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Recruitment Process Outsourcing

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 We are living in a knowledge economy. It is a growing trend in the commercial world that knowledge is considered as one of the greatest asset of any organization. One of the biggest containers of that knowledge asset is the human resource of the organization, that’s why it is precisely known as ‘Human Capital’. However, unlike physical assets, knowledge asset can’t be secured by keeping them in locks. Thus, this knowledge asset can only be secured by retaining employees, not only physically, but also retaining their motivation and the desire to work. Moreover, such a high importance of the human resource makes it essential for the organizations to make their recruitment process as efficient as possible; otherwise, the failure to do so may lead to serious consequences.

 Initially, the recruitment was considered as an ordinary operational level function. However, over the period of time people realize its importance and the organizations as well as the academicians tried to make these processes efficient. With the growing trend of outsourcing, many organizations realized that keeping the high importance of recruitment in view, it must be outsourced to someone who is specialized in all these tasks, so that better decisions can be taken, leading to the accumulation of the quality human capital. This was the basic driver behind the growth of Recruitment Process Outsourcing.

What is RPO?

RPO stands for Recruitment Process Outsourcing. Like any other form of outsourcing, in RPO too, the organizations outsource their recruitment activities to the external service providers, completely or partially. There is no industry wide accepted definition of the RPO, however, Gerard mentioned five distinguishing features of RPO. These are:

  • The provider reengineers the client’s recruitment process
  • The full cycle of recruitment services—from sourcing to onboarding—is outsourced;
  • Management of other vendors such as staffing and temp agencies is handled by the RPO vendor
  • The provider has some ownership of the recruitment technology, either supplying it to
  • the client or adapting the client’s existing technology to its own
  • The deal covers a minimum of three years with service level agreements tied into
  • the contract.

“At the highest level, the provider is taking over a significant portion of the internal

recruiting,” said Gerard, who disqualifies project work as true RPO. (Teng, 2007)


 The trend of executive search firms is the older phenomenon than RPOs. It all started way back in 1970’s from the Silicon Valley. At that time, there was very tough competition among the high-tech organizations. These firms started to pay higher fees in order to get the most efficient technical staffing for their organizations. However, over the period of time, people realized that since the cost of outsourcing is too high, therefore they should outsource only that part of their recruitment process which they can not do, or if it can add more value to the process, if outsourced. Thus, the trend of outsourcing the recruitment process accelerated. Mostly, these services were used to get the list of potential candidates. Moreover, the shortage of labor in high tech market also accelerated the trend. It is also said that during the dot com boom, there was the acute shortage of skilled labor, which proved to be the catalyst in the RPO industry.

Services Offered

Recruitment of employee, in older times, used to be considered as the simple activity. However, now the trend has been changed. It is realized by the employers that employing the quality staff would be the first step towards the organizational success; while, on contrary to that, a wrong recruitment decision because of inefficient recruitment process may ultimately lead to the inefficiency in the overall organizational performance in the long run.

Realizing such a high importance of recruitment process, combined with several other reasons, there is the growing trend of outsourcing partial or complete recruitment process to various RPO providers.

There are a variety of recruitment services provided by RPOs. However, the most common ones are as follows:

Requisition development with hiring management

The first step in the recruitment process is the development of requisition for a particular job. It refers to determine the factors that the organization need to have in the prospective employee. Apparently, it is the simple process. However, in reality, this is not the case, especially if the post for which the employee is required is newly introduced one. Even if this is not the case, one can not assert that what was the requirement for the product manager of Lux in 1950 was same as it is today. The requirements keep on changing with the changing internal and external environmental factors; like, competition, influence of technology, and the skills of his co-workers and so on.

