We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Insect repellent

essay
The whole doc is available only for registered users

A limited time offer! Get a custom sample essay written according to your requirements urgent 3h delivery guaranteed

Order Now

The alarming case of dengue in the country is spreading widely and their innocent victims are continued to rise. Many companies, NGO’S, even the DOH (Department of Health) were alarmed by the rapid increase of the dengue carrying mosquitoes. Department of Science and Technology (DOST) continues to develop possible solution in this critical situation. Filipinos are terrified with this. DOST and DOH continue to search any alternatives to solve this problem. Eucalyptus and lemon grass are one of the specimens which show the characteristic of compounds in repelling mosquitoes with the help of carabao manure. It can serve as an effective medium which the extract of eucalyptus and lemon grass can mix with carabao manure to produce an effective mosquito coil. This is one of the ways that can help to decrease the rate of death rate due to the cases of dengue. This mosquito coil made out of carabao manure, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract can be an alternative medium to reduce the case of dengue related problems, because of the contain chemical component of the subject of the study. Consequently, with this product also known as “katol” can be a good buster against mosquitoes due to the efficiency of it.

B A C K G R O U N D O F T H E S T U D Y
Dengue victims are continuously spreading in our society and they are caused by the prime suspect also known as the “Aedes aegypti”. These breed of mosquito are merely found in places where stagnant water occurs such that abandoned tires, containers and street canals. Mosquitoes are the most dangerous killers in the world where they victimized an approximate of 2 to 3 million people in a year. Mostly found on leading stores are the commercialized chemical based mosquito coils. These coils contains high level of toxic chemicals that cause respiratory illness, likely occur to children having 5 yrs. old and below of age. Like DEET (N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) that are widely used by most residents in our community. Mosquito coils help to prevent and to control the outbreak of diseases such as Malaria, Dengue fever and West Nile fever. In connection with this, DOST (Department of Science and Technology) studied that carabao manure is an effective alternative medium for commercialized mosquito coils.

And some studies showed that extracts of lemon grass and eucalyptus leaves do possess some ability to repel mosquitoes because of its lemony, herbaceous, citronella like odor and P-Methane-3, 8-diol chemical component. P-Methane-3, 8-diol component are also know as an active ingredients used in mosquito repellents. It smells is similar to menthol and acts as coolant, so it is said to be similar to a low concentrated mosquito repellent with DEET. So the researcher do have the idea to combine the extract of lemon grass and eucalyptus leaves and mix it to the carabao manure that serves as the base of effective alternative mosquito coil.

S T A T E M E N T O F T H E P R O B L E M
General Objective:
The study is designed to produce an effective mosquito coil out of carabao manure with an extract of lemon grass and eucalyptus leaves combined together. Specific Objective:
Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
a) Is the LEMOCALYNURE KATOL shows effectiveness compared to commercialized chemically base mosquito coil? b) Does LEMOCALYNURE KATOL can sustain its flammability under a certain time? c) Is LEMOCALYNURE KATOL hazardous to one’s health?

H Y P O T H E S E S
1) The carabao manure with the extract of lemon grass and eucalyptus leaves can be an efficient alternative for commercialized mosquito coil. 2) LEMOCALYNURE KATOL can sustain its flammability under a short period of time. 3) There are no signs of harmful effects that can be seen on the natural component of the variables of the product.

S I G N I F I C A N C E O F T H E S T U D Y
Through this study, the researchers will be able to contribute their knowledge in the community in repelling mosquitoes. The success of this study can help the community in repelling the mosquitoes in an easy way. This study serves as a stepping stone for the future researchers’ project more complex. S C O P E A N D L I M I T A T I O N O F T H E S T U D Y This study aims to explore the ability of natural chemical compound of carabao manure, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract to produce an effective mosquito coil. The delimitations of the study mostly likely occur in comparing the efficiency of LEMOCALYNURE KATOL to the commercialized coil and limited only in drying, extraction, combining, molding and drying. Compared to commercialized coil, LEMOCALYNURE KATOL cannot sustain its flammability without using flammable substance such as alcohol and gasoline. The diameter of the product which is 10 centimeter is the same as the commercialized one. The study and observation after testing it of the 10 correspondents ran for almost 2 weeks.

C H A P T E R II
This chapter consists of related literature, related studies, conceptual model and definition of terms.

