One Global Culture
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Globalization signifies escalating global connectivity, incorporation and interdependence in the economic, cultural, technological, social, ecological, and political orbs. Globalization has an assortment of characteristics, which influence the world in numerous dissimilar ways. The various forms of Globalization are as such, Industrial Globalization, pseudonym Trans-nationalization is surfacing of worldwide manufacture markets and wider access to an assortment of merchandise for consumers and companies. However, what it appeared that the result of this process would be a world with one culture and elements like cultural pride, sovereignty, individuality would fail to exist in the long run. The derivation of this conclusion was deciphered with the help of socio-political instrumentation and economic influences that directly effect/affect the rise and fall of culture. The concept of one culture, the direct topic of the paper, was explained with the help of Georgette Wang and Emilie Yueh-yu Yeh’s article `Globalization and hybridization in cultural products: The cases of Mulan and Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon`, published in the International Journal of Cultural Studies in 2005, deals with this one culture theory. All these aspects proved that the world indeed moving towards a one-world culture format but it is not against the will of the general mass but with the gradual approval of the population.
The focal point of the paper is to evaluate and analyze the situation where there is a possibility of the world becoming a single Global Culture. It would also be evaluated if there would be a loss of cultural pride, sovereignty and individuality. For the purpose significant media manifestation like US-Chinese movies like ‘Mulan’ and ‘Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon’ would be taken into account to prove the cultural singularity theory. Additionally, the socio-political influences along with economic significances would also be evaluated as they are directly related to the formulation of cultural pride, sovereignty and individuality.
Globalization can be referred to as a new era of sunshine gradually but progressively scattering its rays all over the world, incorporating the nations, bringing people, culture and economies close to each other. Globalization signifies escalating global connectivity, incorporation and interdependence in the economic, cultural, technological, social, ecological, and political orbs. Globalization acts as an umbrella phrase and is perchance best explained as a unitary progression comprehensive of several sub-processes, such as improved financial interdependence, augmented cultural authority, rapid progress of information technology, and superior governance and geopolitical defies that are ever more binding people and the biosphere extra firmly into one global system. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, globalization is the course through which the understanding of day-to-day life is becoming harmonized all over the globe.
Globalization has an assortment of characteristics, which influence the world in numerous dissimilar ways. The various forms of Globalization are as such, Industrial Globalization, pseudonym Trans-nationalization is surfacing of worldwide manufacture markets and wider access to an assortment of merchandise for consumers and companies. Fiscal Globalization is appearance of international fiscal markets and improved access to foreign financing for commercial, national and local borrowers.
Economic Globalization is the comprehension of a universal widespread market, based on the liberty of exchange of supplies and capital. Political Globalization is the conception of a world government, which controls the associations between countries and assures the rights arising from communal and financial globalization. Informational Globalization is the augment in information flows between geographically inaccessible locations.
Cultural Globalization is intensification of cross-cultural relations, initiation of fresh categories of perceptions and distinctiveness such as Globalism, which exemplify cultural conduction, the craving to get through and have the benefit of foreign commodities and ideas, take on innovative technology and practices, and play a part in a world culture. Ecological Globalization refers to the beginning of global ecological defies that can not be worked out devoid of international collaboration, for instance climate alterations, cross boundary water and air contaminations, excessive fishing of the ocean, and the multiplicity of invasive species. Social Globalization is the term for accomplishment of gratis flow by people of all countries.
Georgette Wang and Emilie Yueh-yu Yeh’s article `Globalization and hybridization in cultural products: The cases of Mulan and Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon`, published in the International Journal of Cultural Studies in 2005, deals with this one culture theory. They refer to it as cultural hybridization. In recent years with the development of the concept of global village, hybridization is fast becoming the order of the day. In this concept, it becomes necessary for an industry to meet the needs of both local and global market all at the same time.
