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Model of development for children

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1.Understand the expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth – 19 years.
1.1Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years.

Cross referenced with (H/601/3305) Child and young person development – L2 Learning outcome 1.1 The development of children and young people from birth through to 19 years is a very broad process that is unique to everyone. Therefore, the milestones of development which are a pre-determined order/sequence of growth and development of any child/young person can/will be affected by the rate of development and can vary hugely depending on many factors.

Physical Development is an important area of development and can often be assumed will develop naturally as they grow. Whilst this may be the case, opportunities for their physical development should be supported in order from them to develop their gross motor skills and fine motor skills.

0-3 years – Newborn babies have very little body control. Movement is dependent on survival reflexes (e.g. sucking/grasping). Gradually they develop some control and often by their 1st year have reached a level of mobility such as rolling/crawling. In their 2nd year, development continues rapidly and often start to walk and climb, use their hands to point, hold objects and attempt to feed themselves. By their 3rd year, fine/gross motor skills have developed enough for them to be more confident in the use of pencils, feeding themselves, running and exploring larger toys.

3-7 years – Confidence and co-ordination are developing and more refined fine/gross motor skills are evident e.g. writing, drawing, kicking and catching balls, running etc.

7-12 years – Sees children still developing and refining fine/gross motor skills through interests. Gross motor skills can be practised through physical activities/hobbies such as football/dance. Fine motor skills are maturing and often the playing of musical instruments is introduced. Early signs of puberty are often appearing in girls from the age of 10, whereas boys it is usually later. Puberty marks an area of rapid physical development.

12-16 years – Adolescence is the physical stage between childhood and adulthood where boys will be entering puberty and many girls will be almost through the process and having regular periods. Levels of growth in height and strength tend to vary. Boys will usually be taller and stronger than most girls.

16-19 years – Many girls will reach their physical maturity but boys will continue to grow until mid-20s. Communication and intellectual development are closely linked in a child’s ability to learn. Intellectual development can depend on experiences/opportunities during earlier years development. Levels of learning differ between children due to strengths and abilities.

0-3 years – Babies need stimulation and adults usually communicate with their babies through talking, singing and generally showing an interest in them. Neglected babies who do not spend time with adults usually experience difficulty with communication skills later in development. Babies listen to language without understanding and at around 12 months will attempt to speak often isolated and unclear words. This is followed with putting words together and broadening their vocabulary to about 200 words by the age of 2. From 2-3 years, vocabulary continues to expand and grammatical terms like negatives and plurals, although immature, appear in speech.

3-7 years – The clarity of speech and their ability to converse are more apparent. They will be starting to learn to read, write and have a limited understanding of numbers. Confidence is growing quickly and they become more inquisitive about their environment and begin to ask questions. Beginning to develop their ability to concentrate and enjoy sitting and listening to stories. They have the ability to follow simple instructions and begin problem solving and enjoy making choices based on their own ability and experiences. This age range covers a huge spectrum of development and adult approval is of great importance to them.

7-12 years – Reading and writing skills continue to improve and their understanding of language is enabling them to be more confident speakers and allows them to be able to discuss their opinions and ideas confidently. The language skills they have developed will enable them to have personal interpretations of situations.

12-16 years – Choices are being made in education, young people are fairly clear on their preferences and abilities and this is reflected in certain areas. They are making decisions on selection of subjects for which to study for and are taking or preparing for GCSE’s. Teenagers have a need to feel good about themselves and self-esteem figures highly.

16-19 years – Dependant on exam results, university/college places are being sought and career choices made. Children are entering adulthood and they now know their strengths and through career choices can go on to develop them.

Social, emotional and behavioural development is the process where a child starts to understand who they are, what they are feeling and what they should expect from others. Their social, emotional and behavioural development influences all other areas of development.

0-3 years – The greatest influence on a child’s social and emotional development is the quality of the relationships that they develop with primary care givers. They begin to learn about their own identities. They are possibly starting nursery and beginning to make and develop friendships. They will have a key worker to look towards for support and often become frustrated and have tantrums as the need and want to do things for themselves has developed.
3-7 years – Rapidly developing their social skills, interacting with peers through role-play, helping them to develop understanding of the roles of prominent people in their lives. They are starting to manage their feelings of frustration and disappointment more easily and are learning the importance of boundaries and rules. They respond to responsibility such as class helper and are feeling more self-confident. They seek adult approval and respond well to praise.