R E V I E W O F R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E
According to Sachin A. Mundaugane, in “The Wealth of India: A dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products” proved that Pyrethroids and DEET used in coil lead to hyper excitation of nervous system and prolong uses result in corneal damage, liver damage and asthma. About 12 % of users are seriously affected by use of repellents. The common problems are caused by inhalation of its smoke. Its inhalation toxicity is high even at low concentration of 0.0044 mg/liter/day or 4.39 ppm. According to Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering and Technology, “carabao manure have been selected as base for preparing mosquito coil. The base are useful, carabao manure is better because it has some additional exceptional properties. Some unpublished data says that the carabao dung smoke is a potential antioxidant. A detailed study on carabao manure based dhoop is being at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi in Association with Gorigyan Anusundhan Kendia, Nagpur.

The US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, “now approve oil of eucalyptus also known as p-methane-3, 8-diol or PMD, as an alternative mosquito repellent. Extract of eucalyptus is a natural plant based repellent that is prepared from its leaves, commercially compared to citronella – another known insect repellent. It’s because of its lemony, herbaceous and somewhat citronella like odor. It is said to be similar in effect to a low concentration of mosquito repellent with DEET. This extract is also can be used to make throat lozenges and cough drops to aid in bronchitis recovery. Oil of eucalyptus has been used to as a mosquito repellent in Europe, Latin America, Australia, and in ASIA since the 1980’s. According to the CRC Ethno botany Desk Reference by Tim Johnson, “ lemon grass (cymbopogon citratus) is traditionally used in various parts of the world as an antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cyanogenetic, dentrifice, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, pectoral, preventative (cold), stimulant, sudorific, tonic, used to treat common cold, cough, fever, flu, gingivitis, malaria, leprosy, sprains, toothache, rheumatism, mouth sores, neuritis, hypertensions, an can use as insecticides and mosquito repellent. R E L A T E D S T U D I E S

The scientist at the Department of Pesticide Chemistry, Tamil Nadu (Ramesh and Vijayalaks hmi, 2001) studied three types of mosquito repellents: (i) two different mosquito coil containing allertin 0.1 % w/, and transfluthrin 0.03 % w/w, (ii) an aerosol sample containing a combination of two pyrethroid molecules (deltamethrin 0.002 % w/w + alletrin 0.13 % w/w) and (iii) two different mosquito muts containing esbiothrin 2.0 % w/w and pullethrin 1.5 % w/w as active ingredients. Air samples from the room were drawn at different time intervals uniformly from three different positions in the room (top, middle, and bottom) and the pyrethroid contents were analyzed by them. The study revealed that at the end of 6 hours period of most of the mosquito coils and liquidator residue drops below 0.0001 ppm (practically negligible) that too in a closed room.

The coil liquidator used mostly for 7-8 hours a day is ineffective even after 5-6 hours and only smoke along with bad smell left inside the room and no mosquito repellent action at all. So in the present study an attempt has been made to develop, carabao manure based herbal mosquito coil. Ever since an established fact and practice is that the natural mosquito repellent is effective, cheap, and keep environment pleasant and health friendly. D E F I N I T I O N S O F T E R M S

This guide will help you to understand the study.
Alcohol – a material used to fasten the lit of the coil and eliminate the unnecessary odor. Aluminum foil – used to avoid the product to stick on the molder. Blender – a material used to extract the juice from the leaves. Carabao manure – used as base for coil and it can repel mosquitoes when burned. Commercialized coil – serves as the molder.

Eucalyptus – a kind of plant that produce menthol smell that repels mosquitoes. Food coloring – used to enhance the color and appearance of the coil. Lemon grass – a kind of plant that is known to repels mosquitoes. Paper – a material used to bind the carabao manure.

Gasoline – a substance that helps to increase the flammability of the coil. Starch – a substance used to mold and bind the variables to produce coil.

C O N C E P T U AL MO D E L
Figure I
Mosquito undergo with the application of LEMOCALYNURE KATOL. (Ingredients: Carabao manure, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract)

Figure II
Mosquito undergo with the application of LEMOCALYNURE KATOL. (Ingredients: Carabao manure, flour (powder), eucalyptus and lemon grass extract)

Figure IV
Mosquito undergo with the application of LEMOCALYNURE KATOL. (Ingredients: Carabao manure, cooked starch, paper, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract)

Figure III
Mosquito undergo with the application of LEMOCALYNURE KATOL. (Ingredients: Carabao manure, starch (powder), eucalyptus and lemon grass extract)

Figure VI
Mosquito undergo with the application of LEMOCALYNURE KATOL. (Ingredients: Carabao manure, cooked starch, paper, alcohol, gasoline, food coloring, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract Figure V
Mosquito undergo with the application of LEMOCALYNURE KATOL. (Ingredients: Carabao manure, cooked starch, paper, alcohol, eucalyptus and lemon grass
extract)

Figure VII

Mosquito undergo with the application of commercial coil.

