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The main idea of liberalism is that a human being has possess a freedom in order to determine his own fate. Fro the point of view of liberals, the government exists only to protect a person from violence from the side of other people or groups and to widen limits of execution of individual freedom. The society is a totality of individuals, and primary and final values of society coincide with values of individuals, which are constituents of that society. In the sphere of politics liberalism appeared as reaction for authoritarian regimes. Liberals wanted to limit rights of hereditary power, to widen a circle of people who have right of voice and to provide guarantees of civil rights.
In economic field liberalism was a reaction for intervention of governmental structure into decision of economical problems. In XX century liberalism was a bit different – this difference almost doesn’t touch definite political forms of civil structure, which is proposed by old and new liberals: both of them vote for system of representative government, practically total right for participation in elections for adults and guaranteeing of civil rights. But in any definite case, where you need to choose from centralization and decentralization of political responsibility, liberals of XX century usually support taking decisions by central government, basing on principle that in such a way you can make more good for people.
Universalists’ principles confirm dignity and worth of each individual. They also affirm right of conscience and justice. Universalist approach propagates compassion as well as equity in human relations and all this serves liberal interests. They also are involved in different kinds of programs, which focus attention on current Canadian social policy as well as other changes which take place in relation to social problems of Canadians such as health, unemployment insurance, employment and also different kinds of programs dedicated to social assistance. They also propose reduction of real interest rates, guaranteed annual income, family allowances, etc.
Institutional approach intends to provide individuals with greater equality or relative equality. This institutional model has the aim to correct mistakes of inequality, which took place as result of operation of market economy in the country to the problem of poverty.
The present institutional model is enhanced by more costly and generous benefits. It states, that individuals will be lead from poverty and dependence into another stage of welfare through training, education and support.
Liberals in greater extent than politicians of other category are interested in functioning of social and legal institutions. They underline important meaning of scientific principles (and not “miracle” conscience) and their usage during examination of processes, which take place in society and that are why liberals concentrate their attention on stimulating motives, i.e. on stimuli, which means that they are very interested in forms and development of those institutions.
They have to obey not only principles of post hoc, ergo propter hoc,(as it happens often when politicians try to copy institutions, which exist in other wealthy countries, where they don’t ask a question, whether the welfare of that country was created with help of institutions or institutions themselves (doesn’t matter whether they are effective or not), could be created thanks to welfare, which already existed in the country and which was accumulated with the help of other institutions.) but also other principles. Free and wealthy society needs simple and predictable legal standards. Government with limited possibilities can provide “common limits” for legal rights, which allow to society to exist in all its complicity.
Regulation, which is understood as legal standards and principles, which allow to create regular conditions to provide different kinds of operations, should be opposed to plenary powers of legislators and bureaucrats, who can arbitrarily make changes into legal standards and to impose their will on others by means of laws, regulations, orders, etc; such regulation can be secured by legal institutions of government, including legislative institutions, arbitral and courts, as well as public institutions of civil society.
Liberalism is a philosophy of freedom, law and welfare. It includes legal institutions, – i.e. governmental institutions with limited plenary powers, which take care of creation of limits, inside of which we use the gifts of freedom; thanks to that freedom we make the society wealthy and prosperous.