The RPOs can help the organizations in determining these factors through screening the internal and external environment. The major functions provided by the RPOs to perform the requisition management are:

  • Enhancing requisition intake process
  • Conduct need assessment
  • Open job requisition in system
  • Ensuring compliance and timely execution of hiring process


Sourcing refers to the determination of the strategy for the recruitment process. It is more related to determine what sources should be used to advertise for, screen out and hire the potential employees. The process of sourcing includes:

  • Developing a customized strategy for the recruitment process
  • Marketing Analysis
  • Implementation and the administration of the sourcing plan
  • Managing the Vendors

There are two types of the sourcing programs offered by the RPOs; the proactive method and the traditional method.

The proactive sourcing programs include programs based on:

    • Internet database mining
    • Newsgroups
    • Diversity sourcing
    • Non-conventional recruiting initiatives
    • Recruitment research
    • Direct sourcing
    • Social Networking
    • Candidate relationship marketing
    • Talent pipelining

The traditional methods include:

    • Job board selection and posting
    • Local grassroots networking
    • Newspaper advertising
    • Job fair / events
    • Employee Referral Program support

Screening and Selection:

Another major service provided by the RPOs is the candidate screening. Screening refers to the comparison of the candidate’s skills, knowledge, behaviors and attitudes against the requirements of the job in order to determine the suitability of the candidate against the particular job for which he is applying.  Every organization has different screening processes for different jobs. Likewise, every RPO service provider provides custom designed screening process, as obviously there can not be the same screening process for an engineer as that is for the Chief Executive Officer.

Usually, the screening and selection consists of three steps:


Pre-screening refers to developing the screening procedures so that it can be applied to the data of all the applicants. The various services that the RPOs offer in terms of pre-screening are:

  • To automate and streamline the process of prescreening
  • To ensure the unswerving application of the rating methodology
  • To determine the most fair and just methodology for rating
  • To separate the candidates that match job requirements from those who don’t


After screening for non subjective requirements such as the educational background, the experience, age etc, interviews are usually conducted to screen for the subjective data and to determine the validity of the implications of the objective data. To determine subjective requirements means to look for interpersonal skills, leadership skills etc. Moreover, as mentioned above, another purpose for interviewing may be to cross check the objective data. For example, the CGPA of 3.84 is the objective data, but to check the candidate’s knowledge that whether it is what should be of the candidate with such high GPA.


In older days, the pre-screening and the interview used to be the only two methods of screening. However, over the period of time, the researches in the arena of human resource revealed that these two modes of screening are not sufficient for the selection purpose, thus various other tests were developed. These tests may be standardized or they may be custom developed. Common examples are:

  • Skills test
  • Behavioral / Personality test
  • Ability and Aptitude test
  • Demonstrations

Various RPOs not only conduct these tests, but also develop them, conduct them, make all arrangements, evaluate these tests and prepare the results and make the appropriate recommendation. Moreover, the also update it in their database. These RPOs are also responsible for the validity and reliability of these tests.

Offer Presentation:

This includes all the process related to the negotiations on various issue, especially related to the compensation after the offer for the job is made to the candidate.

Management of on board processes

This includes the management of the processes related to the boarding and lodging arrangements for the employee, incase of an off shore employee.

Reporting HR metrics for staffing operations

Through the use of high tech business analytical tools, these RPOs provides the summarized reports highlighting various matrices or KPIs which are related to HR, thus enabling the top management to take the better and more informed decisions related to the Human Resource issues.

Workforce planning support

This refers to support the organization (clients) so as to plan and determine the quantity and the quality of the staffing requirements for current and future needs.

Staffing department budgeting support

This refers to support the clients in order to develop the budget of the human resource department and advising them in order to make the budget as efficient and cost effective as possible.

Employment Advertisements:

The RPOs also offer the service of developing and designing the advertisements of employment.

Contingent or temporary staffing

Several RPOs also work on the contingent and temporary staffing for short term needs.

