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History Of Tourism

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Early Beginnings of Travel
The Babylonians (Sumerians)
– The creation of money and trade
– Trade was developed around 400 B.C.
– Babylonians were also credited with thefounders of travel business.

Early Beginnings of Travel The Egyptians
– First cruises were organized and conducted from Egypt.
• The first journey for Tourism was made by Queen Hatshepsut to the land of Punt in 1480.

– Early Egyptians started the trait of purchasing souvenirs from the places they visit

Early Beginnings of Travel The Egyptians
– 2700 BC: the Pharaohs began to build elaborate burial tombs (pyramids)
– Egyptians were also the first ones to start celebrating festivals.

First Voyage Around the World Use of Early roads
– Mesopotamian roads were mainly paved dirt roads.
– The island of Crete had better roads
• 13 ½ feet wide twolane road.

First Voyage Around the World Use of Early roads
– The Romans developed roads for military use and it covered most of their empire.
• Developed at around 150 BC
• Roman roads were quite elaborate in construction. (cobblestones)
• And some of these roads are still in use.

First Voyage Around the World
The Silk Road
– The fabled road where the east met the west.
– Some sections were directions across trackless steppe or desert
– A trade route where states along this route traded.
– Silk was not the only thing traded there.

The Classical World
The Olympic Games
– Started in 776 BC.
– City states gathered togetherevery 4 years for competition
– The games created festivals, and attractions were born out of it.
– Lodging also became a commodity needed during these festivals

The Classical World
– Father of History
– Travelled all over Greecce and the Aegean Islands, sailed to Cyrene and explored Sicily and Italy.
– Made records of his travels
– Also considered as the worlds first “Travel Writer”

Early Ships
– Master shipwrights.
– Built a network of trading posts
around the Mediterranean.

– Followed the Phoenicians.
– Improved ships and accelerated the Mediterranean trade.
– Merchantships also carried passengers for profit.

Early Ships and Records of
– Had ministers for travel as early as 4,000 years ago.

– Used small dugout canoes under 40 feet and used these to travel from South East Asia.

Early Tourism Developments
– The fall of Rome spelled disaster for travel and tourism.
– Dark ages- only the most adventurous persons would travel. Travel was not for pleasure.
• The Crusades

– End of the Dark Ages; pilgrimages were popular.
• The ancient Passport was born in 1388: permits for pilgrimages were required

Early Tourism Developments
– The rise of tour guides came about in the 14th century.
– Pilgrimages gave birth to different accommodation facilities.
– The “Grand Tour”
• Travelling for educational purposes.
• Where present trips to Europe originated

Early Tourist Attractions
• Great Pyramids of Egypt (including Sphinx)
• Hanging Gardens of Babylon
• Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus
• Statue of Zeus at Olympia

Early Tourist Attractions
• Collosus of Rhodes in the Harbor at Rhodes
• Great Lighthouse (Pharos) in Alexandria, Egypt
• Temple Artemis at Ephesus

Other Early Accommodation Facilities
Spas, Baths and Seaside Resorts
– The use of Spas after the original use by the Romans.
– 18th century: Spas were very fashionable
– Sea Bathing also became popular because saltwater had medicinal effects.

First Travel Agents
Robert Smart
– Self-Proclaimed first steamship agent.

First Travel Agents
Thomas Cook
– Began Running a special excursion train from Leicester to Loughborough
– Was recognized as the first rail excursion agent.
– It covered a distance of 22 km for 570 members.
– He acted as an agent by buying tickets in bulk and selling it to others on a non profit basis.
– This gave him an idea to package tours in a profitable manner.

First Travel Agents
Thomas Cook
– He organized the travel arrangements, accommodations, transport at the destinations and return to the homeland.
– He organized the first ‘inclusive tour’ to Paris Exhibition in 1855.
– ‘Hotel voucher’ was introduced by Thomas Cook in 1867 and ‘Circular Note’ in 1873 which made travel easier.
– First ‘Round the world tour’ in 1872.

First Travel Agents
Thomas Benett
– Served as the British consul general in Oslo.
– Arranged scenic tours in Norway for visiting British notables.
– 1850: he set up a “Trip Organizer” business and provided tourists with itineraries, carriages, provisions and a “traveling kit”

Historic Transportation
Stagecoach Travel
– Coaches were invented in Hungary during the 15th century and provided regular service on prescribed routes.
– Stagecoach travel became so popular that it was responsible for the development of the famous English Tavern.

Historic Transportation
Water Travel
– As early as 1772, market boats picked up passengers and goods on ship canals in England.
– Transport Service between Manchester and the London Bridge
• This water travel service had a coffee room

– Then came the Steamboats in 1815.

Historic Transportation
• Rail Travel
• Automobile and Motor coach Travel

Historic Transportation
Air Travel
– 1926 saw the first US Airline: Variety Airlines
– First international route was flown by Pan American Airways from Key West, FL to Havana, Cuba
– Gradual expansion of territories covered by US Airlines.
– Most of their staff and equipment was used for war service during WWII.

Historic Transportation
Air Travel
– The Boeing 707: the first commercial Jet made by the United States.
– 1969: The Concorde takes flight
– 2003: The Concorde took its last Commercial Flight.

Historic Accommodations
• Private dwellings were the earliest guest rooms. Travellers were hosted almost like members of the family.
• Caravansaries and inns were used in the Middle East and in the Orient.

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