Reaction Paper Marine Basic Safety
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Marine Basic Safety Training has 4 courses in it these are PST, FPFF, EFA, and PSSR. PST or Personal Survival Techniques means methods and systems used or employed to establish directions for taking appropriate survival actions, depending on the equipment and rations available, the use of them, and the preparation knowledge skills and integrity of the person. The IMO model course for PST is 1.19 that contains 9 modules. In this course discuss about the emergency situations, evacuation, survival crafts and rescue boat, personal life-saving appliances, survival at sea and emergency radio equipment. In emergency situations we should be observant in what happen into our surroundings. Also we should know the muster station. We can be able know our duties and responsible during emergency and the signals for these emergencies just by looking at the muster list.
The general alarm has seven short blasts and one long blast on the ships whistle followed by public address of the master/captain. In survival crafts and rescue boats there are different types of lifeboats these are open, partially enclosed and totally enclosed. There are types of liferafts also these are enclosed inflatable liferaft and rigid liferaft. In Personal Life-Saving Appliances we should know the things that can help us during emergencies. Example of things that can help us are lifejackets, lifebuoy, lifebuoy with self-igniting light, immersion suit, thermal protective aid (TPA) and pyrotechnics. There are kinds of pyrotechnics the rocket parachute flare usually this kind of flare can last long for 40 seconds, Hand flare can last long for 60 seconds, buoyant orange smoke signal gives off smoke for 3 minutes it can use only for day time only.
FPFF or Fire Prevention and Firefighting this course discuss mainly about Fire on how to prevent and extinguish it. The IMO model course for FPFF is 1.20 that contains 3 modules. Fire tetrahedron is a graphical having a four equal triangular side illustrating how chemical chain reaction interacts with fuel, heat and oxygen. The Tetrahedron mainly composes of Oxygen, Fuel, Heat, and Chain Reaction. The theories of fire firstly are, if any side of the fire triangle is missing, a fire cannot start. Second, if any side of the fire triangle is removed, the fire will go out. Lastly, if the chemical chain reaction is not broken the fire is keep going. In this course also discuss about the classes of fire. There are Four classes of fire Class A, Class B, Class C, and Class D. In Class A fire are those things that are solid and remain ashes (e.i. paper, wooden table, woods, etc.) for this kind of fire the right extinguishing agent/medium to be use are water, foam and dry powder.
In Class B fire are those that are liquid and gases cause of fire (e.i. oils, greases, tars, lacquers, etc.) for this kind of fire the right extinguishing agent/medium to use are CO2 and dry powder. In Class C fire are fires that involves electrical (e.i. television, computer, etc.) for this kind of fire the right extinguishing agent/medium to be use are CO2 and dry powder. Lastly Class D fire these are fires that involves metals (e.i. sodium, titanium, potassium, calcium carbide, etc) for this kind of fire the right extinguishing agent/medium to be use is dry chemical. We have to maintain readiness to respond to emergency situations involving fires. We should observe what kind of fire so that we should know what we are going to use to extinguish it. There are types of detector, these are smoke, flame and heat detector. There is a general operating procedure on how to operate the fire extinguisher we should follow the P-A-S-S. P – Pull the pin
A – Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire
S – Squeeze
S – Sweep the nozzle side to side.
When there is a fire we should know what to do we should follow the meaning of F-I-R-E.
F – Find
I – Inform/isolate
R – Restrict/report
E – Extinguish
EFA or Elementary First Aid discuss mainly on how to apply first aid. The IMO model for this course is 1.13 that contains 9 modules. First Aid is an immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill before medical or surgical assistance is available. There are many things to learn about in this course like C.P.R, check the vital signs, etc.. In First aid we should know the ABC’s of life.
A – Airway
B – Breathing
C – Circulation
As a first aid provider we must have these characteristics gentle, resourceful, observant, tactful, emphatic and respectable. When there is a casualty we must know how to position the victim in a proper way. There are types of body positioning: * Anatomical position – stands erect with arms down of the side palm facing you * Supine position – lying on his back
* Prone position – lying face down on his abdomen
* Lateral Recumbent position – lying on his right or left side (recovery position) When there is a casualty and you see a person unconscious we must apply the E.A.P or Emergency Action Principles. Firstly, we must Survey the scene we must observe what happen. Second, Activate Medical Assistance (A.M.A) we should call for help. Third, Primary Survey in this survey this is a procedure to identify life threatening conditions to a victim such as: respiratory arrest, cardiac arrest and severe bleeding. We must know the possible critical signs and the CABC.
Possible Critical Signs
+ pulse, – breathing = Respiratory arrest ( apply artificial breathing/ rescue breathing) – pulse, – breathing = Cardiac arrest (apply C.P.R) + pulse, + breathing = apply recovery position
C – Consciousness
A – Airway
B – Breathing
C – Circulation
Lastly, Secondary survey it is non-life threatening means when the victim response. If the victim response we must interview the victim, check the vital signs and perform head to toe examination. In interviewing the victim we must ask the victim’s name, ask what happened and assess sample history.
S – Signs and symptoms
A – Allergy
M – Medications
P – past illness
L – Last oral/ meal intake
E – Event prior to incident
If there is a minor wound we should apply the management for minor wound. First, wash the wound with mild soap and water. Second, apply mild antiseptic. And lastly, cover the wound with dressing and bandage.
PSSR or Personal Safety and Personal Responsibility this course discuss about safety, responsibilities and interaction to other people. The IMO model for this course is 1.21. We must know the safety working practices to avoid accidents. We must never forget to put signage if we are going to do something so that other people may know that there is someone working. Some of the works on board needs work permit from the safety officer these are: * Working aloft
* Hot work
* Entering enclosed space
* Electrical works
* Cold works
In these works we must put signage to avoid accidents. When there is any defective electrical equipment we must do this: lock, tag and report. Human relationship on-board affects the work of everyone. We must be professionalized, civilized-humanity, and socialized in our interaction to everyone. Good relationships make the life of all seafarers more comfortable, healthy, and less prone to accidents. Being familiarized in all the things lessens the accident. We must know the alarm signals, emergency exit, muster station, location and use of fire fighting and life saving equipment, and specific duties during emergencies.
Marine Basic Safety teach us on how to survive beyond the sea if there is a casualty, fight the fire with proper procedure and right extinguishing agent, apply proper first aid to a victim and being socialized to other people. Being aware to our surroundings and observant can lessen accidents and help others during casualty.