Motor Control and Fine Motor Skills
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Create posters/ a leaflet/ tables to outline the expected patterns of children and young person development from birth to 19, to include Social, Physical, Intellectual, Communication and Emotional development. Also identify age appropriate activities that can promote skills in each area of development.
Page 1 – Introduction
Page 2 and 3 – Physical Development
Page 4 and 5 – Physical Development Activities
Page 6 and 7 – Intellectual Development
Page 8 and 9 – Intellectual Development Activities
Page 9and 10 – Emotional and Social Development
Page 11 and 12 – Emotional and Social Development Activities
There are many stages within a child’s life where they grow and change throughout their childhood. I am going to examine the 4 different areas of a child’s development from birth to 19 years old. All these areas inter link and I will also briefly touch on activities which can help with their development. The holistic parts of the development will be given through the 4 main areas, these include: physical, intellectual, emotional and social. SPICE stands for social, physical, intellectual, communication and emotional. Every child develops at their own rate and every child is unique. Children do develop at different rates; however the majority tend to be slightly above or below the average growth line, but all children will follow the same sequence adapted to their individual levels. When a child is born, they get issued a red book which contains centile charts that measure their growth in height and weight.
At certain ages and stages of development these charts will be updated and each chart has an average centile line to see where your child should be at. Most children follow this line; however children can be above or below this line for their age and stage. Social, emotional and behavioural development is how people feel about themselves, and relate to others. Having the confidence to become independent and make your own way in life. They also need to learn what acceptable behaviour is to develop independence. To reach their ability and feel confident people need to be in a safe and secure environment. Physical development is a very important area of a child’s development. Children often develop these skills naturally, but need to have the opportunity to develop them in a variety of ways. They will need to develop gross motor skills, for example throwing, walking and running. They need to also develop fine motor skills such as doing up their clothes and holding a pencil.
Description of the Expected Patterns of Physical Development.
Age| Gross Motor Skills| Fine Motor Skills|
0-3 months| * Stepping Reflex. * Briefly keeps head up if held in sitting position. * Lifts head; visually follows slowly moving objects.| * Holds object if placed in hand. * Begins to swipe at objects within visual range.| 3-9 months| * Sits up with some support. * Holds head erect in sitting position. * Sits without support, can roll over in flat position. * Moves on hands and knees (crawling).| * Reaches for and grasps objects. * Transfers objects from one hand to the other. * | 9-18 months| * Crawls and walks grasping furniture, then without help. * Squats and Stoops. | * Some signs of hand fondness like grasping a spoon but with poor aim of food to mouth.| 18 months-2 years| * Walks backward and sideways * Roles ball to an adult * Can run, walk well and climb stairs using both feet
* Pushes and pulls boxes and beginning to unscrew lids.| * Stalks two blocks and can put objects into small containers. * Shows clear hand fondness and can stack 4-5 blocks at older age. * Can pick things up without over balancing.| 2-3 years| * Runs easily and can climb up and down furniture unaided. * Hauls and shoves big toys around an obstacle.| * Picks up small objects. * Can throw small ball forward whilst standing.| 3-7 years| * Walks upstairs and can walk on tiptoes. * Pedals and steers a tricycle. * Skips on alternative feet and can walk on thin lines, slides and swings.| * Catches large ball between outstretched arms * Can cut paper with scissors and hold a pencil correctly * Plays ball games well and can thread needle.| 7-12 years| * Skips freely * Can ride a bike without stabilisers. | * Writes individual letters. * Can write well and has good pencil control.| 12-19 years| * Physical changes in body, puberty begins.| * Brains developing with increase in reaction times and co ordination.|
Encouraging gestures and moving parts of the body gently.
Allowing plenty of space for them to start sitting up, reaching to grab objects and beginning to crawl.
Always encourage the children to walk by holding your hand for support and allowing pencils to colour and make marks with.
18 Months- 2 Years
By providing activities that the children can use the skills they are developing and to extend them.
Offer activities like drawing and painting for fine motor skills and play equipment or taking them to the park to play for gross motor skills.
Giving the children scissors to begin to develop their fine motor skills further. They should be able to control a ball and have good balance in P.E.