Top Five RPO Service Providers

(Based on the ranking by HRO Today, July 2007)


Among the Baker’s Dozen Listing by HRO Today, 2007, the top ranking has been given to Kenexa. Kenexa is one of the industry’s leading Recruitment Process Outsourcing service providers; especially it provides the softwares, services, proprietary content and the outsourcing of entire recruitment process, in order to facilitate the organizations (its clients) to hire and retain the quality human resource.  In order to reduce the risk for the clients and to reduce the costs, Kenexa operates on the on demand delivery model. There are three important product lines of the organization. The first one is the talent acquisition suite, the second one is the employee performance management suite, while the third one is the employment process outsourcing services. Thus, using these solutions, the clients of Kenexa can increase the productivity of the employee, increase retention rates, decrease costs and improve their management and decision making, as they are in the better position to take the decision because of various HR matrices available to them due to the services, information and the software or technology provided by Kenexa.


Kenexa started its operations as early as 1987. At that time, it was not what it is today. Initially, it was providing just the recruitment services to its client. However, in 1993, it launched its talent acquisition system, that was fully automated. Gradually, it expanded its operations to provide the services like employee research, employee performance management technology and the consultation services. In response to the mounting customers demands for the integrated software to manage various human resource related tasks, finally in 1997, Kenexa launched its Human Capital Management Services. It was integrated with the on-demand software. The growth rate of Kenexa can be estimated from the fact that between the periods of four years (1994-1998), Kenexa has acquired around fifteen businesses in order to better serve their customers and increase their service base.

The next four to five years’ period was that of strategic level changes at Kenexa. During this period, it reduced its focus from discrete professional services and temporary staffing services. It acquired a number of companies which helped it in enhancing its RPO processes especially in terms of softwares and screening and behavioral assessment solutions and skills testing technologies. Since 2002, Kenexa has terminated its Oracle Implementation business as well as that of Pharmaceutical training. The later acquisitions of Kenexa include; Webhire, Inc., Knowledge Workers Inc., Gantz Wiley Research, Psychometric Services Ltd., BrassRing Inc. and StraightSource


The major industries being served by Kenexa are:

  • Financial Services/Banking
  • Life Sciences/Biotech/Pharmaceutical
  • Retail
  • Health Care
  • Technology
  • Education
  • Restaurants/Hospitality
  • Manufacturing
  • Call Centers
  • Government

 Major Clients:

The major clients of Kenexa are:

  • Beckman Coulter
  • Corning
  • Goodrich
  • Regeneron

Major Services Offered:

The major services offered by Kenexa are:


Human Resource is one of the most valuable assets for the organizations. Assessment solution is the set of strategies or tools and techniques used by Kenexa to assess the talent of an individual for a particular employment(s). These techniques include:

  • Skills testing
  • Psychometric and personality assessments
  • Structured interviews
  • Phone screening
  • Simulation exercises
  • Competency modeling
  • Assessment centers

Using the abovementioned tools, Kenexa assessed the talents of an individual for a particular employment and thus helping their clients to identify and hire the most suitable persons for the job and also making the organization aware of his or her strengths and weaknesses.

Talent Acquisition or Recruiting

The major components of Talent Acquisition solution are:

  • Global Recruitment
  • Workforce Transformation
  • Campus Recruiting
  • Vendor Management
  • Employment Process Outsourcing

Moreover, this solution is also meant to identify the extent to which a potential candidate for an employment would be expectedly able to adapt to the brand and culture of that organization. Besides, this solution also includes a number of cultural services, such as, recruitment process consulting, workforce planning, change management and candidate experience mystery shop services. The purpose of developing this solution was to increase the hiring process efficiency and effectiveness.

Talent Management

The major components of the Talent Management solutions are:

  • Software for large enterprise
  • Mid-market and hourly applicant tracking
  • Onboarding, performance management
  • Succession planning
  • Career development
  • Mentoring programs
  • Hr analytics

The best advantage of this solution is that it automates the process of hiring, retention, succession planning processes etc. Moreover, it provides the analytical tools to the organization so that it can take better and informed decisions, so far as Human Resource is concerned.


