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Permanent Employees view of a Temporary Worker

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            Employment can be referred to as hiring of human labor in order to produce a product or services, where the hired individual is paid.  In permanent employment an employee is expected to work for an employer on permanent basis.  Temporary employees are hired to work within a given period of time, ranging from 1 week up to one year.  Normally, permanent employees enjoy more benefits than the temporary employees.  For example, benefits package of temporary employees are comprised of between 30-40% of a permanent employees base income.  On the other hand, temporary employment has its advantages; it’s easy to hire, has flexible hours, and low likelihood of being fired.

            A permanent employee’s view of a temporary worker in the same organization is influenced by various factors.  Examples of these factors in one way or another tend to increase the levels of impacts of permanent employee’s view of a temporary worker.  Due to this impact an organization needs to know the perceived views of permanent workers of the temporary workers.  The information is necessary to increase awareness of the workers.

Statement of the problem

            In a given organization both permanent employees and temporary employees may be hired.  The conditions of employment for these two groups differ in many ways.  Benefits that permanent employees enjoy are greater than those of the temporally workers.  Factors due to the conditions of employment cause certain opinion of temporary workers by the permanent workers.

These effects due to the views, in turn affect the organization undertakings.  This study will explore the research about the effects of factors on permanent employees view of a temporary worker.

Significance of the study

            Through the research findings, organizations will benefit by identifying the perceived views of permanent employees of temporary employees at the place of work.  The findings will be used to increase the awareness of the permanent employees’ view of a temporary worker in the same organization.

Research questions

The following research questions will be used to guide the study

  1. In what ways do salary promotion and tenure impact he permanent employees’ view of a temporary worker working the same organization?
  2. In what ways are identified factors of the permanent employees’ view of a temporary worker working in the same organization?
  3. In what ways can the permanent employees’ view of a temporary worker working in the same organization be developed and improved?


Data collection

            Questionnaires will be used to collect information on various attitudes of permanent employees.  The questionnaires will be distributed to employees with permanent status in organizations.  A sample of 100 questionnaires will be distributed.  The sample size enhances accurate response from participants and increase reliability and validity of the data.

Data Analysis

            Data collected will be analyzed by first recording it in a SPSS program (Spreadsheet format) and significance of relationships made based on hypothesis presented.  Both qualitative and quantitative data will be used.  Qualitatitive data will analyze depth feelings and emotions associated with relationships to permanent employees view of a temporary worker.  Quantitative data will measure attitudes of permanent employees in private and public sector organizations and other numerically related elements such as popularity and demand of the research project.

Data presentation

            The result s will be presented by use of charts and graphs and then comparing the data to secondary information collected.

Sources of information

            Primary source will be results from the conducted secondary sources will provide information for comparison with the primary source for example journals, research websites and textbooks.


            The workers views in an organization are influenced by various factors.  One factor is treatment of the employees in an organization.  The research study indicated that the permanent employees feel unfairly treated than temporary workers.  Both permanent and temporary workers show varying levels of satisfaction and well-being felt by the workers.  Two main causes of this were identified.  One is the issue of impact of different types of employment contracts on the workers satisfaction.  Permanent employees have a broader psychological contract as compared to the temporary employees.  The permanent workers therefore have a broader commitment towards the job than the temporary workers (Journal of Managerial issues).

            When the permanent workers do not meet the expectations of the employer, they feel that the employers are breaking part of the deal.  This has a negative effect of making the employees feel unfairly treated (Spahr .A, 2005)

            The level of workload affects well-being of the workers.  Based on the research findings, excessive workload affects workers well being.  The permanent workers due to their broader commitment towards work may experience a great workload than temporary workers.  Though the permanent workers may have more skills than the temporary workers they are subjected to too much workload, which they consider as being overworked.  The workers have lower levels of satisfaction from their work as compared to temporary workers.

            The study indicated that there are high levels of autonomy and skill development in permanent workers than in temporary workers.  The working conditions for the temporary workers are considered to be poorer than those of the permanent workers.  The opportunities for temporary workers to enhance their skills are more limited.  This limits the experience and skills that a worker requires for better opportunities in the future (Bharara .P, 2007)

            Temporary employment is encouraged by a decrease in the number of permanent employees.  Permanent employees have a broader commitment to an organization due to their high-level skills, experience, knowledge and qualifications where people who qualify for these positions decline in number, temporary employees are hired to fill the positions before a permanent worker can be hired.  The organization chooses to use the skills of temporary workers for the time being rather than lacking the labor force at all.

            There was increase in the proportion of temporary employment as compared to the permanent employment.  This was as a result of various factors.  One factor was, labour market demand becoming unfavorable.  Organizations where faced by uncertainty become very cautious in hiring workers.  They therefore opt to hire workers who cannot cost them adversely if changes occur in the market.  Where financial constraints may arise, the organization can easily dismiss a temporary employee compared to a permanent one (Bentolila et al, 1994).

