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Discuss the difference between individual and institutional discrimination and give an example of each. •Individual discrimination involves negative attitudes and beliefs that people hold about specific race/gender group/ethnic etc. The assumption that a certain race, gender group is intellectually inferior or incapable of certain achievements. (DeVito, 2013) I went on a vacation in Africa with white friends and I realized that every place we went I was treated different by those that offered us services; because most people in Africa think that all white tourists have a lot of money and usually the black people with them are their tour guides. At one time we went to a Casino which had a dress code; they went in first because while I was trying to find a parking space, when I tried to get in the Casino, I was stopped by the security because I was wearing shorts, but all my other white friends were wearing shorts as well and nobody stopped them, when I asked why I was stopped, one of the security guys explained to me that white people spend more money and they were an exception to the rule.

I called my friends and explained to them what had happened and we went somewhere else. For the record I had more money than all these guys but the security guys stereotyped me, something that see everywhere in our daily lives • Institutional discrimination occurs when that negative or unfair treatment takes place at an institution. An example is when women were not able to perform certain roles in the military or when the military had a don’t ask don’t tell policy that prohibited any homosexual or bisexual person from disclosing his or her sexual orientation or from speaking about any homosexual relationships, including marriages or other familial attributes, while serving in the United States armed forces How can institutional discrimination be overcome?

*Institutional discrimination can be overcome if we recognize that barriers sometimes exist in ourselves and others, that does not mean you have to let them in your way but just deal with it as the reality (Boucher, 2010) * Develop and maintain pride in yourself and realize that no one can make you inferior without your consent, believing what other people say or think about you affects your self-esteem it good to know who you are. Distinguish between intergroup and intragroup discrimination Intragroup discrimination occurs within groups, whereas intergroup discrimination takes place between groups. We often assume that discrimination occurs only between groups such as Latinos and Whites. However, intragroup discrimination is common and may be just as painful. (Bucher, 2010) When I migrated to the U.S, for some reason I thought that black people could be more welcoming to me because I was black, but as time went by I came to realize that most black people didn’t care much about African immigrants, they constantly made jokes about me that made me feel inferior. But when I made white friends, they didn’t make me feel inferior or any less. That’s when I realized that good or bad people come in all colors. 4) What is stereotype vulnerability?

When others stereotype us, we may feel vulnerable and our self-esteem may suffer. Claude Steel refers to this as stereotype vulnerability, the danger of not performing up to our ability because of our anxieties and fears about perpetuating a stereotype. For instance, Paul is an older employee who hesitates to ask for help when he has computer questions at work. He has to deal with a supervisor and others who assume that he cannot keep up with younger co-workers when it comes to computer technology. Because of this stereotypical assumption, he keeps to himself and does not ask questions because he does not want to appear computer illiterate. Consequently, his skills never improve. Although for some, stereotypes can motivate them to work that much harder (Bucher, 2010). It’s all about the confidence inside, the individuals that can overcome the stereotype and allow it to motivate them are basically confident in “who” they are. Individuals that are insecure do not know ‘who’ they are and what they stand for. These people need encouragement from someone, even then, it can be touchy if they do not believe in themselves and if they do not have the desire to make a difference, whether it be in their life or others.

When others stereotype us, we may feel vulnerable and our self-esteem may suffer. Claude Steele refers to this as stereotype vulnerability, the danger of not performing up to our ability because of our anxieties and fears about perpetuating a stereotype. For instance, Paul is an older employee who hesitates to ask for help when he has computer questions at work. He has had to deal with supervisors and others who assume the he cannot keep up with younger coworkers when it comes to computer technology. Because of this stereotypical assumption, he keeps to himself and does not ask questions because he does not want to appear computer illiterate. Consequently, his skills never improve. (Bucher, 2010)

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