Principles total quality management
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Many organizations are seeking to gain competitive advantage by focusing on managing costs, times and quality of services or products. The purpose of the study is to examine the attitude toward implementation of total quality management principles and how the effects of the intention to implement TQM in an organization. The study reviews past research to examine the perception of implementing TQM principles. Result find that many researchers show the positive relationship between attitude toward TQM principle implementation (customer focus, leadership, employee engagement, process approach, improvement, evidence based decision making and relationship management) Key words: total quality management principle (TQMP), competitive advantage, costs, time, quality, perception.
Total quality management (TQM) becomes one of the main sources of competitive advantage among different sectors of the business from the last two decade. Edwards Deming initiate the total quality management (TQM) approach that he focus on improving the efficiency of the industry in the United State on late of 1950s. Now many countries commenced to use the total quality management approach in order to improve the quality of their products or services.
According to Malgorzata (2016) reveal that now many companies have shifted their focus to optimize their assets and to use equipment more effectively on controlling costs and one of the main areas of the company which has a strong influence on assets is the maintenance department or the employees responsible for maintenance.
The new edition of ISO 9000 standard series was published in 2015, and the important changes introduced in the new edition refers to quality management principles (QMP). The ISO 9000: 2015 standards framework are now based on seven quality management principles namely (1) customer focus (2) leadership (3) employee engagement (4) process approach (5) improvement (6) evidence based decision making and (7) relationship management
This part of literature review explain briefly about the concept of quality and quality management principles that influencing quality management practices from the past studies
Concept of quality
From English Oxford living Dictionaries (2017) define the word quality as the standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something. Many authors suggest that, most customers focus on quality of the products or services offered by the companies. Quality is an important thing that any customers should consider. The concept of quality has a bottom line referred as a goals and values which underpin the essentially human activity. Generally, quality movement led to the birth of many concepts related to continuous improvement; a total quality management principle (TQMP) is one among them.
Quality management principles
According to iso.org (2015) define the term principle as a basic belief, theory or rule that has a major influence on the way in which something is done. BusinessDictionaries (2017) define the word principle as a fundamental norms, rules or values that represent what is desirable and positive for a person, group, organization or community and help it in determining the rightfulness or wrongfulness of its actions. Quality management principle as defined by iso.org (2015) are a set of fundamental beliefs, norms, rules and values that are accepted as true and can be used as a basis for quality management. According to ISO 9000: 2015 framework suggest seven quality management principles namely:
From iso.org (2015) show that customer focus is primary focus on quality management to meet customer requirement and to strive exceed customer expectation. Rusu (2017) organizations depend on the client and other interested parties and it is necessary to understand present and future necessities of the clients and interested parties, to fulfill the said necessities and maintain a close relation with the client and to aim to surpass the client expectations. Understanding current and future needs of customers and other interested parties contributes to sustained success of the organization revealed by Kamil (2016).
Leaders in all levels establish unity of purpose and direction and create conditions in which people are engaged in achieving the organization’s quality objectives (iso.org 2015). From Kamil (2016) say that creation of unity of purpose, direction and engagement of people enable an organization to align its strategies, policies, processes and resources to achieve its objectives. The Malgorzata (2016) say maintenance leader must be self motivated, organized, trustworthy, empathetic and optimistic
Capable employees at all levels are essential to create and deliver value stated by Rusu (2017). ISO.org (2015) recognition, empowerment and enhancement of competence facilitate the engagement of people in achieving the organization’s quality objectives. According to Kamil (2016) one among the great benefit of employee engagement is to improve understanding of the organization’s quality objectives by people in the organization and increased motivation to achieve the goals.
Predictable and consistent results are achieved more effectively and efficiently when activities are understood and managed as interrelated processes that function as a coherent system suggested by iso.org (2015). The purpose of the process approach is to enhance an organization’s effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its stated objectives (Malgorzata, 2016)
According to Al-Shdaifat (2015) define the word improvement as an essential for an organization to maintain current levels of performance to react to changes in its internal and external conditions that’s lead to create new opportunities in business. Rusu (2017) reveals that organizations that are success are the one focus constantly on improvement. But an iso.org (2015) state, the benefit of improvement principle is it improved process performance, organizational capabilities and customer satisfaction.
Evidence based decision making
Kamil (2016) and Rusu (2017) reveal that decisions based on the analysis and evaluation of data and information are more likely to produce desired results. Even though, iso.org (2015) show the difficultness of decision making that it can be a complex process and it always involves some uncertainty. So, iso.org (2015) suggests that it is important to understand cause and effect relationships and potential unintended consequences must be considered.
According to Rusu (2017) relations between supplier, partners as well as other interested parties have a major impact on optimizing organizational sustainability performance. Organization sustained success more achieved when they manages relationships with all of its interested parties, supplier and partners to optimize their impact on their performance. Iso.org (2015) show the key benefit on relationship management is enhanced performance of the organization and its interested parties through responding to the opportunities and constraints related to each interested party.
Discussion and analysis
Findings from Al-Shdaifat (2015) that he based on five principles of total quality management that’s he identified from his study, 70% represent the extent of implementing TQM, based on continuous improvement, teamwork, training, top management commitment and customer focus the result range from 41.6% to 53.9% of 40 items. Customer focus was the most implemented principle that’s score 53.9% and continuous improvement was the least implemented that’s score 41.6%.
While Kamil (2016) done a research on academic staff, his findings demonstrate that there is a positive significant correlation between attitude toward TQM implementation (customers and stakeholders, employee engagement and teamwork, continuous improvements and total degree of attitude) and the intention to practice TQM among sampled institution faculties. He added that perceptions of academic staff have an overwhelming positive impact in directing policy makers in higher education.
The results comes from the hospital research suggest that patients define health care quality in terms of tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy (NoorHazilah, 2009). According to iso.org (2015) there are many different ways of applying quality management principles. How to apply the TQM principles it depends on nature of the organization (structural and cultural) and the specific challenges they faces will determine how to implement them. Not all organizations implement these seven TQM principles, some they adopt only 5; this is because of the nature of the organization in term of ages of the organization, organizational structure, organizational cultural and type/size of the organization (small, medium or large).
The good strategies and policy makers can exploit in future plans to improve total quality management principle concepts within an organization. Also clear vision, mission and objectives can act as a direction of the organization to reach their focus business in future by maximize quality and minimize costs and time of delivery. Any customers perceive and expect good quality.
Limitation of this paper is just the reviews of the previous researcher findings, the future research it will be better to conduct this study on quantitative approach research in order to speculate the real information from the perception of the people toward implementing total quality management principles to their perspective areas.
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