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Contribution of Training and Development Activities to the Effective Operation

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Assess the contribution of training and development activities to the effective operation of ‘DODO Fairmont’. (Outcome 4.1) Describe the role of human resource manager in training and development in a hotel industry. Training

Training is the process of teaching employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs or for the developing additional skills. The firm’s training programs must make sense in terms of the company’s strategic goals. For example, since DODO Fairmont targets guests from various countries, one of the things the human resources manager must include in training programs is to focus in multiple languages for their staff. Training and development programs support performance management. This is an integrated goal oriented approach to assigning, training, assessing and rewarding employees’ performance. Thus, human resources manager must ensure that training at DODO Fairmont also support performance management. For this to happen, the human resources manager must conduct the following: * Need or performance analysis

Need analysis is a detailed study of a job which the human resources manager must conduct to identify specific skills required specially for new employees. The best way for the human resources manager to perform this step is through a form where, the followings would be monitored; the task being performed, the quantity and quality of performance, working conditions, skills and knowledge required and how these skills can be earned. Performance analysis has as goal to verify if there is a performance deffiency and to determine whether that deffiency should be completed through training or through some other means such as transfer of employees. This can be achieved through observations of employees by supervisors or tests on job knowledge and skills.

* Design stage
Based on the needs and availability of resources the human resource manager would design the training program to a specific job position of task. * Validation

In order to determine the training’s validity, the human resource manager must test the training on a sample pool of employees to see if those who received the training have better performance on the job than those who did not receive the training. This sampling process should be conducted on multiple groups to make sure the training is valid. * Implementation

It is the easiest step to do if all the above steps are done well. Now the human resources manager only has to train the employees who need to learn the skills and behavior. It is important that human resources manager schedule the training when the trainee is fresh and also that the training is broken down into small segments to lower the chance of fatigue. * Evaluation

This is the most important step during a training program but unfortunately, it is the same step that most human resource managers forget. This step helps human resource managers to know whether or not the training program has given the expected results. To measure training programs, human resource managers can use the following steps: reaction; did the trainee like or enjoyed the training, learning; this can be measured by asking questions upon materials that the trainee would be using in the near future, behavior; are they using the skill or behavior they have learned during their training in the actual working environment and results; the human resource manager should measure the outcome of the training that is whether or not the employees who participated in the training increase their performance or not.

The development of employees within DODO Fairmont comprises of the employee’s education, job experiences, relationships and assessment of personality and competences to help him/her prepare for the future of their careers. The human resource manager of DODO Fairmont must focus on the training and development of its employees as it is the key to remain competitive. This is because in the hotel industry, there are constantly changes and employees need to improve and learn new skills. So this is the role of the Human resource manager to ensure development of the employees.

DODO Fairmont have to develop right type of career development programs so as to make the employees grow to their full potential and to retain skilled, competent and talented employees in the organization. The Human Resource manager of DODO Fairmont can use career development programs to identify the pool of talent available for promotion and posting. The relationship between career development and human resource planning is obvious. Career developments ensure a supply of abilities and talents, whereas human resource planning projects demand for talents and abilities. Career development is an organized approach used to match employee goals with the organisation needs in support of workforce development initiatives. The purpose of career development is to:

* Enhance each employee’s current job performance.
* Enable individuals to take advantage of future job opportunities. * Fulfill the company’s goals for a dynamic and effective workforce. Line managers are responsible for linking the organization’s needs to employee career goals, and can assist employees in the career planning process; this will be discussed later on in the assignment. The Human Resources department is responsible for designing career paths and employee development programs that help employees reach their goals. There are many career development programs that can be adopted by DODO Fairmont to ensure employee development in the company. Some of them are listed below:

* Cross-Training
Cross-trained workers are taught skills outside their current job assignment so they can be called upon to perform a variety of tasks as the need arises. Cross-training helps organizations to balance workloads so everyone is busy, and allows the company to respond quickly to employee absences. A formal program of cross-training is put into place by Human Resource manager as a career development program. It also allows employees and departments of DODO Fairmont to gain a better understanding of the “big picture”, and to improve communications and relations. Employees who are cross-trained are more valuable to the company, and more marketable in the work world overall. * Job Rotation

Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job within an organization, as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives: one of them is enhancing their career development. Job rotation is often used by employers who place employees on a certain career path or track, usually for a management position, where they are expected to perform a variety of duties, and have a variety of skills and competencies. * Job Enrichment

Job enrichment involves increasing a worker’s responsibility and control over his/her work. Job enrichment allows the employee to expand his/her responsibilities to develop new competencies without leaving his/her current position or the organization altogether. * Career tracking

Employees follow pre-determined steps along the career path to develop expertise in managing different types of organizational situations. Regular checks are done to evaluate progress, as well as determining what further training or experience is needed to move to the next step. Career tracking often uses several other career development interventions as part of the process. These include cross-training, job enrichment or enlargement, and temporary assignments. [ (Career Development Program) ]

Describe how line managers are related in this area to be able to achieve their departmental objectives

