Principles of Teaching and Learning for Nursing Practice
- Pages: 8
- Word count: 1978
- Category: Technology in Education
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Registered nurses throughout their career have responsibilities in providing education at some point either to patients, relatives, student nurses or newly hired nurses (Bastable,2003), so teaching is an important aspect in healthcare organization (Hand, 2006).
Teaching is not just transmitting information to students and for the students, learning is not just receiving information in order to gain knowledge and develop professional skills (Billings and Halstead, 2012).
Teaching and learning are an interlinked and interactive process. According to Rogers (1969), teaching and learning are a two-way process where the teachers are the senior learner and the students are the junior learner (Billings and Halstead, 2012).
Though teaching has several definitions, according to (Heidgerkann,1953; Hyman, 1974) teaching is planned, deliberated and directed action that stimulate learning through various activities, while (Bevis, 1989a) defined that teaching is an art and science where the contents are structured and the process is used to enable students in learning (cited by Billings and Halstead,2012).
Learning is a permanent change in mental, emotional function and behavior as a result of experience (Billings and Halstead, 2012).
The teaching paradigm has shifted from the traditional teacher-centered method to student-centered learning (Young and Paterson, 2006) and this can be traced back to the work of humanistic psychologists such as Rogers (1969), Knowles (1980) and Mezirow (1975). In this paradigm shift, the learners are the main focus (Billings and Halstead,2012). Educational faculty and the educators are responsible to create environment and experiences for the students to discover their potential and build knowledge for themselves (Barr and Tagg, 1995).
Humanistic psychologist Rogers (1951) developed a theory called client-centered therapy where the client is encouraged to develop a deep understanding of themselves and the role of the therapist just to guide them. This therapy led Rogers (1969) to formulate a new approach in learning called student-centered learning (Quinn’s and Hughes,2007).
All higher educational organization are setting general educational aims and learning outcome in their teaching presentation. The purpose of setting aims and learning outcome is to help the students understand the purpose of learning. The advantage of setting a learning outcome provides clear goals to the students about their studies (Quinn’s and Hughes,2007). Hinchliff (2001) says the learning outcome must be specific, measurable, achievable and realistic (cited by Billings and Halstead, 2012).
Learning theory is a conceptual framework that explains in details how the information is being absorbed, processed and retained during the learning process (Bilings & Halstead, 2012).
Learning theories explain how people learn. Educational psychologist such as behaviorist, cognitivist, humanistic has a different opinion on the learning process. Behaviorist argued that learning occurs due to stimulus response to the environment and not by experiencing (Hand,2006).
Behaviorist psychologist Skinner formulated a theory called operant conditioning in which behavior is strengthened by positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement in form of reward and negative reinforcement in form of punishment (Quinn’s and Hughes,2007).
According to Skinner with positive reinforcement learning can be achieved to a maximum level. Though negative reinforcement can strengthen learning behavior but it decreases learners involvement in learning. Behaviorist theory useful to healthcare professionals to enhance skill development (Billing and Halstead,2012; Hand,2006).
One should use positive reinforcement in the teaching session in form of praising the students when they answer correctly to questions asked as this will encouraged and motivated to participate actively into the lecture.
A cognitive theory explains in details how people learn and understand (Burton and Graham,2011). Cognitivist psychologist Bloom (1956) identified major learning domain called Bloom’s Taxonomy (Quinn’s and Hughes,2007). These three domain is cognitive, affective and psychomotor which involves knowledge, feeling or emotions and skills. According to Reece and Walker (2002), these three domains are essential for healthcare professional (Reece and Walker,2002). Cognitive theory contrast with behaviorist theory (Billings and Halstead,2012).
Humanistic learning theory often referred to as adult learning theory and it is related to the philosophical approach (Quinns & Hughes, 2007). Humanistic psychologist Rogers and Maslow emphasized that motivation plays important role in adult learning theory (Quinns & Hughes, 2007). Rogers emphasizes that students need freedom in learning and the teacher needs to plays the role of facilitator in learning. Facilitator in learning means making easy to learn. (Burton & Graham, 2011).
The educators and the faculty to facilitate learning for the student by guiding and helping the students in learning ( Burton and Graham,2011 and Quinns and Hughes, 2007). The humanistic approach is suitable for nursing students and healthcare professionals (Block & Billings, 1998).
For this one should use cognitive and humanistic approach so that it will be appropriate for adult learners.
Maslow developed his concept of motivation as a hierarchy of needs and it is represented as a pyramid with five levels of needs that are arranged in ascending order. The needs are physical, safety and shelter, love and belongingness, self-esteem and self-actualization. The lowest level of need is the physiological needs and the highest level is the self-actualization (Quinns & Hughes, 2007). According to Maslow when lowest needs are fulfilled this will motivate them to move to the next level of need till they reach self-actualization where a person develop and achieve their potentials (Maslow, 1968).
The lecture should be started by distributing sweets if the lecture is scheduled in the noon as it will be time for lunch and the students might feel hungry and the sweet might help a bit. Should introduce oneself with the smile and greet the audience with a friendly tone of voice and with the positive reinforcement and not the negative as not to discourage them, address them by their names. The students’ value and cultural diversity are respected. The teacher must show genuine interest in student to help and facilitate learning (Quinns & Hughes, 2007).
