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Psy Midterm Paper

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Describe the basic functioning of a neuron beginning with receiving signals from other neurons or sense organs and ending with the transmission of a signal to another neuron. Explain how a pattern of neuron firing is related to behavior. Neurons are information- processing units in the central nervous system that receive and transmit information. It is made up of an axon, dendrites and a cell body. The nucleus and cytoplasm are contained in the cell body. The axon starts from the cell body, dividing into smaller branches and then ends at the nerve terminals. The dendrites also branch from the cell body, receiving information from the other neurons. Axons from other neurons forms synapses at their ends, which cover the cell body and dendrites.(Myers, 2013)Neurons send messages by passing impulses through their axons. The axons have different lengths. They range between a fraction of an inch and three feet or more. A layered myelin sheath, which covers the axon, enables information to be transmitted fast through the axon. The sheath consists of specialized cells in the brain, known as oligondrocytes and others in the peripheral nervous system called Schwann cells. Nerve impulses occur through the closing and opening of ion channels.

The ion channels are molecular tunnels filled with water that go through a cell membrane. They allow for permeability selectively, enabling the entering and leaving of ions or small molecules into the cells. An electrical current producing change of voltage in the cell membrane of the neuron is made. The generation of an impulse is dependent on the charge difference of the inside and outside of the cell. The neuron changes to a positive charge creating a reversal of the electric potential at the cell membrane. The change is known as an action potential. It goes through the axon membrane at a speed of hundreds miles per hour, enabling a neuron to fire many impulses per second. The changes in voltage cause neurotransmitters, which are the messengers of the brain, to be released at the nerve terminals. The neurotransmitters are diffused through the intra-synaptic space attaching themselves to receptors on the cell targeted. The neurotransmitter fits into this area on the receptor, altering the potential of the target cell membrane and causing a response.

The response can be an action potential generation, a muscle contraction inhibition of release of neurotransmitter from the target cell or enzyme activity stimulation.(Myers, 2013)2. Describe one personality trait that you believe to be highly heritable (mostly a product of genetics) and another trait that seems to be much less so. Provide reasons for your answer, and explain why you would expect genetics to exert a much greater impact on some personality traits than on others. Several of our personality traits are genetic, while others are environment. I think one personality trait that is highly heritable would be addiction. Addiction is the physical and psychological dependence on psychoactive substances. There are several things negative and positive that a person can be addicted. Some traits are linked to alcohol, drugs, sex, gambling, work, and food. You can pretty much be addicted to anything. It says addiction is 50% genetic predisposition and 50% poor coping skills. Everyone has the innate predisposition for addiction because of the pleasure it can cause a potential risk for dependence.

Granting, everybody has a potential for addiction, certain people are more vulnerable to addiction than others. Abusing drugs and or alcohol due to poor coping skills, you are rewiring your brain. So the impact of addiction is harmful and can take place with minimal, coping poorly with your life situations. One quality that I do not believe is very heritable would be openness. Openness is the general energy of workmanship, feeling, experience, abnormal plans, creative ability, and interest. It asks a classification between innovative individuals from rational people. A few samples of openness would be a rich vocabulary, clear creative energy, utilization of dark words, etc. Openness persons are required to be exceptionally expressive and innovative. I figure it isn’t that vital as a hereditary quality. Nature’s turf additionally influences on it. 3.You have been hired by a large public school system to construct a musical aptitude test. Describe how you would standardize your test and assess its reliability and validity. Explain why it might be more difficult to develop a valid musical aptitude test than a reliable one.

It is difficult to develop a valid musical aptitude test because most of the time, the measures of the aptitude are misunderstood and demands that are unrealistic, made on them. Validity should be seen as construct validity. The problem sources are in two groups. The first group uses composite validity criteria. This forms the assumption that they are not dimensional. The second one uses subject groups. The groups do not represent the distribution of the construct in whole. In order to maximize the ecological validity, composite measures must be used as the criteria for validity. Legitimacy is likewise harder to acquire as a rule the individuals that have been concentrated on don’t speak to the populace by and large. The music variables scope of the population concentrated on is less or more limited. The musical fitness of the gathering is not a representation of the entire group. This is explained by the fact that the success of the studies in the music can only be seen in individuals who and they are always selected in a particular way. Validation of a measure is never completed as when new information comes up it affects the test. In order to standardize the test, I will ensure that it meets its objective. This will be achieved by giving the test several times with the goal of acquiring the same results every time.

Reliability is more attainable because the test does not need to be perfect and it is not easily affected by variances. 5.Mr. and Mrs. McDonald believe in the importance of stern discipline; they impose strict rules, which they expect their children to obey without question. They penalize misbehavior harshly, frequently with a spanking. Mr. and Mrs. Mendoza instead use milder forms of punishment to enforce their rules. They also have regular family meetings in which their children help them to establish household rules and penalties for breaking them. What is the name of each of these two approaches to parenting and what do you see as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Explain the reasons for your answer. The approach to parenting that Mr. and Mrs. McDonald use is authoritarian parenting, while Mr. and Mrs. Mendoza uses authoritative parenting. In authoritarian parenting, parents give strict rules, which they expect their children to follow, where failure to do so, would lead to punishment. They have high demands and fail to provide the reasons for the rules.

Mr. and Mrs. McDonald parenting approach have these characteristics. Authoritarian parenting has its disadvantages and benefits. Weaknesses of authoritarian parenting are that the children who go through this kind of parenting see love as a result of being compliant. Behavior might be aggressive when they are in the outcast of the home. This is because children are not capable of setting limits and standards of their own. The children are under a low self-esteem. This is because their parents are always scolding them. The benefit of this kind of parenting is that the children from this approach follow rules easily. On the other hand, authoritative parenting is a way of parenting where the parents set rules that they expect their children to follow, and they are more nurturing when the children fail to follow instructions. This parenting style also responds to their children and hears their questions. Mr. and Mrs. Mendoza parenting contain these features.

The advantages of authoritative parenting are; the children are more regulated and have emotional control. This is because their parents gave them the opportunity to establish their own rules and penalties. Children get good social skills. This is that they have been nurtured and shown love by their parents finds it easy to interact with others people. Children are also self-assured in their abilities to develop new abilities. This is because they have been granted the chance to be independent of their parents. The children also learn to trust their parents. The disadvantage of authoritative parenting is that in a predicament when the child has to be punished, they might get confusing the child. This might break the relationship that they established.(Myers, 2013)

References
Myers, D. G. (2013). Psychology in Modules (10 ed.). New York: Worth Publishers

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