7-12 years – Friendship groups will have formed and children often have a best friend. They are learning to express their ideas and feelings. Self-confidence is heightening and beginning to display empathy towards others. Problem solving strategies are evident and independence is developing. Adult praise and approval is still sought and are aware of what others may think about them.

12-16 years – Children in this stage of development can be very vulnerable. Physical changes may be occurring and although this may be obvious they still need the support and guidance of adults. Independence is at a higher level and they will want to spend less time with adults and more time with friends. Despite this level of independence immaturity can be evident in their actions and behaviour and kind find themselves under pressure from expectations.

16-19 years – Entering adulthood means that if a sound, solid upbringing has been experienced then young people will have the confidence to continue to learn, accepting advice and guidance from adults. Allowing them to mature emotionally and develop meaningful and lasting friendships and relationships and to value those around them.

1.2Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important. The development of children and young people from birth through to 19 years is a very broad process that is unique to everyone. Therefore, the milestones of development which are a pre-determined order/sequence of growth and development of any child/young person can/will be affected by the rate of development and can vary hugely depending on many factors. All areas of development, although often divided into different areas (see 1.1) are very much linked with one another.

Each development milestone can affect a milestone in another area. A simple activity like playing a board game encourages physical development such as fine motor skills or hand-eye coordination which can affect social, emotional and behaviour development by helping them develop their ability to share and take turns. This in turn, helps develop their communication and intellectual development by interaction and conversing with each other.

If a child develops by sequencing it enables us to plan effectively and at the right time. When recording the rate of development, it helps us to identify any concerns that the child/young person may have within a development area, this enables us to further investigate why this is happening. It is important to know the difference between the sequence and the rate of development as it helps to identify the child/young person’s needs during each aspect of their development and education. It is crucial to plan effectively ensuring the child receives the support they need in the specific areas in which they find most difficulty.

2.Understand the factors that influence children and young people’s development and how these effect practice.

2.1Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors. There are many personal factors that can affect development, some of which are listed below: Health – some conditions can hinder development, e.g. heart problems often delay physical development. Obesity also can affect physical development which can also then affect a child’s self-esteem. If a child has health issues that restricts physical development this can then impact on their social activities/interaction with others which could result in less involvement with peers creating emotional anxieties and a feeling of isolation.

Self Esteem – if children have delayed communication or intellectual development they can often feel inferior to their peers of a higher intellectual ability which influences their social emotional and behavioural development.

Disability – can have a huge impact on all areas of development, however, these children/young people should be encouraged and supported in all areas of development to achieve the best that they can. Educating other children about disabilities can and will have a huge effect on the child concerned making them feel more valued and part of the class and allow the other children to realise the feelings and emotions of others, enriching their social, emotional and behavioural development.

Puberty – all children/young people develop at different rates and puberty is a difficult time that effects both physical and emotional development. 2.2Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors.

There are many external factors that can affect development, some of which are listed below: Family/background – Children come from a range of different family backgrounds, cultures and circumstances. Changes within a family unit e.g. marriage breakdowns, moving home, new babies in the family are situations that can have massive effects on all areas of a child’s development emotionally and intellectually.

Personal Choices – friendship groups and hobbies affect personal development. Supporting and advising children in these areas to make the best decisions for them is detrimental to their future.
Poverty/Deprivation – will inevitably have some impact on a child’s development. Statistically children from deprived backgrounds perform and achieve less in school than others.
Social depravation – can lead to early childhood development issues such as speech problems or the inability to socialize in an appropriate manner. Which leads to social and emotional behavioural problems later in life often leading to difficulty forming lasting and solid friendships and relationships.

Nutrition – this can have a direct impact on a child’s development both physically and intellectually. Unhealthy eating can lead to weight gain and other negative effects if a child does not learn how to eat healthy in early years.

Environment – Parental interactions with children can have a largely positive or negative effect on a child’s development. Parents who spend time playing and teaching their children through reading and play, hands-on games and activities will have a positive impact on their child’s development. If children do not receive this type of interaction with parents then their development can be hindered and will affect the way in which children respond to different situations.

Status (in care/looked after) – Some children are brought up in care and have been exposed to experiences other children will never have and these children need to be monitored closely for behavioural issues and to ensure that they are reaching the expected levels.Education – a very important way of nurturing development and some children may have come into school from another country where education may have started later, may be from another culture or may have been home schooled.


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