Management and the function of leadership
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1.1 Characterise the concepts and nature of management and the function of leadership. The basic concepts of managing are the planning, organising, staffing, directing, co-ordinating and controlling of staff and resources it is a process of dealing with and/or controlling things or people to bring order and to increase the productive output of a workforce within an organisation by using effective and useful methods and theories.
F.W Taylor and his associates studied the performance of work in a scientific way to establish what affected the productivity of the workforce. To do this, Taylor projected that if jobs were simplified then productivity would increase, along with this theory, he believed that workers and managers needed to cooperate with each other. Taylors interest was in the efficiency of how tasks were completed and came to the realisation that workers were only motivated by money so decided that workers will only get paid for the work they do.
(Taylor, 1911) suggests “the principle object of management should be to secure maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee, maximum prosperity for each employee means not only higher wages than are usually received but of more importance still, it also means the development of each man to his state of maximum efficiency”
According to Taylor (1911) “a large part of the organisation of employers, as well as employees, is for war rather than peace and that perhaps, the majority on either side do not believe that it is possible so to arrange their mutual relations that their interests become mutual” Elton Mayo carried out four experiments; The Illumination Experiment, Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment, Mass Interviewing Program and the Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment, these are known as the Hawthorne Experiment.
These experiments were designed to determine the productivity under certain conditions and the effect they had on the staff participating in them. They ranged from different amounts of light in the workplace to the length and frequency of breaks. What Mayo established from the Hawthorne experiment was that none of the conditions that were established increased the productivity, but the productivity increased when the workers where understood and listened too by their seniors, this highlighted that there was more of a social and psychological connection which created an increased motivation which in increased productivity.
Taylors scientific management theory and Mayo’s Hawthorn experiment, although are different resulted in the same conclusion, if the workforce is listened too and understood by their seniors then there is a higher possibility of an increased output of productivity. A leader and a manager, although carry different definitions, are still the driving force of an organisations workforce. Their aim is to still achieve an organisations goals but by doing it in a different way, a manager will delegate and work to company rule whereas a leader will join the workforce, influencing, inspiring and motivating, not only teaching the team but also learning with the team.
Management and leadership becomes a social and psychological science or an art and science. According to Colley (2007), recognising the complexity faced by general managers has led to some in the field to note that business is as much an art as a science, (Watson, 1986) suggests that in order to make sense of the complex and highly ambiguous situations in which managers find themselves, management can be viewed not only as an art and science but also as magic and politics.
The art of management is the art of managing people, it’s a personal attribute gained through education, training and experience, the science is being able to apply and develop knowledge gained through study, practice and experiments to achieve specified goals. These create the connection between a manager and a leader.
1.2 Evaluate the concepts and definitions of leadership and their influence on management. Leadership and management, two roles that differ, yet with similarities and functions that overlap.
The definitions and concepts of leadership are different to that of a manager but have the same organisational outcome. According to (Bennis, 2009) “Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing. Both roles are crucial, and they differ profoundly”. (Maxwell, 1993) suggests “Management is the process of assuring that the program and objectives of the organisation are implemented. Leadership, on the other hand, has to do with casting and motivating”.
A leader, leads by listening, inspiring and motivating people, by building a reliable team around them and influencing them to push the boundaries.
“Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. But they are necessarily linked, and complementary”. (Sharma, 2013)
A leader is not necessarily an authoritative figure, a leader is an influential person within a group, someone with empathy and compassion for their team/group, this could be a sports team captain or even in a religious establishment, with which group members look up to them.
Research shows that there is a continuous argument as to whether a leader is born or made, a leader must be a bit of both. Some traits of a leader are natural, maybe hereditary, others are learnt through training and experience. Theorists believe a leader continuously develops their skills and knowledge throughout their career, they learn from continuous study, training and first-hand experiences.
(Bennis, 1999) suggests “The most dangerous leadership myth is that leaders are born — that there is a genetic factor to leadership. This myth asserts that people simply either have certain charismatic qualities or not. That’s nonsense; in fact, the opposite is true. Leaders are made rather than born”.
Leaders and managers work towards the same organisational goal, although managers will do this by working to rule, they will decide how and when the decisions are made, leaders will push beyond these rules, driving themselves and their team further forward promoting these decisions, inspiring and motivating, teaching and mentoring and even learning from their team.
Leaders and managers are the same, have the same goals, use the same resources, they just do it differently, a manager does it because they have too, a leader does because they want too.
1.3 Evaluate the influence of effective and ineffective leadership and management on team behaviour and business performance. For an organisation to be successful, it’s leadership and management need to be effective but what if it’s not, how does it affect the workforce and what happens to the organisations performance? Understand Leadership Style
2.1 Analyse the characteristics of different leadership styles. There are many different leadership styles, each one has its own unique characteristics which have their own appropriateness and impact in an organisation and effect on a team. An Autocratic leader is very much an organisation orientated leader and commonly has individual control over all decisions and employees. An autocratic leader watches over the employees, controlling how things are done, punishing/rewarding staff dependant on the outcome of a task.
The positives of an autocratic leader are that decisions are made quicker and productivity is increased while the leader overlooks. An autocrat is very good at working to tight deadlines and getting tasks done.
The negative side of an autocratic leader are that employees are dependent on the leader, unable to complete task under their own initiative. Employees can also feel undervalued, this can result in low morale and an increased sickness level along with a higher turnover of staff.
A Bureaucratic leader has some similar attributes at that of an authoritative leader, they work by the book and an expect staff to follow procedures to the letter.
This style of leadership is very appropriate for tasks that involve serious safety hazards such as machinery, heights and/or toxic substances.
The positives of a bureaucratic leader are decisions are made quicker, managers also have a great deal of control over how tasks are done, this allows for task to be completed effectively and efficiently.
The negatives of a bureaucratic leader are that staff can become demoralised and lose morale, this too can lead to higher staff turnover and increased sickness levels. Staff can also be restricted from sharing ideas and progressing and reduce the chance for the organisation to react to changing circumstances.
A Democratic/Participative leader will offer the chance for staff to contribute towards the decision-making process although the leader will make the final decision. The involvement of staff encourages them to have an input, sharing ideas and being involved in discussions, this influences and motivates them, encouraging them to direct themselves. The negatives of a democratic leader could lead to delays in production when a quick decision is required. The positives of a democratic leader are that the team have a higher morale and motivation an increase in personal growth and productivity and a lower staff turnover and absenteeism.
A Laissez-faire leader is very hands-off, delegating work and leaving staff to make their own decisions. This style of leader will provide the resources and let the skilled, experienced staff complete the task with very little guidance. If a problem should arise, the leader will let the team work out a solution for themselves yet taking responsibility for their decisions. The negatives of a laissez-faire leader are that production and satisfaction could be reduced, resulting in non-completion or poor quality of work and the possible reduced personal growth of staff.
The positives of a laissez-faire leader are that staff can challenge their own productivity, working free from interference, the lack of supervision can push others into a leadership role.
Different styles of leadership work well in the right situations and circumstances, if they are used at the right time and in the right area, they can be very effective, increasing staff motivation and organisational productivity and growth. Should they be used at the wrong time and in the wrong are, the opposite could happen, reducing productivity, demoralising staff and increasing staff turnover and sickness levels.