but unstable temporarily. There are authors who affirm that, in the long term, the low potential productivity of the work in the Tourist Company can have a depressive effect on the local economic growth. The entire exposed one previously can be transformed in: – Costs derived from the fluctuations of the tourist demand: a destiny let’s have attractive for the visitors. • Possible inflation derived from the tourist activity: the buying capacity of the visitors is greater than the one of the resident population and this causes ascent of prices of the ground, feeding and services. • Loss of potential economic benefits: High dependency of foreign capital, flight of economic benefits. • Distortions of the local economy: Centralization of the economic activity in an only type of activity. • Impact on the work: The sector generates work unstable. Social cost:

The social impact on the receiving areas of tourism, like any other aspect related to the sector, can have positive and negative effects. With respect to first, it is possible to emphasize the recovery and conservation of cultural values that, but for the attractiveness which it offers to the visitors, would be gotten to lose. It is the case of the preservation and historical monument rehabilitation and places, whose cost the small communities cannot do in front. Nevertheless, when one is a place of tourist interest destine special economic games for his attack. Of the same form, many of the local customs have been revitalized like part of the plans for the tourist supply (like tourist resources) In many places have seen appear again traditional customs that they were had lost: “folklore”, crafts, festivals, gastronomy, etc. One of the more important positive social aspects is the improvement in the facilities and services: sanitary attention, means of transport, parks, etc. But in spite of the undeniable social-cultural impulse that these positive aspects represent, it is not necessary to forget that a negative impact also exists.

The first remarkable negative aspect is the social differences between local population and visitors. In certain destinies, mainly in those of the most underprivileged countries, the call developing countries, the residents get to become true servants of the tourists. This creates between the local population certain resentment towards the visitors and appears areas of social tension. Thus the tourism establishes the bases of a new form of colonialism based on the foreign currency dependency. As far as external workers occupy the jobs, the uses that they require greater qualification, being left the repaid works worse for the local population. As a result of the indicated socioeconomic differences it appears what more negative of the tourism can be considered like the social impact: the increase of prostitution, the game, the drugs, in general criminal aspects that never had arisen without the appearance of the visitors.

Once again this circumstance is more frequent in the developing countries (Every day the tourist supply more is diversified. To the cultural tourism and of sun and beach, that in principle were most frequent, other alternatives are added such as the tourism of adventure, the one of businesses and congresses, the linguistic and educative tourism, tourism of thematic parks, etc. They are the sexual tourism and the one of drugs.) The tourism also can cause a des-culturization of the destiny. The local population like superior considers the culture of the tourists. Of this form the indigenous cultures try to adapt to the customs of the visitors and they are possible to be ended up destroying the elements that at their moment represented greater the attractiveness for the tourist.

Environmental cost:
The impact of the tourism in the environment is really the most negative aspect of the sector. Although in the last years one comes delivering an enormous attack to palliate his effects, the systematic damage that the tourism has caused in a great amount of areas are of very difficult recovery. The tourist activity, when becoming a massive phenomenon, requires great infrastructure and complexes services that not always have a suitable planning, and this has taken it to become a deteriorate constant of the natural and social environment. Non single it has transformed the physical aspect of the tourist zones, but that has generated serious upheavals ecological: • destruction of ecosystems,

• diminution of the amount and quality of the water,
• impoverishment and contamination of grounds,
• extinction of multiple species of the fauna,
• Severe affectation of the flora, fishing depredation and contamination of the sea. It has produced in addition phenomena to population and urban growth disordered and lack of services public, among others. Destruction of ecosystems: One of the greater threats for the ecosystems is the massive presence of visitors. Throughout many years, only considered at the time of exploding a zone for the tourism was the fast enrichment of the people involved in the sector. The tourism became an activity that sent crowds on the defenseless nature. In this context it is no wonder the gradual destruction of numerous ecosystems took place in many countries, but mainly in those considered tourist “paradises”. Diminution of the amount and the quality of the water: The arrival of tourists to many zones where the water is little has had a devastating effect in the reserves of this natural good.

The causes have been several: the number of visitors, whom in many cases the amount, has exceeded to which really it is possible to be supplied in many zones. The rating of facilities with which water is wasted, as they are the golf courses or the fresh water swimming pools and the city-planning mastication, etc. All this gets to affect the agricultural development and the ecological balance of the zone. • The lack of water can favor, in addition, the desertization. • Impoverishment and contamination of grounds: A great amount of originating substances of the human activity exists that, added to the ground, changes their chemical properties and they make it unproductive. Some of these urban substances like sweeping remainders, used oils, etc. are related to the tourist activity. The solid remainders as much as liquid, can include a great variety of chemical substances, that frequently pierce the ground and they not only contaminate this one if not that also the underground water bodies contaminate. Of this form the grounds stop being productive.

• Extinction of multiple species of the fauna: The performance of the tourism on the forest masses and the uncontrolled city-planning growth is, along with the hunting, the greater dangers for the fauna in many of the zones in which we found a diminution of species. In the sea, the wealth of fish is being seen seriously affected. In the Mediterranean, 60 % of residual waters still are spilled to the sea without a suitable treatment. The growth of the population in the coasts is impressive and to this growth it is necessary to add to him to the impact of the tourism and the second residences. Esteem that in high season in the Mediterranean will go of 135 million of 1990 up to 570 million in 2025. In order to avoid an ecological disaster in this zone of the world it is necessary to develop plans that go beyond the municipal expositions. Severe affectation of the flora: The massive presence of visitors in natural zones in the same way affects the flora that to the fauna. In some zones, the proliferation of sport activities (motorcycles, mountain bikes, vehicles all land, etc.) It causes serious problems of erosion of the ground that, inevitably, affects the flora.

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