The role of Human Resource processes does not end when the employee is appointed; rather, the more crucial role is to get feedback about and from those employees. The Survey solution of Kenexa is intended to meet this need. Major components of this solution include:

  • Employee engagement surveys
  • 360º multi-rater feedback
  • Exit interviews
  • Compliance surveys
  • Action planning

Differentiating Factor:

There are two major differentiating factors for Kenexa:

The first one is that, its core competency is based on three dimensions; software, employee research science and the business process consulting. Moreover, these services are conceived, developed, designed and implemented by the specialists.

Besides, there are many industry recognitions given to Kenexa, giving it an edge over its competitors, such as:

  • Kenexa is part of the Russell 3000 Index
  • Rudy Karsan, Kenexa’s CEO, was given the 2007 Ernst & Young Entrepreneur Of The Year® award.
  • The title of Forbes Best of the Web has been given to Kenexa since 2003
  • PRO provider of the year 2006
  • Named as Top most RPO provider in 2005 and 2006 by HRO Today
  • In 2006, Kenexa was an SIIA Codie Award Finalist
  • It was a Codie Award Winner in 2004 and 2005.
  • Kenexa has been part of Software Magazine’s Software 500 since 2005.
  • BaseLine Magazine’s 50 Fastest Growing Technology Companies in 2006
  • RPO Provider of the Year in 2006
  • TechHR Performance Management and Analytics Award in 2004.


Spherion is considered as the pioneer in the temporary staffing industry. It is aimed to improve the human resource performance by delivering the solutions related to various crucial aspects of Human Resource such as, recruitment services, outsourcing services, and technology solutions. If we would try to sum up the amount of employees, part time or full time, place by Spherion each year, the sum would be in Millions. Moreover, it has placed the employees with a variety of skills such as, administrative and industrial positions to a host of professions that include accounting, finance, sales, marketing, manufacturing, engineering, law, human resources and technology. Because of its experience in the industry and the greater insight of the understanding of the workforce and key factors of the workplace performance, it has enabled itself to provide a broad range of services.  Thus, Spherion is one of the top preferences for the employers who want to hire the true human capital in their organizations.

Spherion Today:

Today, Spherion serves over 30000 clients round the world. A great proportion of Fortune 100 companies are the clients of Spherion. It has over 900 branches in not less than seven countries, including United States, Australia, Canada, The Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, and Singapore. Its business has three service lines, recruitment, technology and outsourcing.


In 1946, the company was founded. At that time, it was aimed to provide the temporary employees of the industrial and especially light industrial activities. It gave this firm the image of blue-color recruiters, which is evident in its operations even today. In 1966, it started to provide the temporary workers in the healthcare industry (especially nurses). In 1978, H & R Block acquired the Personnel Pool of America, which proved to be the defining moment in the history of the company.

In 1991, H & R Block acquired Interim Systems Corporation, a large market player in the temporary recruitment industry. Within a year, it was merged with Personnel Pool of America and the new corporation thus formed was named as Interim Services Inc. In 1997, Michael Page group was acquired, followed by the acquisition of Norrell Corporation in 1999, just two years after the previous acquisition. In 2000, it adopted its current name that is “Spherion”.  This series of acquisitions led Spherion to face a number of serious economic consequences. In order to overcome those issues, two major steps were taken. First one was the selling of Michael Page group in 2001 and appointment of Cinda Hallman, previously the Vice President of Du Pont, in 2001. Hallman focused on the outsourcing recruitment that proved to be the good decision for Spherion.

The Principal Subsidiaries of Spherion are:

Spherion Financial Corporation; Spherion (Europe) Inc.; Spherion Technology (UK) Limited; Spherion Assessment Inc.; Norrell Corporation; Spherion (Europe) Staffing Limited (U.K.); Spherion Limited (Ireland); Spherion Recruitment Group B.V. (Netherlands); Spherion Australia Pty. Ltd.; Spherion (S) Pte. Ltd. (Singapore); Spherion Limited (Hong Kong).

