Children Soldiers: A Rationalist Perspective
A limited time offer! Get a custom sample essay written according to your requirements urgent 3h delivery guaranteedOrder Now
From history it has been noted that many of the children’s are used in the armed forces. And there were many governments and many social schemes are prohibiting the use of children’s for fighting against any one. There are many nations and states that have used many powers and other ways to stop recruitment of children’s in the forces but this was all failed with all such efforts which were done in the past. The use of children’s in the forces is very high and it is very difficult to take the exact number of children’s who are playing any role in the forces of different countries. However in some research reports, analyst’s show the counting of children’s in this field is to be about 300,000. From past, there has been much increase in the recruitment of children’s in arm forces, which was viewed by the report made by United States in the years 1998 to 2002. These behaviors from past are now the increasing factor, especially in the less developed countries where there are poor people who do not have much more to live. They use their children for labour and for fighting against their enemies. With so many efforts from past and still now there is not that progress made in this field in order to stop the child use in arm forces. According to 15-year-old girl, who escaped from the Lord’s Resistance Army in Uganda?
I would like to give you a message. Please do your best to tell the world what is happening to us, the children. So that other children don’t have to pass through this violence.
This paper will show how the children use in arm forces exploits the basic needs and necessities of them and the use of different policies and other ways to implement the stoppage over child recruitment in forces. There are many reasons for the use of children’s as soldiers and every country has its own culture representations, their own priorities and standards of living. So no one can judge exactly the correct answer to why the children’s are used in arm forces for fighting? There are some of the reason to which one can say that the child recruitment may be going because of following reasons:
- In less developed countries where there is less education and less technological advancement, they do not know the disastrous effects of child use in arm forces in the economy.
- People have less income to live as they are poor and they use their children’s in arm forces to get money.
- There are no such departments of forces like the departments in the other developed countries of the world.
- Lack of funds, government stability to build and implement good economic conditions in the country and make different policies to stop the use of children’s in arm forces may be one of the reason for child recruitment in forces..
- Fewer amounts of economic opportunities may also some times lead towards the children’s recruitment in such fields, like the child labor. (Amnesty International. 1992)
There are number of researches made on these topics, but no such implementations are done for removing the use of children in forces. In the view of many researchers, they said this is not good to use the children’s in forces because it is just like to give the right to ten years old child to find the way by his own that is life or death. Large number of children’s which are used by many countries in their forces, especially those countries which are counted as the third world countries, these children’s ages range from 10 years to 15 years.
I’ve just come across an article in the Egyptian weekly, Roz Al-Yusuf, titled “Hezbollah’s Children’s Militias”, and while I was reading it, I set my hair on end. Hezbollah has recruited, says the article, 2,000 children between ages 10 to 15 for the armed militias in the Hezbollah affiliated Mahdi Scouts youth organization, founded in May 1985. The youngsters, according to the Egyptian weekly, are trained to become suicide bombers. In fact, Hezbollah refers to them as “martyrs”.
P.W. Singer …children’s at war:
P.W. Singer has done much of the work on the children soldiers recruitment. He explained many factors related to the children’s recruitment in African countries, where the children’s having age limit less then the legal age limit. Many of the African countries are involve in the children’s recruitments in the arm forces who are so young and not have at that age to understand wrong and right.
Children at War is the first comprehensive book to examine the growing and global use of children as soldiers.
- W. Singer, an internationally recognized expert on twenty-first-century warfare, explores how a new strategy of war, utilized by armies and warlords alike, has targeted children, seeking to turn them into soldiers and terrorists.
In his book singer writes about the African countries and the recruitments of children’s there in the arm forces he defined many socioeconomic factors due to which these children’s are the part of arm forces.
Interweaving the voices of child soldiers throughout the book, Singer looks at the ways these children are recruited, abducted, trained, and finally sent off to fight in war-torn hot spots, from Colombia and the Sudan to Kashmir and Sierra Leone.
He also wrote about those children’s who are made to fight against us forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. There are so many countries of Africa where the children’s soldiers are used in the forces who have the minimum age limit of 8 or 9 even if they are recruited in the forces. They are not as par the legal age requirements. P.W. Singer discussed in his book many causes of the children’s participations in wars and wrote about those children’s who were forced to join the arm conflicts.
Children at War’ is a disturbing work of non-fiction that must be read by anyone who seriously cares about the future of the world’s children. Simply put, the book is a global examination of the rapidly expanding strategy of armies and warlords alike to aggressively recruit and train children as soldiers and terrorists.
The reason for the children’s recruitment in the arm forces, according to Singer is their immaturity and inexperience due to the lack of these abilities children’s are the victims of war. In his book he identified many state and non state armies in which the children are the active part and they are using the war weapons actively.