In addition, no industry is a better example meeting this dual market at one given time frame than the movie industry to ascertain a formulation of this phenomenon of globalization and hybridization. The authors Georgette Wang and Emilie Yueh-yu Yeh therefore have taken into consideration two global blockbusters Mulan and Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon for the purpose. According to the authors, Georgette Wang and Emilie Yueh-yu Yeh there are mainly three important features of this phenomenon. These can be enumerated as reculturalization, acculturalization and deculturalization. (Wang, 2005, 3, 1)
According to the authors the significant approach of Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon can be well emulated as a prime example of globalization and hybridization in a market where the maxim is to go beyond the parameters of the local market structure and capture the global audience. To achieve this target the director Ang Lee of the movie made sure that the usual tone Chinese movies are kept down and flavors are added to meet the taste of a global audience. The authors take note of the fact that “Ang Lee, being a diasporic Chinese, has attempted to instill a specific cultural significance in Crouching Tiger that no member of the Disney team would be interested in.” (Wang, 2005, 187, 2)
On the other hand, the production of the animated feature film Mulan is to be taken into account. “The Mulan story is based on a popular ballad written during the Northern Wei Dynasty (386–534 AD) about a legendary 14-year-old girl Mulan who, as a filial daughter, volunteers to join the army, by hiding her gender, in her father’s place”. (Wang, 2005, 180, 2) This is a predominantly Chinese story and the aura of Chinese aspects is all over the build up of the story. It is more rooted to chine than it is alien to Hollywood. This is an example of another aspect of globalization and hybridization seen from the perspective of the other way around. In this case, the Disney production team approached the film with enough impetus that gave a specific Chinese vibe to the film. This is an example of hybridization where a global company is ensuring its marketing strategy to capture the local market.
Thus, it could narrate the aspect of the basic issue globalization and hybridization is but a two-way approach. There the basic maxims of capitalistic economy are taken into consideration at every step of formulating the strategies of marketing. It is obvious that the basic impetus of any business is to deal with the principals of profit and the methods of maximization of profit margin. In this context of market induced economy that the issues of globalization and hybridization should have been considered by the authors Georgette Wang and Emilie Yueh-yu Yeh.
However, they remained focused mainly in the aspects of corporate issues and social context. However, this specific issue could have been dealt a certain truth in a much better manner if the truth had been evaluated and taken into consideration that “the matter of money is not only about accumulation of money but accumulation of power”. (Lamb, 2004, 181) thus it could be ascertained that society and everything related to the society is evolved and metamorphosed by the by manipulation of economy and globalization and hybridization is no different issue in this context.
The authors Georgette Wang and Emilie Yueh-yu Yeh mentioned in their article “To an outsider, there are things about other cultures that are insensible, illogical or unreasonable and yet are accepted without question as habits or traditions by the members of that culture. To solve the problem, cultural elements that were deemed to be beyond common sense to Schamus were compromised“. (Wang, 2005, 180, 2) True it is to the context but seen from a sociological point of perception. If the writers had been approaching in manner keeping in mind an economic background this sociological impact would have fallen in place quite easily.
However, it can be always mentioned that the East has very intricate value systems, which even today pose questions to the West. Particularly countries like Japan and China who base their belief in Confucian and Zen wisdom tend to react very differently than their Western counterparts. A thorough understanding is needed of their culture, perceptions and style of thinking in order to predict their behaviour on Western understanding scales. Globalisation forces the West to interact with East on a very large scale and success of this interaction will be based on these crucial key points, which determine the psyche of the Chinese modern manager.
Ethical values and corporate social responsibility are fast gaining global priority. The corporate sector has, since long, behaved as an isolated entity, powerful enough to influence and dictate directions in the life of the common person, as well as governments. The emergence of environmental concern and sustainability issues has highlighted the role of ethics and social responsibility in the functioning of the corporate sector. Modernisation has brought in materialism and consumerism, which by itself is not detrimental. (Fletcher, 2003, 224, 3-5) Thus, the views of the authors Georgette Wang and Emilie Yueh-yu Yeh hold substantial truth on the impact and evaluation of globalization and hybridization.
The authors are specifically to the point when they mention, “cultures are by nature fluid and are always in motion as the result of continuing interaction both from within the culture itself and with the outside world”. (Wang, 2005, 190, 3) Thus, it is obvious that the issue of globalization and hybridization is a passing issue, which would ultimately result in the formation of homogenous amalgamation of all human cult and culture. (Lamb, 2004, 116, 1) King mentioned in his book Cinema Today that movies like Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon are not here to stay for long because the industry in China is upwardly mobile corporate house that is getting ready to be amalgamated with Hollywood and everything would be seen from the point of view of a global villager and a global villager hardly cares for any specific cultural flavor. (King, 2006, 433, 1)
It could thus be ascertained as per the authors Georgette Wang and Emilie Yueh-yu Yeh that the issue of globalization and hybridization would ultimately lead to a situation where there would be no specified local culture at all. Indications are bright about this possibility and there is no way but to disagree with them in this respect.