Major Clients:

  • Cisco
  • Grainger
  • MetLife
  • United Air Lines
  • Bristol-Meyers Squibb

Major Services:

The major services provided by Spherion are as follows:

  • Contact Centre Solutions
  • HR Consulting
  • Career Placement Services
  • Executive Search & Professional Search
  • Flexible Services
  • Global Partnership Solutions
  • Light Industrial Services
  • National Partnership Solutions
  • Technology & Engineering
  • On-Premise Services
  • Outsourcing
  • Financial Staffing

Differentiating Factors:

The differentiating factors for Spherion are as follows:

  • It is one of the oldest RPO in the industry.
  • Its worldwide operations also give it an edge over other competitors.

Alexander Mann’s Solution

In the European Market, Alexander Mann’s Solution was the first one to enter and start its operation. It started its operations in 1996. Alexander Mann Solution is aimed at providing quality human capital to its clients through consolidating and transformation of the recruitment processes of their clients. Alexander Mann’s Solution claims to be the ‘most experienced one’ in the industry. Their claim is based on the fact that RPO has been the core competency of Alexander Mann Solution for past nine years. Alexander Mann Solution is the part of Alexander Mann Group. This group manages various investment portfolios in the areas of the interest of clients.


In 1996, the first contingent worker RPO was secured by AMS with the global IT Services Company. In the next year, AMS business was launched in response to the market demand, especially in Europe. The first European Recruitment Project undertaken by AMS was completed in 1998. In the next year, Marconi contracted AMS the first RPO contract. In 1999, Advent International acquires minority stake in AMG. In 2000, Ovum Halway growth figures was leaded by AMS. In the same year, AMG makes selective acquisitions across Europe to strengthen European delivery. In 2001, AMS started its operations in Australia. In 2002, the Back Office Processes were consolidated and the first Service Management Centre was established. In 2002, more stakes were purchased by Advent International in AMG, as a gesture of continuing support. That year too, AMS headed the Ovum Halway growth figures. AMS also launched its Talent Service offering in 2002.

In 2003, AMS also expanded itself to the Asia Pacific market. It secured its first contract for RPO solution for Suncorp Metway in Asia Pacific. This contract was followed by that with ANZ. This contract was aimed for the recruitment of internal and external recruitment. In February 2004, AMS was able to secure its first investment bank. It also found its way in local as well as international telecom sector in the very same year. Likewise, in the same year, 5 top IT companies also provided their RPO contract to AMS. In the same context, the World’s Largest Mobile company also awareded the RPO contract to AMS in 2004. In order to expand further, it established its five Service Management Centers across Europe.

In the same year, it got another Asia Pacific based contract from West Pac. In 2005, it also got contract from Big 4 Professional Services organization. Seeing the growing market and greater opportunities, it opened its new international hub in Kuala Lumpur. In the same year, it became one of those 180 companies based in UK which were awarded the Best Companies Star Accreditation rating. In the very same year, it also opened its office in New York. In the 2007, its opens its another Service Centre in Manila, Asia Pacific. It was also awarded Corporate Partner of the Year by Tomorrow’s people. In 2007, it also established its headquarters in New York. IT also got the RPO contract for Citigroup. Likewise, another big shot for AMS in the same year was its RPO contract with Novartis, the world’s largest pharmaceutical company.

Services Offered:

  • Requisition development with hiring management
  • Sourcing
  • Screening
  • Interview scheduling
  • Requisition management (direct responsibility to hiring managers and direct communication with hiring managers)
  • Management of offer processes including offer presentation to prospective candidates
  • Employment brand development consulting and program management
  • Employment advertising budget coordination and advertisement strategy development
  • Advertisement creation and placement
  • Contingent or temporary staffing

Major Customers:

  • CSC
  • Vodafone
  • Deloitte
  • Ericsson

Differentiating Factor:

There are two differentiating factors for AMS:

  • The first factor is that it has the strongest grip in the European market than any other RPO provider in the industry.
  • The second factor is that the client profile of AMS is also stronger than anyone else. Although it had limited presence in US, yet it has very strong presence in Europe and Asia Pacific.