            The unemployment level in a state at one given of the time affect the permanent workers view of the temporary workers.  Permanent workers view the hiring of temporary workers, as a result of high unemployment levels.  This is because high unemployment makes it easier for firms or organizations to find personnel willing to accept temporary employment.  The temporary workers are viewed as being desperate.  For a job such that they will accept a temporary job if it occurs (Anakwe U.P, 1999)      Another factor that influence views relates to the organization itself.  An organization is subjected to changes that pose challenges to them.  A good example is an organization’s change in their form of management.  Organizations experience both increased competition and specialization of production.  This contributes a lot to the organization’s desire on the part of employers.  Due to the organization’s needs, it needs to be capable of rapidly adjusting the size of their labour force.  The organization therefore, hires temporary workers to satisfy its needs when it comes to the labour force. The temporary employment is an easy mechanism to hire and dismiss workers when need arises (Mayfield .J, et al, 2006)

            An organization’s cost may increase in its laying off of personnel.  Lay off compensation offered by the government may no longer be available.  This makes it very costly for firms to lay off its permanent workers.  The firms will therefore develop measures of cutting costs in the event of cut backs in personnel.  The demand to cut down the costs encourages organizations to replace permanent employment with temporary employment.  Temporary workers are viewed as employees who assist in cutting the lay off costs of the organization.

            Temporary workers are viewed as a result of an organization’s hiring behavior.  This is contributed by lower rate of inflation.  With the permanent employment high inflation cause more flexible wages in real terms.Mistakes that may arise due to employers and employees matching can be rectified when an employees real wages are reduced through inflation.  The employee can then quite voluntarily.  Where the inflation is low, wages of the permanent workers become inflexible.  The organization will begin to offer temporary employment, because adjusting the work force through real wages possibilities become limited.

            The temporary employment is considered to act as a buffer against the negative effects on employment.  These effects result from wage increases.  An increase in the number of temporary employees causes a rise in the wages of permanent workers.  Where an inflation target determines the long-run rate of wage increases, temporary workers number affects permanent employment levels.  A higher proportion of temporary employees increase unemployment equilibrium in a given time.

            On the other hand high proportion of temporary employee may lower the unemployment equilibrium.  This is in case of excessive wage increases leading to fewer employees.  A higher proportion of temporary employees become greatly reluctant to demand excessive wage increases.  This is because; temporary employees may have a substantial influence on the wage formation. (Bentolila et al 1994)

            Temporary employees are viewed as workers who can be employed permanently in future.  Temporary employments is said to be a stepping-stone towards permanent employment.  Permanent employees may view temporary employees as future permanent workers in the organization.   While some permanent workers look at temporary workers in a positive manner, others may look at them as competitors who may deny them privileges that they may get (Clifford J, 1999)

            Temporary employment is attributed to factors such as low level of education female gender and foreign nationally.  The permanent workers may look down upon the temporary ones, as people without skills, experience high level of education.  This may undermine teamwork of the workers who may view their fellow workers ideas and skills as having no value (Bentolila et al, 1994)

            Temporary employment lessens the quality of work in an organization. Lower play means services that the workers offer are of low quality of work correlates with the pay.  The earnings of the temporary workers on average is less than the earnings of permanent workers.  Where the temporary workers may be paid to offer similar services like those of permanent workers this may be viewed as exploitation.  Some organizations employ temporary workers to reduce the costs of paying the employees.  Many permanent employees will increase the organization’s expenditure of salaries and wages.  Temporary employees do not receive benefits (for example health insurance benefits) and this also cuts down the organizations productivity due to lack of motivation to temporary workers.

            Temporary employment affects the continuity of necessary quality services such as medical care and legal advice.  This is in case of temporary assignments termination rapidly (Mayfield J. et al. 2006).  On the other hand organizations by hiring temporary workers may leverage its size as an employer. The organization can then create well –paying jobs as well as increase resident’s economic security.

            Permanent employees view of temporary employees can be developed and improved in an organization can be done in various ways.  The permanent workers view of being treated unfairly as compared to temporary workers can be improved by creating a broad commitment to the work for both groups of workers.  This increases a sense of hard work and responsibility for all workers, and hence none can claim to be overloaded with work than the other.

            Both temporary and permanent employees should develop skills, experience and knowledge.  This will prevent enhancement of skills for one group of employees while the other is neglected.  The labour market demands should be favorable to discourage hiring of a high number of temporary workers.  Favorable demands will encourage permanent employment.  The business industry should be certain of the future uncertainty encourage temporary employment.  Certainty increases a high proportion of permanent workers hiring.  Better lay off methods of personnel should be developed and implemented.  This will discourage temporary employment that can easily be dismissed or laid off.


            In an organization both permanent and temporary labour force is required and hired.  The permanent employee’s views of a temporary employee are affected by various factors, such as: salary, skills, organization’s expenditure, labour market demands and worker treatment.

            These perceived views affect organization undertakings.  It may affect the quality of services and the level of production.  The view should be well understood and initiatives made to increase of the views in the same organization.  This will improve the view to encourage better management and production.


Anakwe U.P. & Green halls, J.H. 1999.  Effective Socialization Content Perspective

Bentolila, S and Dolado, J.J. 1994. “Labour flexibility and wages: Lessons from       Spain.” Economic policy, vol.18

Bharara P. 2007. Corporations Cry Uncle and Their Employees cry foul: Rethinking             Prosecutorial pressure on Corporate Defendants.  American Criminal Law    Review, 44(1), 53+

Clifford, J.P.199. The Collective wisdom of the workforce; conversations with         employees regarding performance evaluation, Public Personnel Management,           28(1) 119

Journal of Managerial issues, 11(3) 315

Mayfield J. and Mayfield M. 2006.  The Benefits of leader communication on part-  time worker outcomes: a comparison between part-time and full-time employees            using motivating language. Journal of Business strategies, 23(2) 131+

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