Giving them activities where they can apply gross motor skills like football, rugby etc. They should have freedom to use their fine motor skills.
Allowing activities in science and art to practise their fine motor skills and develop their gross motor skills in different P.E lessons.
Description of the Expected Patterns of Intellectual Development.
Age| Intellectual Development|
0-3 months| * Turns to soft light * Stares at carer * Cries when basic needs require attention * Stares at soft light * Gaze caught by and follows dangling ball| 3-9 months| * Follows movements of large and smaller objects * Very curious, easily distracted by movements * Puts everything in mouth * Watches toys fall from hand within range of vision| 9-18 months| * Looks in correct direction for falling toys * Immediately fixes sight on small objects close by and reaches out to grasp them * Drops toys deliberately and watches them fall – this is called ‘casting’ * Builds tower of three cubes when shown
* Looks in correct place for toys that have rolled out of sight| 18 months- 2 years| * Builds tower of three cubes when shown * Turns pages of books, several at a time, enjoys picture books and can point to a named object * Points to interesting objects outside * Points to parts of the body| 2-3 years| * Recognises familiar people at 6 metres * Copies circle and cross, draws man with head * Matches two or three primary colours| 3-7 years| * Paints with large brush, cuts with scissors * Matches symbols, letters and numbers * Can predict next events * Developing the ability to think about several things at once * Great curiosity in relation to workings of his or her environment| 7-12 years| * Can reason and apply logic to problems * Can transfer information from one situation and use in another * Becoming more creative in play * Reading and writing confidently * Increasing preferences for subjects| 12-19 years| * Developing ability to think abstractly * Will question sources of information * Becoming more globally aware * Clear preferences for arts or sciences * Choices relating to future education and careers being thought about
You should recognise the different cries the baby has by what the baby wants.
Make sure you show interest in the baby so he/she doesn’t feel neglected.
Allowing activities like puzzles and building blocks to help them piece things together.
18 months-2 years
Encourage different roles in life through toys like, play kitchens and pretend games.
Allowing children to do little jobs around the home to help the parents or carer out.
Answering any questions they ask and allow them to be open about any problems.
Develop their reading and writing skills further. Giving them activities to discuss ideas and views.
Giving them independence and making own decisions.
Description of the Expected Patterns of Social and Emotional Development.
Age| Social and Emotional Development|
0-3 months| * Shows excitement at sounds he/she likes. * Shows pleasure when being held and when spoken to. * Smiles. * Stares at parent or carer when being fed.| 3-9 months| * Holds bottle or breast when fed. * Loves ‘rough and tumble’ play. * Has favourite toys. * Copies facials expressions. * Interested in everything.| 9-18 months| * Loves picture books. * Can drink from a cup with a lid. * Can help undress self not dress. * Loves to play with walk along toys.| 18 months-2 years| * More ready for toilet training. * Likes dress up games. * Doesn’t suck on toys anymore. * Drinks from a cup with no lid.| 2-3 years| * Still unwilling to share.
* Tidies up well. * Hates to be restrained. * Loves helping with house work and chores. | 3-7 years| * Is capable of using a knife and fork. * Doesn’t like tidying up. * Uses humour more in play and conversations. * Shares well. * More self-efficient and very willing. | 7-12 years| * Transition from primary to secondary school. * Are conscious of what other people think of them. * They will notice change around them and begin to notice emotional stress through relationships. * Beginning to develop more independence but realise they can’t do everything so makes them feel vulnerable.| 12-19 years| * Spends more time with peers than family. * Begin to form different identities with clothes, hairstyles, music. * Moodiness is common. * Peer pressure with smoking, drinking, drugs. * Deciding what social groups they socialise with in secondary school.|
Making sure you have a strong bond with your child will have a great effect on their emotional development. Copy facial expressions.
Giving eye contact and attention to the child and showing empotions and feelings.feelings.
Letting them interact with other children and they will show different emotions in new situations.
18 months- 2 years
Allowing independence as well as having a good attachment with the parents or caer. Encouraging imaginative play with other children.
Making clear to the children about boundaries and right and wrong.
Allowing them to develop social skills with peers and encouraging them to gain independence.
Supporting the children through the transition of primary to high school and through puberty. 7-12 years
Allowing them independence and support through relationships with friends.