C H A P T E R III
This chapter consists of research design, subject of the study, sources of data, and research procedure. R E S E A R CH D E S I G N  The researchers made to use the comparative study. It aims to see if alternative LEMOCALYNURE KATOL made from indigenous materials – carabao manure, lemon grass, eucalyptus, and paper can be possible alternative for commercially made mosquito coils. We all know that LEMOCALYNURE KATOL cannot defeat the high quality of commercial ones. But with the help of the comparative analysis, we can assure you that this product is can be used as alternative because of its ability to repel mosquitoes.

S U B J E C T O F T H E S T U D Y
The carabao manure, eucalyptus, lemon grass extract was used as the main material of the study. Because of its ability and chemical components like (N,N-Diethyl, Meta-Toluamide) , P-Methane-2 and 8-diol, monoterpene hydrocarbons, a-pinene, O-limomene, P-cymene, B-pinene, A-phellandrene, comphene, Y-terpinene which constitute major amounts that is all necessary for a high quality homemade mosquito coil.

S O U R C E S O F D A TA
We get some of the data in this study from internet and books. Other data came from our own observations and the reactions of the correspondents who tested the effectiveness of LEMOCALYNURE KATOL by using it as an alternative for commercial one. R E S E A R C H P R O C E D U R E

Drying Process of Carabao manure
Gather specific amount of fresh carabao manure that can make 4 coils from it. Dry it under the sun for 3 or 4 days. It is better to prolong the time of exposure of manure under the sun. Extraction of Eucalyptus leaves

Gather at least ¾ kilograms. Of Eucalyptus leaves and ready it for extraction. Do not wash the leaves; it removes the pungent aroma of the leaves. Wipe them with a clean cloth instead. Set it aside. Next, prepare the blender put the leaves in it. Pour 5 milliliters of water then blend it. Wait until the leaves are crushed. Filter the extracted juice from the leaves using cheese cloth. Squeeze the residue for the remaining extract. Put it in a clean container.

Extraction of Lemon grass leaves
Gather at least a bundle of lemon grass leaves and ready it for extraction. Wash the leaves. Chop the lemon grass leaves finely. Next, prepare the blender put the leaves in it. Pour 5 milliliters of water then blend it. Wait until the leaves are crushed. Filter the extracted juice from the leaves using cheese cloth. Squeeze the residue for the remaining extract. Put it in a clean container. Combination of Extracted juice, Carabao manure and Alcohol

Put an equal amount of 20 milliliters of extracted juice from eucalyptus and lemon grass into a container. Soak the carabao manure from the extracted juice for almost 1 hour. After soaking drain the excess juice from it. Then, pour 6 teaspoonfuls of alcohol. Molding Process

Using a finely shredded paper, food coloring and cooked starch, mold it to a mosquito coil to form it shape using a commercialized coil. Dry it for almost 2 days under the sun. The longer the exposure, the better. Sustaining its Flammability

After drying the finished product, soak it in a gasoline to sustain its flammability. Dry it under air exposure. After that it can now be used to repel mosquitoes.

C H A P T E R IV
Carabao manure, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.
This chapter consists of flow chart, presentation, analysis, and
interpretation of data.

Carabao manure, flour (powder), eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.

Carabao manure, starch, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.

Carabao manure, cooked starch, paper, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.

Carabao manure, cooked starch, paper, alcohol, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.

Carabao manure, cooked starch, paper, alcohol, food coloring, gasoline, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.

This portion discusses the trial and error of the researcher. It aims to see which is the most effective and successful one. T A B L E IV-I
Comparing the mosquito coils
Mosquito coils| Positive| Negative| Carabao manure, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract. | Strong smell that can surely repel mosquitoes. | It’s hard to mold and do have an annoying smell. Breaks easily. | Carabao manure, flour, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.| Strong smell that can surely repel mosquitoes. Easy to mold. | It is fast to be spoiled. Breaks easily. Have an annoying smell. | Carabao manure, starch, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.| Strong smell that can surely repel mosquitoes. Easy to mold. Don’t have annoying smell. | Breaks easily. It is hard to lit and shows low flammability. | Carabao manure, cooked starch, paper, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.| Strong smell that can surely repel mosquitoes. Easy to mold.