Line managers are those responsible for getting effective performance; should plan, control and organise the work, he is also responsible for the motivation of the staff under his department and ensure that the work is being done properly. One of the major roles of the line managers is the training and development of staff. Often it is the human resource department, who has the training and development to do, but the line managers play important role in this task also. Having line managers involved in the training and development of staff comprise many advantages: * The line manager is in the best position to know his team and integrate the best training program. * The line manager will have to integrate the training and development in the day to day working. * The line manager can make use of the training and development to motivate its team and reinforce team building and performance. The role of the line manager in training and development:

* Set clear expectation
As a line manager, being responsible of a department of section, setting expectations to employees is necessary for them to know what the line manager is expecting from them. It will be giving them goals to achieve and perform. * Conduct performance appraisal

Performance appraisal should be conducted regularly. Standard appraisal sheets should be used so as to make the appraisal valid and reliable. The appraisal will be used to measure the gap and thus find solutions to remedy to this gap and be more efficient and professional especially in the hospitality industry.

* Take weaknesses to build on future training and development According to appraisal the line manager will take upon the gaps which are the weaknesses so as to plan for future training and development each employee requires. This will enable the line manager to make it specific and thus the training and development will be more benefic to both the hotel itself and the employee also. * Coaching role for their staff

In addition of appraisal, coaching its staff is very important as a line manager. Being with them in the workplace, he knows everyone’s character, good sides and wrong sides; the line manager should continuously coach its staff to obtain the better from them. He should be able to use the best of each employee to make the team work efficiently. When doing appraisals he should also explain to them the benefit of it and encourage them to be better. * Training and development should be realistic and valid

When planning for training and development of staff it should be realistic to their post, educational level and most of all it should be able to fit their working hours. Workers should be tired because of the program, there should be a good coordination between both and the line manager is the one who should manage that. Normally in hotels, training and development are conducted in low seasons so as to be able to manage. An example of a line manager is the food and beverage manager. The food and beverage manager has the different responsibilities concerning training and development of his team for food & beverage service. The food and beverage manager is responsible for developing a comprehensive training package that encompasses of elements to maintain a motivated and skilled workforce which will fulfill the needs of the organization. The food and beverage manager needs to do the following: * Schedules, coordinates and conducts training orientation and programs for food and beverage.

* Identify and provide training and development needs within the food and beverage department through job analysis, appraisal schemes and regular consultation with supervisors. * Develop effective introduction programs for new hires as well as existing staff members. * Help the supervisors and trainers solve specific training problems, either on a one-to-one basis or in team. * Provide training materials with the help of the facilities managers for in-house courses. * Provides insights and input to job rotation, job enrichment, career path and other issues around job families. Line managers are more hands-on oriented and responsible for getting the work done, maintaining employee performance and handling disciplinary issues while the human resources manager role is to see that any issues are dealt with fairly, legally and in accordance with company policy. Therefore, below there is a comparison of both managers’ role and responsibilities concerning training and development. Human resource manager| Line manager|

Work in a team to produce program that are satisfactory to all relevant parties in an organization.| Amend and revise program, in order to adapt to changes occurring in the work environment.| Prepare staff a handbook that is standard of procedures for training sessions.| Devise individual learning plans.| Help line managers and trainers solve specific training problems.| Design and develop training and development program based on both the organisation’s and the individual’s needs.| Keeping up to date with developments in training by reading relevant journals, going to meetings and attending relevant courses.| Develop effective induction programs.| Monitor and review the progress of trainees through questionnaires and discussions with supervisors.| Ensure that statutory training requirements are met by producing training materials|

‘DODO Fairmont’ in incorporating training and development program perform by line manager will be improving even more the staff motivation and performance. As the line managers are the best to evaluate its own staff, having continuous appraisal and training and development which will fill the breach of each and everyone. In this case it will be more specific and more effective for the employee and the hotel. Conclusion

As a department representative, the line manager needs to work closely with the human resources department to design, develop and deliver training programs and activities as human resources trainers develop learning objectives based on line managers’ understanding of the organization’s coaching philosophy. Hence, the human resource manager and the line managers should therefore work collaboratively together to ensure the organization maintains a consistent approach to performance management.


AGCAS. ( 2010 , October). Prospects. Retrieved December 28, 2012, from Training and development officer: http://www.prospects.ac.uk/training_and_development_officer_job_description.htm AGCAS. (2012 , July ). Prospects. Retrieved December 28, 2012, from Human resources officer: http://www.prospects.ac.uk/human_resources_officer_job_description.htm Career Development Program. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2013, from http://www.explorehr.org/articles/Career_Management/Career_Development_Program.html Mayhew, R. (© Copyright 2012). Small Busines Chron. Retrieved December 28, 2012, from Why Should HR & Line Managers Work Together?: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/should-hr-line-managers-work-together-10377.html Merlin Entertainment . (n.d.). Retrieved December 28, 2012, from F&B Supervisor – Training and Development: https://suite.agile1.com/JBMerlin/client/skins/merlin/default.aspx?url=https%3A//suite.agile1.com/JBMerlin/public/atsjbjobdetail.aspx%3FFrom%3DPubSearchResults%26rq%3D1251 Moore, M. (© 1999-2012 ). eHow money. Retrieved December 28, 2012, from What Is the Difference Between Human Resource Managers & Line Managers?: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5732337_difference-resource-managers-line-managers_.html

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