Furthermore, Globalization generally refers to greater international cultural exchange, dissemination of multiculturalism, and enhanced individual access to cultural diversity, for instance through the export of Bollywood and Hollywood cinemas. On the other hand, the brought in culture can effortlessly step into the shoes of the local culture, causing diminution in assortment through hybridization or even incorporation.
The largely outstanding form of this is Westernization, but Sinicization of cultures has occurred over the most part of Asia for several centuries. Augmented intercontinental travel and tourism, greater than before immigration despite the fact that it may also pave the way for illegitimate immigrations, dispersal of local consumer merchandise such as food products to other countries over and over again making them acquainted to their culture, wide reaching fashion and pop culture such as Pokémon, Origami, Idol series, etc, global sporting events for instance FIFA World Cup and the Olympic Games, configuration or growth of a set of universal standards etc are the contributions of Globalization.
Globalization has also spread its wings in Technical as well as legal arenas. Development of a worldwide telecommunications infrastructure and larger across the border data flow, by means of such technologies as the communication satellites, Internet, wireless telephones, and submarine fiber optic cable, etc. Rise in the numerals of standards applied globally, such as copyright law, patents and global trade accords. The shove by several advocates all, over the world, for a global criminal court and worldwide justice movements.
Globalization may as well be defined as the internationalization of the whole thing associated with different nations. Internationalization on the other hand, is a distinct phenomenon to that of Globalization. The expression “Globalization” was denominated in the concluding part of the twentieth century, and the phrase and its impression did not infuse accepted awareness in anticipation of the latter half of the nineteen eighties. Assortments of social scientists have endeavored to make obvious connection between present day trends of globalization and previous epoch. Globalization is a century-protracted course of action, keeping track of the spreading out of human population and the escalation of civilization that has pick up the pace considerably in the past fifty years. Previous forms of globalization were present during the Mongol Empire, when there was better incorporation through the Silk Road.
Global amalgamation sustained through the spreading out of European trade, as in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when the Portuguese and Spanish realms got in touch with to all corners of the planet. The influence on European industries were remarkable for instance Silver Mining in Schwaz, in Austria was partially deserted, since silver was obtainable from the Spanish colonies for cheaper prices. Globalization transformed into a commercial phenomenon in the seventh century with the establishment of the first Multinational Company in The Netherlands. At the time of the Dutch Golden Age, the Dutch East India Company was formed as a private possessed organization.
For the reason that of the high threats are implicated with the international business, ownership was determined with amount of possessed Shares. The Dutch East India Company was the earliest organization on the planet to issue shares, a significant driver for globalization. Relaxation in the nineteenth century is generally known as “The First Era of Globalization”, an epoch identified by speedy expansion in global trade and investment, between the European regal powers, their colonies, and, shortly after, the United States. (Roy, 2001)
Globalization in the period from the time after World War II has been driven by improvement in technology, which has declined the expenses of trade, and business arbitration rounds, initially under the sponsorship of GATT, which led to a succession of concords to do away with restrictions on gratis deals. Given that, the end of World War II, after the arrival of the United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions, there has been a sudden increase in the attainment and influence of Multinational corporations and the fast expansion of global civil society.
The planet ever more is met head on by troubles that cannot be resolved by individual nations or states fighting unaccompanied. Instances comprise cross boundary air and water pollutions, excessive fishing of the oceans and several other dreadful conditions of the natural environment, directives of outer space, global warming, worldwide terrorist networks, comprehensive trade and finance, and many more. Explanation to these nuisances requires new outlines of collaboration and the formation of innovative global organizations. The Global scenario group, an ecological research and anticipating institution, analyses globalization as fraction of the budge to a Planetary chapter of Civilization, identified by global social associations, economies, and infrastructures. The Global scenario group also mentions that the future temperament of this global society is undecided and full of challenges.
Neo-liberalism is a tag for economic laissez faire that explains government policies intended to endorse liberated competition between trade firms inside market, particularly liberalization and monetarism, which is distinct from Globalization, which generally refers to greater international cultural exchange, dissemination of multiculturalism, and enhanced individual access to cultural diversity. In broad spectrum, neo-liberalism corresponds to a back off from the Keynesian economics that were prevailing without more ado after World War II.