Don’t have annoying smell. Can hold itself. | Shows low flammability. Can’t sustain flame.| Carabao manure, cooked starch, paper, alcohol, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.| Strong smell that can surely repel mosquitoes. Easy to mold. Don’t have annoying smell. Can hold itself. Increase the flammability. Add fragrance. | Can’t sustain its lit.| Carabao manure, cooked starch, paper, alcohol, food coloring, gasoline, eucalyptus and lemon grass extract.| Strong smell that can surely repel mosquitoes. Easy to mold. Don’t have annoying smell. Can hold itself. Increase the flammability. Add fragrance. Sustain its lit. Improve its appearance. | |

Compared with

Mosquito coil| Positive| Negative|
Commercialized mosquito coil| Can bust mosquitoes. Can sustain its flame. It can hold itself. Good physical appearance. | Produce nauseating smell that’s bad to be inhaled by person with respiratory illness. Contribute in air pollution. |

Application of eucalyptus and lemon grass extract, finely shredded paper, cooked starch, food coloring, gasoline and alcohol to carabao manure can show the strength, effectiveness, and conveniences of the product due to the essential extract of the special plants that is being combined to the carabao manure which also shows the ability to repel mosquitoes. Cooked starch helps to mold the coil easily. Alcohol prevented to produce annoying smell. Food coloring helps to improve the appearance of the coil. The finely shredded paper serves as the binder of the coil. And because of the alcohol and gasoline the flammability of the product increases. LEMOCALYNURE KATOL after being compared to commercial coil shows that it is efficient alternative for it. LEMOCALYNURE KATOL also has the properties of repelling mosquitoes. But unlike of the commercially made ones, it is environment friendly and doesn’t threat the human health. The LEMOCALYNURE KATOL had been tested by ten (10) correspondents. They had been surveyed and rated the product from 1-5. Table IV-II showed the rate of the testers about the LEMOCALYNURE KATOL.

T A B L E IV-II
Rating of the LEMOCALYNURE KATOL
Legend:
5- Commendable 3- Acceptable 1- Very poor 4- Highly acceptable 2- Poor

Testers A-J
A| B| C| D| E| F| G| H| I| J|
5| 4| 4| 5| 4| 4| 4| 4| 4| 5|

Average Rate|
4.3|

Rating of the Commercial Coil
Testers A-J
A | B| C| E| F| G| H| I| J|
5| 5| 5| 5| 5 | 5| 5| 5| 5|

Average Rate|
5.0|

The average rate shows that the LEMOCALYNURE KATOL is highly acceptable.  At first, all the testers do not believe that carabao manure is can be recycled to an effective alternative for commercially made ones. But after they tried the LEMOCALYNURE KATOL, they were fascinated and also proved as replacement for commercially made ones based on the satisfaction rate of the testers.

C H A P T E R V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS
SUMMARY
The purpose of this study is to produce environment friendly and effective alternative product for commercialized mosquito coil. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1) Is the LEMOCALYNURE KATOL shows effectiveness compared to commercialized chemically base mosquito coil? 2) Does LEMOCALYNURE KATOL can sustain its flammability under a certain time? 3) Is LEMOCALYNURE KATOL hazardous to one’s health?

Comparative method of research and observations were used to gather data in proving the effectiveness of LEMOCALYNURE KATOL as alternative for commercialized mosquito coil and also to determine the positive and negative effects of it. Also the reaction of the testers helps a lot. After the data were gathered, they were analyzed carefully using observations and by other information acquired.

The following findings were obtained:
1. Based on the average rate of the testers to the LEMOCALYNURE KATOL, it indicates that it is acceptable as effective alternative for commercialized coil. 2. LEMOCALYNURE KATOL sustains its flammability after being soaked in gasoline. 3. There are no signs of harmful effects that can be seen on the natural component of the variables of the product. CONCLUSION

From the findings acquired, the following conclusions were drawn. 1. The organic mosquito coil, LEMOCALYNURE KATOL is effective alternative for commercially made one. 2. Based on the observations, the organic mosquito coil made with carabao manure, extract of lemon grass and eucalyptus, finely shredded paper, food coloring, gasoline, alcohol and cooked starch is the most successful one. 3. LEMOCALYNURE KATOL is not a threat to human health and it is also environment friendly.

RECOMMENDATION
Based on the findings and conclusions attained in the study, the following recommendations are made: 1. People can use LEMOCALYNURE KATOL as alternative for commercialized mosquito coil because it shows the ability in repelling mosquitoes. It is environment friendly and doesn’t harm the human health. 2. Further study by researchers is recommended to provide a more completely effective product. 3. Further study is still recommended to research a substance that can helps LEMOCALYNURE KATOL to increase more its flammability and sustain its lit.

Related Topics

We can write a custom essay

According to Your Specific Requirements

Order an essay
icon
300+
Materials Daily
icon
100,000+ Subjects
2000+ Topics
icon
Free Plagiarism
Checker
icon
All Materials
are Cataloged Well

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.
Sorry, but only registered users have full access

How about getting this access
immediately?

Your Answer Is Very Helpful For Us
Thank You A Lot!

logo

Emma Taylor

online

Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?

Can't find What you were Looking for?

Get access to our huge, continuously updated knowledge base

The next update will be in:
14 : 59 : 59