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Concepts associated with nutritional health

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There are many different types of food and drink that both animals and humans consume. The food we eat determines the lifestyle we have. A diet is not just something humans go on to lose weight. A diet is the food a drink that a human or animal usually eats. There are many different types of diets that people use in order to achieve something, such as weight loss or weight gain. Nutrients are found in food and drink and are a substance that provides the nourishment which is needed to maintain a healthy lifestyle and healthy growth. Lack of nutrients can cause many deficiencies such as malnutrition. A deficiency is a lack or shortage of something. For example, the deficiency malnutrition is a lack of nutrients and vitamins in someone’s body. Obesity is a word used to describe someone who is very overweight and has a high percentage of body fat. Obesity is caused by eating over your daily allowance of calories and not doing any exercise. Obesity is a very serious condition and can lead to very serious issues such as a heart attack, heart failure and type 2 diabetes. A BMI (body mass index) is a measurement that most people use to calculate if their weight is healthy for their height. BMI can be calculated by dividing your weight in kilograms by your height in metres squared.

By doing this calculation, you would be left with a number. If this number is below 18.5 you would be classed as underweight, anything between 18.5 and 25 is classed as a healthy weight, between 25 and 29.2 fits the criteria for overweight and anything above 30 is classed as obese. For example, if someone was to weigh 50 kilograms and was a height of 1.7 metres, they would be underweight. This is because 50 divided by 1.7 squared equals to a BMI of 17.3. This number fits the criteria of being underweight. Growth charts are a standard part of any check up when a child goes to the doctors. Growth charts show health professionals how children are growing compared to other children of the same age and gender. Growth charts also show the pattern of children’s height and weight gain over time, and displays whether or not they are growing proportionally. Growth charts can also display health problems. For example, if a child was to grow along the same pattern until he/she was 2 years old, and then suddenly started growing at a much slower rate than other children, this could indicate a health problem.

Dietary reference values (DRV’s) are estimates of the amount of energy and nutrients needed for good health. (for an average healthy adult). This was published by the United Kingdom Department of health in 1991. RNI’s (reference nutrient intakes) are used for proteins, vitamins and minerals. These are estimates of the amount that should meet the needs of most of the groups in which they apply. There are many measurements found on a food label. A food label must include the product name, list of ingredients, shelf life, storage instructions, instructions for use, weight of the product, country of origin and the name and address of the manufacturer. All of these requirements are mandatory, this means the manufacturer/packer has to include them by law. The list of ingredients tells the consumer all the ingredients that have been used to make the product. The list of ingredients is written in descending order by weight, so the first ingredient of which there is most in the product and the second ingredient the second most and etc. Nutritional information is usually given on the nutrient content of the macronutrients- proteins, carbohydrates (‘of which sugars’ is sometimes included), salt content and fats (‘of which saturates’ is sometimes included).

The label may also include grams of fibre. Nutritional information will always include the energy value (calories). A food label sometimes also displays symbols, to show if the product is suitable for those who are vegetarian, vegan, allergic to nuts, allergic to gluten and are lactose intolerant. Food labels will also display the use by date, best before date, best before end and display until. These all show dates in which the food is suitable to consume until before it gets spoiled. There are five food groups associated with the eat well plate. These groups are fruit and vegetables, starchy carbohydrate foods such as potatoes, rice and pasta, protein foods such as meat, fish, eggs and beans, milk and dairy products and foods that are high in fat and sugar. The eat well plate is used to help people eat the right amounts of certain foods each day and shows how to balance it out. The two largest sections of the eat well plate are filled with fruit and vegetables and carbohydrate foods. This means these are the foods we should be eating the most of daily in order to stay healthy. The second two largest sections on the plate are dairy products and protein products.

The smallest section is filled with foods high in fat and sugar. These are the foods we should not be eating a lot throughout the day, we should only eat a little. Vacuum packing food is very useful within the food industry as it preserves food for longer. By vacuum packing, moist foods wont dry out because there is no air to absorb the moisture from the food. Dry, solid foods, for example brown sugar, will not turn hard, because they don’t come in contact with air and can’t absorb moisture from the air. Foods that are high in fats and oils won’t become spoiled, because there is no oxygen contacting with the fats, which causes the unappealing taste and smell. Insect infestation is eliminated, because insects require oxygen to survive and hatch. There is a difference between UHT and pasteurised milk. Pasteurised milk is only heated for a short period of time to kill off most of the dangerous bacteria. However, it does not kill all those, which will cause the milk to spoil after a short period of time. UHT milk is heated to a higher temperature and is heated for longer, to kill off more bacteria.

This will make the milk last much longer as long as the container is not opened. UHT milk also has a slightly different flavour to pasteurised milk. Obesity can be treated either naturally, with medication or surgically. Obesity can be treated by a 1500 calorie diet filled with the right types of food such as fruit and vegetables and starchy foods such as potatoes and rice. Obese patients also try weight loss programmes. For example, ‘slimfast’. This is a weight loss programme designed to help people lose weight by only consuming meal replacements. Such as meal replacement milkshakes. These diets would also include at least 1 hour of exercise per day. These diet would make the obese patient lose a considerate amount of weight. However, many people do not have the motivation to lose weight naturally as it is a hard process so most obese patients go with surgical options or try to lose weight with weight loss medication. There are many weight loss medications, for example adios.

This is a weight loss pill that would be taken daily. However this would only work with a healthy diet and a considerate amount of exercise, the does not cause the weight loss but only speeds it up. The most popular surgical option for weight loss is the gastric band. A gastric band operation is a type of weight loss surgery that involves reducing the capacity of your stomach using an adjustable band so that you can only eat small meals. This would also only work properly with a healthy diet and some exercise. Alcohol can be very unhealthy when consumed too regularly is large amounts. The government have set guidelines on alcohol consumption for both men and women. Women have a daily guideline of only 2-3 units of alcohol. This is no more than a single 175ml glass of wine. Men have a daily guideline of 3-4 units of alcohol. This is no more than 1 pint of strong lager. All labels displayed on the packaging of alcohol will display how many units is within the product.

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