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The Duel for North America

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Coureus des bois French- Canadian fur trappers, “runners of the woods” Edict of Nantes – Issued in 1598 by the crown of France, it granted limited religious freedom to the French Protestants, and stopped religious wars between the Protestants and the Catholics. Quebec – Established by France in 1608 (Catholic) with large help of Samuel de Champlain, “Father of New France” Tried to convert Indians to Christianity and to save them from the fur trappers French Catholic Missionaries, notably the Jesuits Antoine Cadillac – Founded Detroit in 1701 to thwart English settlers from pushing into the Ohio Valley Robert de La Salle – Explored the Mississippi and Gulf basin, naming it Louisiana after King Louis XIV.

The French planted several fortified posts in Mississippi and Louisiana to… block the Spanish on the Gulf of Mexico France’s garden empire of North America due to the amount of grain produced here Illinois King William’s War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) Earliest battles among European powers for control of North America. Most battles fought between France, British Colonists, and French ally Spain. Peace terms signed at Utrecht Ended King William’s War and Queen Anne’s War in 1713.

France and Spain were terribly beaten and Britain received Acadia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay, as well as limited trading rights in Spanish America. The War of Jenkin’s Ear – 1739 between the British and the Spaniards. Confined to the Carribean Sea and Georgia. This small battle became a war, and soon merged with the War of Austrian Succession in Europe, and became known as King George’s War in America. Britain was able to capture the French fortress of Louisbourg. Peace Treaty of 1748 – Handed Louisbourg back to the French. New Englanders were angry: they had worked hard to capture it and Louisbourg was a “cocked pistol pointed at the heart of the American continent”.

Ohio Valley – Critical area into which the westward-pushing British colonists would penetrate. For France, it was the key to linking Canadian holdings with those of the lower Mississippi Valley. In 1754, George Washington was sent to the Ohio Valley to secure the land of the Virginians who had secured legal rights to 500,000 acres. Washington, with his 150 VA militiamen, fired the first shots and killed the French leader. Fort Necessity -The French returned with reinforcements, surrounding Washington at this Fort.

After a 10-hour siege, he surrendered his command in July 1754. Cajuns – Fearing the French Acadians, whom Britain had acquired in 1713, the British uprooted some 4000 in 1755, and scattered them as far south as Louisiana. The French and Indian War (the Seven Years War) – fought in America, Europe, the West Indies, the Phillipines, Africa, and on the ocean. The Albany Congress – Met in 1754. Only 7/13 colonies showed up. The immediate purpose was to keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the British in the spreading war (chiefs were given gifts). The longer-range purpose was to achieve colonial unity and bolster a common defense against France.

Feelings toward Albany Congress Delegates were for it. London hated it: gave colonists too much independence. Individual colonists hated it: gave colonists too little independence. General Braddock set out in 1755 with 2000 men to capture Fort Duquesne A few miles from Fort Duquesne, Braddock encountered… a much smaller French and Indian army, who were victorious. The Indians took on a wider warpath because they were inflamed by their easy victory. William Pitt, the “Great Commoner” In 1757, Pitt became the foremost leader in the London government.

He decided to soft-pedal assaults on the French West Indies, who had been bleeding away much British strength, and to concentrate on the vitals of Canada: the Quebec-Montreal area. First significant British victory of the war Pitt’s expedition against Louisbourg in 1758 Pitt Against Quebec John Wolfe helped lead the expedition. The two armies faed each other on the Plains of Abraham, where both leaders were killed (Wolfe and Marquis de Montcalm), but the French were defeated and the city surrendered. The Battle of Quebec ranks as one of the most significant engagements in British and American history.

Montreal’s Fall in 1760 French were officially out of Canada Peace settlement at Paris 1763 Ended the battle and French power was completely thrown off of North America. The French were allowed to retain several small but valuable sugar islands in the West Indies, but had to cede all trans-Mississippi Louisiana to Spain for its losses. Spain had to give Florida to Britain in return for Cuba. Bolstered Colonial self-esteem and shattered the myth of British invincibility French and Indian War American shippers refused to support the common cause wholeheartedly, and developed a trade with enemy ports of Spanish and French West Indies.

The British navy was trying to subdue them. British authorities were forced to forbid the export of all supplies from New England and the middle colonies. Intercolonial disunity thrived on enormous distances, geographic barriers, conflicting religions, varied nationalities, different types of colonial governments, boundary disputes, and resentment of backcountry settlers against the aristocratic bigwigs. The Treaty of Paris’ affect on the Indians Now that Spain was out of Florida and the French were out of Canada, the Indians could no longer play rival European powers off of one another.

Now, Indians would have to negotiate exclusively with the British Pontiac 1763, Ottawa chief, led several tribes (with help of French) in a violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio country. Captured Detroit and all but 3 British outposts west of the Appalachians. The British countered these attacks and eventually defeated the Indians. Pontiac’s Battle Effects British realized they needed to stabilize relations with the western Indians and to keep regular troops stationed along the restless frontier.

Proclamation of 1763 – Prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians. The truth is that this hastily drawn document was not designed to oppress the colonists at all, but to work out the Indian problem fairly and prevent another bloody eruption like Pontiac’s uprising, but the colonists were still angry. French and Indian War – Colonist’s New Destiny Path cleared for conquest of a continent, birthrate high and energy boundless, they were in no mood to be restrained.

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