The idea endorses a liberalization of capital markets therefore termed as “neo-liberal reform”. More particularly, neo-liberalism encourages a stable currency, a free market capitalism, unbiased budget, and free trade. Distinguishing characteristics take account of spreading out of the market to a round the clock global trading cycle, pact animalization, and augmentation in the rate of recurrence of contracts, incessant evaluations, and imitative markets. Antagonists argue that neo-liberalism is the functioning of comprehensive capitalism through military or government interference to guard the interests of multinational conglomerates, over and above this free trade also casts influences on wages and social structures. (Roberts, 2005)
Distinguished challengers to neo-liberalism in hypothesis or in exercise comprise eminent economists Joseph Stiglitz and Amartya Sen, Noam Chomsky, and the anti-globalization movement. Neo-liberalism look upon market mechanism as superior to states are distinct from globalization, which refers to the growing incorporation of economies and societies around the globe.
Transformationalists are geared up to take an in between course. The globalists may possibly have embroidered their case, but there remains proofs of extending and amplification of overall flows. Transformationalists are determined on the assortment of flows and the fusion of messages. A few programmes are not imported, but are re-contextualized in receiving countries. The advent of globalization, on the other hand, transformationalists would derive, is not that diminutive has altered, but that the connotation of what has distorted should be noted at with awareness. For case in point satellite television, which got separated from national broadcasting, has still a very restricted number of addressees and its influence on national cultures has continues to remain restricted.
In addition, national broadcasters are transforming their messages to go well with the satellite medium. There are disagreements between media conglomerates, among various nations-states and speed and character of technical growth might facilitate in approaching one or another way out. While there is a measure of globalization, its speed and direction is variably contested. The nation-state continues to keep hold of most of its authority, but it requires unfolding them and implementing them in innovative ways, if it desires to fulfill defies of global forces and global actors. For instance in a global structure of governance the perception of sovereignty is becoming a much more expandable and absorbent one. Sovereignty requires be sharing, passing to global with local bodies. It is put into effect by states. It is done in combination with local and supranational bodies. This does not essentially signify that globalization is deterioration the power of nation-states.
However, it does imply that this authority, in turn to be effectual, has to be transformed and reorganized. In addition, this is to a degree already taking place. According to some, for instance, certain international institutions are in reality best implicit as a response to global forces or better as a reemphasize in a dynamic method of the authorities of nations. Thus for transformationalists the particular forms followed by globalization are not predictable.
Detractors of the economic issues of globalization challenge that it is an alterable procedure, which flows logically from the economic requirements of every person, as its supporters naturally argue. The opponents generally accentuate that globalization is a course that is arbitrated in accordance with the commercial benefits, and naturally elevate the prospect of unconventional global organizations and strategies, which they suppose attend to the ethical claims of deprived and working classes all over the globe, with ecological concerns in a more impartial manner. (Sen, 2001)
Economic opinions by laissez faire logician assert that unobstructed free trade benefits the rich, and those with pecuniary influence at the disbursement of the poor and deprived people. Some argue that globalization inflicts credit-based economics, consequential in indefensible enlargement of liabilities and debt crises. Many international organizations that have a strong worldwide authority are not democratically maintained, nor are their heads democratically selected. Consequently, they are assumed by people as super national undemocratic authorities. Remonstrations by the global justice movement have strained sophisticated intercontinental conferences away from the chief cities where they used to be held, into isolated sites where remonstrations are not practical.
In conclusion, it should be mentioned that hybridization of cultures are nothing new to the history of the world and it as happened earlier. However, the only difference this time is that the scale is taking place at a much larger parameter today. We can well ascertain there would be a single culture in days to come is the current trend is in motion on an uninterrupted manner. There would be a loss of cultural pride, sovereignty, individuality but the gradual change would make it bearable for all, and the one world scenario would be welcomes by the generations undergoing the change.
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King, H; (2006); Cinema Today; HBT & Brooks Ltd
Lamb, Davis; (2004); Cult to Culture: The Development of Civilization on the Strategic Strata; National Book Trust.
Roberts, O M; (2005); Outline of Global Economy; Wellington: National Book Trust
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Sen, S; (2001); Difference between Thinking and Acting in Global Economics; Bloemfontein: ABP Ltd.
Wang, G.; Yeh, E. Y. (2005); Globalization and hybridization in cultural products: The cases of Mulan and Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon; International Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 8, no. 2, 2005