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Introduction of Solar Cells Into Everyday Life

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The world population needs energy to survive. Energy is utilizing in everything in the world such as domestic, industrial and agricultural. The demand of energy is increasing over the passage of time because of the increasing population in the world. Energy utilization and energy requirement is important role in the life. Nation’s development needs the huge amount of energy available and accessible. The primary energy resources such as coal, oil and gas, nuclear, hydro and renewable energy. The fossil fuel is most abundant from of energy which is completely fulfilling the daily energy requirements. The fossil fuel (coal, oil, gas) are limited available in quantity and also effect the environment. The demand of energy is greater than the energy resources, clearly the situation is imbalance.

World nuclear energy is converted to electrical energy on the basis of fission reaction. The first nuclear power plant came in 1950s. The power generation of nuclear power plant is 17.6% in 1996 to 10.8% in 2013. Since the total capacity of nuclear power plant is 64GW in July 2014. Nuclear power plant has radioactive elements which are released into the environment quite harmful for mankind. Researcher, scientist and industrials have collaborated over the years to find the demands of energy now a day. Modern sources of energy implemented in every day of life. As the results researchers find out the alternative energy sources. Among all the different sources solar energy is always attracted a lot of interest. Solar energy is free available energy from the sun. It’s a clean, secure and sustainable energy. It should be environmentally friendly, economical and socially acceptable. On the basis of this advantages, converting solar energy into a controllable and useful energy form such as electricity while increasing the efficiency and decreasing the cost is major challenge.

Solar cell

Sunlight is the electromagnetic energy which is converted into electricity due to the photovoltaic effect discovered in 1839[book]. A French scientist named as Edmund Becquerel. Sunlight is packets of energy which contain multiple range of wavelengths of light. When sunlight strike a solar cell some of the sunlight is absorbed, reflected and transmitted in the solar cell.
In order to model a solar cell to understand the following basic steps of a solar cell which convert the electromagnetic energy into electrical energy in a photovoltaics.
This phenomenon is known as photovoltaic effect.

  • When solar cell is absorbed the incident sunlight, due to the interaction of photon with absorber to generate charge carriers such as electron or hole pairs i.e., electron are excited from the valence band to conduction band.
  • The separation of charge carriers electron move toward the N-type of semiconductor and hole move toward the P-type of semiconductor.
  • The collection of the charge carriers through electrode. Then connect it into the external circuit.

Since there is different types of solar cell technologies have been developed and achieved different efficiencies. In the first generation of photovoltaics are represented all types of silicon wafer based and GaAs solar cell. In the second generation of photovoltaics are represented as the amorphous silicon (a-si) and non-silicon based thin film such as CIGS, CdTe based solar cell. In the third generation of photovoltaics are represented organic, quantum dots, dye-sensitized (DSSCs) and hybrid solar cell. The graph is demonstrated by National Renewable Energy lab (NREL) for the power conversion efficiencies of solar cell over the recent years and also comparison the new emergent and traditional photovoltaics technology.

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