Right Thing Inc

Since its launch in 2003, the industry gurus have been considering Right Thing Inc. as the fastest growing RPO providers in the US. This rapid growth is often attributed to Terry Terhark, the CEO of the Right Thing Inc, who was also the founder of Selective Staffing before selling that to Aon Consulting.


As mentioned above, the Right Thing Inc. was founded by the same individuals who had previously founded the North America’s first organization that was utterly devoted to serve the recruitment process outsourcing in 1990. Even today, Right Thing Inc is best known for its efforts to make the recruitment processes of its clients as efficient as possible. They claim to have served a gamut of the industries, including, pharmaceutical, automotive, technology, banking/finance, manufacturing, telecommunications, consumable products/retail, insurance, electronics/engineering, medical/healthcare, and more. Furthermore, in the very short period of time, they have captured an appreciable pie of the RPO industry, especially in US. Today, it has over two hundred and fifty clients and more than twelve million candidates in North America.

Major Services:

One of the key factors of the success of Right Thing Inc. is its comprehensive range of services and solutions that it has to offer. The major services provided by Right Thing Inc. are as follows:

·         Applicant Tracking

The process of application processing and tracking is not as simple as it is usually thought. Rather, in order to maintain the fairness of the system. In order to achieve this goal, the significant amount of technology deployment is required, in order to make these processes error free and faultless. On account of its strategic alliance and the experience that it carries in the industry, Right Thing Inc. is capable to offer a range of technological solutions to its clients. In this context, the Right Thing Inc. offers following services:

  • Leverage client’s current technology
  • Implement, optimize and manage new technology
  • Integrate their proprietary platform so they can optimize the capabilities of both their processing and recruiting operations centers.

·         Help reduce turnover Custom Reporting Metrics

Through its solutions related to the HR Analytics, it helps the organizations to develop the reports related to various KPIs related to the Human Resource performance.

·         Survey Administration

It refers to various survey s related to employee satisfaction such 360 degree survey etc.

·         Post-Offer Activities and On-Boarding

It refers to the facilitation of the selection process right after the offer to the candidate till the on-boarding.

·         Candidate Selection and Assessment

It refers to the management of the processes aimed to find out the most appropriate candidate for a particular job.

·         Candidate Intake

Rigth Thing is also providing the services of managing the entire process of candidate intake that is from the start of the application process of the candidate to the introduction of the candidate to the organization. To fulfill this, they provide various solutions, the well documented compliance process etc.

·         Requisition Management

Requisition management refers to the overall management of the employment requisition process. This process includes the approval process, job description and screening criteria, documentation and ensuring compliance.

·         Recruitment – Sourcing

On their website, they have claimed to have following expertise in the area of sourcing:

  • Sourcing program design/ implementation
  • Market analysis
  • Proactive sourcing programs
  • Traditional sourcing programs
  • Vendor Management

·         Talent Management Consulting

In order to manage the talent efficiently, the Right Thing Inc. offers to:

  • Provide consultation for all the staffing related matters
  • Develop efficient hiring process to integrate the people and technology through the solutions
  • Setting the standards for the newly adopted practices against the best practices round the world
  • Setting up the strategy to measure the results

Major Clients:

The major clients of Right Thing Inc. include:

·         Novartis

·         Unisys

·         Rohm and Haas

·         Itron

·         Sky Financial Group

Differentiating Factor:

The differentiating factor for the Right Thing Inc. is the pace with which its growth has accelerated over last few years as well as its in depth technology expertise in this business domain.

Talent Track:

Talent Track is also one of the most emerging RPO service providers in the industry and is thus ranked fifth by HRO Today among the Baker’s Dozen Listing released in July 2007. The Talent Track claims to provide the right person at right place at right price to its clients. It builds its core competency around the experience in the Recruitment Process Outsourcing that is enhanced through the application of technology in the arena of RPO. The ideology at Talent Tack is based on the idea that every client requirement is unique and thus requires individual attention. Thus, it claims to provide the customized and tailor made solutions to its clients, based on their own requirements.