The lecture should be started by introduction of the presenter to the students and the topic of the lecture. To make sure have good eye contact with the students should stand in the middle of the classroom. Communication is an important part of the lecture, speak clearly in a good tone of voice note, good pacing and emphasize the points (Quinns & Hughes, 2007).
Learning environment too is an important aspect of the learning process. It is the responsibility of an educator to create a positive learning environment to facilitate learning. As mentioned by Maslow and Knowles adult learners needs a secure and safe environment as mentioned in the hierarchy of needs (Quinns & Hughes, 2007). Kidd (1973) says that this would support and encourages students (Quinns & Hughes, 2007). According to (Fretwell, 1985) an ideal environment is where the student educational needs are met (cited by Dix and Hughes, 2004).
Prior to the teaching session one should check on the environment of the classroom has enough Chairs and tables and its well arranged, if the classroom is conducive enough for the students,well ventilated, is it too cold or warm for the students as this may disrupt the students attention from learning and the teaching materials are ready and well arranged, the lighting is adequate, students are able to move freely and there is no obstruction and no electrical cords that could pose any danger as this will make the students feel threatened in such environment (Bilings & Halstead, 2012). By ensuring this safety measure have adhered.
To ensure ideal environment to ask the students to keep their mobile in silence mode as according to Jenson (2000) any ringing phone will distract student attention from learning (Qiunn’s and Hughes, 2007).
This presentation topic is about mucositis and my students are adult postgraduate nurses. This paper represents the teaching and learning which underpinned teaching Strategies. For the teaching presentation, I have chosen lecture format.
Bligh (1998) lecture is the most common teaching strategy in adult education cited in (Bilings & Halstead, 2012). A lecture is an effective way to deliver the message to a large group of students within a limited time (Quinns & Hughes, 2007). (Ausubel et al, 1978) strongly agrees on the lecture as the mode of transmission of knowledge to students but disagrees on making the students to discover everything by themselves cited by (Quinns & Hughes, 2007). A well-planned lecture will succeed in motivating the students in learning (Curzon, 2004)
Though Bligh (1998) agrees that lecture is an effective way to convey the message but he points out that not all lectures as effective as the discussion to promote thinking and he also stated that students attention tends to wane off after 10-20 minutes of lecture (Bligh, 1998). I intend to sustain the student’s attention by involving them actively into the lecture by asking them a series of question to keep their mind stimulated. For the lecture Effective aide of power point, Microsoft and handout reading materials should be used. The power point was widely used in the nursing profession and educational organization worldwide as an appropriate teaching tool (Jones, 2009). According to Tufte (2003) oppose the use of powerpoint as he claims long sequenced slides would not be adapt to the lecturers cognitive style and Taylor (2007) overuse indicates inability of teacher and the slides will distract the students from learning cited by (Jones, 2009), should arrange slides with bouncing words and planned to ask question before revealing the points and this with keeping the students engaged with the lecture.
Giving handout materials for the students to provide information to the students about the topics and objectives. Petty says giving the handout materials at the beginning of the lecture would save time for both students and the teacher (Petty, 2004). However if the handover materials were given earlier at the beginning of the lecture, this distracts the student’s attention during lecture (Quinns & Hughes, 2007). It is best suggested by giving handouts at the beginning of the lecture just as said by Petty (2004) so this will save time for the students from trying to copy noted and they will stay focused on the lecture.
To use brainstorming in the lecture as Race (2001) have suggested that using of brainstorming to promote student-centered learning (Race, 2001). Plan to ask questions to assess the existing knowledge of the students on the topic prior to the teaching session. Effective questions can stimulate and provoke thinking in students (Exley and Dennick, 2004b; Race, 2001). Once have known the existing knowledge of the students will begin the lecture from that topic.
Should plan to give the questionnaire to a student before and after the teaching session and will be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the presentation and should give feedback form to the students for the lecture and should use feedback to improve the teaching skills.
So to adhere to adult learning theory underpinning Andragogy concept. Andragogy is adult learning theory developed by Knowles (1980). Knowles emphasizes that adult learners are self-directed, takes responsibilities for the own decision, active learners, learn by experiencing and they need to know the importance of learning something new (Billings and Halstead, 2012; Quinn’s and Hughes, 2007).
Learning style refers to individuals preferred a mode of learning. The term cognitive style replaced by the term learning style in 1970, according to Riding and Cheema (1991) cognitive is part of learning style cited in (Hands, 2006). Learning style may vary from each student. There may be visual, auditory, reading and kinesthetic learners (Billings and Halstead, 2012). Visual learners learn best by seeing and observing, auditory learners learn better by hearing to lecture or in the discussion, reading learner prefers to read from the note or reading materials while kinesthetic learners learn by action or feeling (Bilings & Halstead, 2012).
Teaching is a challenging process especially teaching nursing students. To become an effective educator, one will have to be a facilitator in learning rather than being a transmitter of information to students. While preparing for the teaching has given me an opportunity to enhance my knowledge in teaching. And being a first-time teacher I know I will be nervous and I might miss out some points in my presentation, but with I know I will be adapt well-being a nurse educator.