Talent Track was formed in June 2002. In its top management, there were the industry experts in the field of Human Resource, as well as, there were the experts in the domain of technology and its application in the field of Human Resource. These senior executives had broad range of working in the industry especially working with the Fortune 500 corporations.

Major Services:

The major services provided by the Talent Track Inc. are in four major areas:

  • Recruitment Process Management
  • Talent Scout
  • Talent Solution
  • Knowledge Management

Major Clients:

The major clients of Talent Track include:

  • Tenet Healthcare
  • Interim Healthcare
  • Foremost Insurance
  • HSBC
  • Sourced Solutions Group

Differentiating Factor:

The differentiating factor for Talent Track is its intellectual capital. The background and experience of its senior executives in the industry is the real goodwill for the talent track.

Trends for Tomorrow

The RPO industry is yet not matured, with the globalization and the gradual vanishing of the physical boundaries (increased mobility) there seems to have bright opportunities for the industry in the years to come. Following are few important trends for future.

Increased Outsourcing:

It is expected and predicted by the industry gurus that the trend of outsourcing the recruitment process will keep on growing. A survey in HRO Today (July 2007) revealed that most of the HR executives are looking forward to outsource their transactional and upfront administrative work.

Labor Shortage:

It is also predicted that with the passage of time, the demand for the skilled and high tech labor would grow in exponential ratio and it would be far greater than the supply, thus the RPOs would face a tough competition and thus those RPOs who are creative in terms of their sourcing would excel.

Competition for Candidates:

Finding the quality candidates would become more difficult and only those would be able to survive who would be efficient in all of its processes related to the recruitment.

Other trends may include:

  • There is a high trend of the use of technology in every aspect of recruitment
  • Increasing need for the bilingual or multicultural candidates
  • Clients are demanding for smart and interactive sourcing, rather than the online one.


To sum up, RPO refers to transfer the responsibility of outsourcing, wholly or partially, to the external organizations. This trend was started in 1970’s and is still growing and expected to keep growing in the decades ahead as well. However, there would be some challenges too, which would throw the firms that are neither dynamic nor creative, out of the industry.


  • Ahlrichs, N. (2000). Competing for Talent: Key Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Becoming an Employer of Choice. NY: Davies-Black Publishing.
  • Arthur, D. (2001). The Employee Recruitment and Retention Handbook. New York: Amacom/American Management Association.
  • Edenborough, R. (2007). Assessment Methods in Recruitment, Selection & Performance: A Manager’s Guide to Psychometric Testing, Interviews and Assessment Centres. London: Kogan Page.
  • Jackson, J., & Mathis, R. (2007). Human Resource Management. Mason, OH: South-Western College Pub.
  • Lever, S. (1997). An analysis of managerial motivations behind outsourcing practices in human resources.: An article from: Human Resource Planning. NY: Human Resource Planning Society.
  • Rufe, E. (2005). Recruitment process outsourcing achieves velocity and delivers measurable results. : An article from: San Diego Business Journal. Chicago: Thomson Gale.
  • Schweyer, A. (2004). Talent Management Systems: Best Practices in Technology Solutions for Recruitment, Retention and Workforce Planning. New York, NY: Wiley.
  • Teng, A. (2007, July). RPO on fire. HRO Today, 38.
  • (2007, July). Baker’s Dozen. HRO Today, 40-41.
  • Recruitment Process Outsourcing. Retrieved January 11, 2008, from Kenexa Web site: ‘http://www.kenexa.com/’
  • Recruitment Process Outsourcing. Retrieved January 11, 2008, from Spherion. Web site: ‘http://www.spherion.ca/’
  • Recruitment Process Outsourcing. Retrieved January 11, 2008, from Alexander MannSolution Web site: ‘http://alexandermannsolutions.com /’
  • Recruitment Process Outsourcing. Retrieved January 11, 2008, from RightThing Inc. Web site: ‘http://www.rightthinginc.com/’
  • Recruitment Process Outsourcing. Retrieved January 11, 2008, from Talent Track. Web site: ‘http://www.talenttrack.com/’

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