Human Rights Watch
According to the human rights there are twenty countries of the world nearly where there is the violation of the rules and regulations regarding the children’s recruitment in the wars and other armed conflicts take place and in these countries African countries are at the top in creating such violations. There are many reasons for such recruitments but the basic reasons are the less government efforts and the education level, these children’s are not those children’s who decided to join the army for their own interest they have those children’s who have been joined the forces by force or threat and because of the fear of death and punishment, children are the basic tool to fight because they are the most obedient servants during wars and fighting’s with in the country these problem always started from the community level when the several divisions in community occur and the different societies formation takes place however as far as the children’s are concerned they are immature and younger they do not have much experience of fighting’s and told them to fight is the way to make them with out their rights. (Sierra Leone, 1993)
Child Soldiers: Aims of Recruitment
Now with the increasing economic and social conflicts there has been much increase in the use of children’s in the forces. There are no such policies made by any government excerpt the developed countries in which the policies have also been made by the government for the child labor. There is now much increase in the child labor that is an increase in the child labour in arms forces. The increase use of children’s in other activities like in medical fields, combat and administrative supports secure and intelligence field this is much increased in those countries where there is less education and the backward government system. With no such systems like the other developed counties of the world there are less developed countries which used the children’s also as the suicide bombers these bombers have the support from some religious and some political parties to do that. Those who have less education and have less money income to live for they are abide to make such steps by which they could be able to get income, for example the use of child in forces.
There are many agencies in the less developed countries who are promoting the use of children’s in the arm forces and this is because of the offers they gave to the families that is the honoring heroes of wars, the public display fame. They teach them by using the videos, theatres, different movies from history, the history of country and make their minds to fight against the enemy is their life. Many of the children’s which are in need of such fame such heroic actions and the fights against enemy they use to start working as the soldier in the forces and make his life free of every other work of life. After the several implications this process is still continue and it will not stop until or unless the education advancement done in the less developed countries of the world too. (Bradbury, M. 1995)
There has been much research’s done on the use of Childs in the arm forces in which many parents said that if they refuse to gave them their children’s, their children’s will be used in the forces by force and threat by torture and several other methods. To fight against enemy, large number of children’s is taken away by the forces and said them to leave their home by threat. In certain cases in which the families refused to give their child to the forces they picked up them and kidnapped them at night or do every effort to take them away from their families or at the time of when they were in their schools or going to some where. Another reasons for taking the child as soldier is also one that this child will be beneficial for them when he or she attains the age of twenty’s at that age he or she will be the good soldier and would be the top user of all the things to fight against enemies the purpose is to make them trained from the very early age.
“Many of the former child soldiers interviewed by Human Rights Watch in 2004 were recruited by V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna), while he served as the LTTE’s eastern commander. Karuna had several thousand cadres under his command, including some 2,000 children, when he broke off from the LTTE in March 2004. After the LTTE attacked and quickly defeated Karuna’s forces in April 2004, child soldiers serving under Koruna fled or were encouraged by their commanders to return to their families”.
Type of Conflicts
There are many reasons exist for the use of children’s in armed forces with the beginning of new century. There has been much advancement takes place in the world and much increase in the educational and technological fields takes place. This leads to the use of much more resources by the human beings as the increased number of population takes place with such advancements. The increase in populations always increases the needs for food shelter drinking water and other necessities of life, which needs much income to live in many countries of the worlds that are technologically advanced and have much power to control the situations of population in the countries. They are developed countries and they do not have such problems which are associated with the increased number of population. With this increase in population there are certain numbers of crimes brought up with the increase in wants, because the economy is divided into two divisions of people the poor or the rich.
Those who have much income they have to purchase everything they want from their income and those who do not have such high incomes and those who are living from hand to much are the people who want their rights from the governments. In the thinking of many people like the people of the third world countries they think that there much of the resources and incomes are taken away by the government leaders and they are set aside to live in hunger and diseases. They do not have much money to live like the people of other countries or even like the people of their own country. These are some of the problems which lead to the division of society and these societies’ division leads to the divisions among countries regions. Any one who is in some area select their own leader with the view that leader will provide them everything from other leaders and make the people economically good, but unfortunately this division leads towards disaster in the economy. (Britain on the conflict in Sierra Leone’)
These disasters make several parties and every party makes their own forces to protect their objectives. The less developed countries peoples where there’s much less developed economy there such wars are very common, for government seats and what ever the reason every body wants the fulfillment of their own needs not the need of the country, these conflicts; leads towards the break of economy of country in to several pieces and the several forces which fights with one another to get rights. These are some times of getting the revenge of some past happenings people will be made to fight by the leading agencies to get rights from those who made them to live with such poor conditions. This involves the inclusion of every body in the force to make the movement strong and beneficial, in fact this movement will not be beneficial but due to lack of education. They do not know the destructions of wars and fights over the economy because they are not thinking about the country. They are lead to just think about their own and those who encourage them gave them the dreams of getting everything in future with the help of fight for rights with the increase in much needs of war forces.
There is an increase in the needs of the children’s in to the war to serve as the messenger supplier and other helpful activities during the war. From many years this is the reason there was much increase in the children’s admittance in soldiers took place, which looks bad to the other countries of the world that have more education and human rights laws. There is much increased in the people force against their governments leads to the large number of arms conflicts in the less developed countries. This some times is seen in the developed countries too, where there is a minority. They are fighting for their rights but they fight within the boundaries of the human rights but in the countries of third world all the laws regarding human rights are violated.
“Children have been used in support services and even as soldiers throughout history. However, the rise in intrastate conflict has exacerbated the conditions—such as internal displacement or refugee flight, and separation of families—most likely to pressure a child to become a soldier. Under these circumstances, it is impossible to make a distinction between a forced and a voluntary child soldier”.
Children’s Recruitment by Law
The humanitarian law gave the two reasons of recruitment of children’s in the forces the formal recruitment done. On order to give them the knowledge or the training of fighting or indirectly by many means that is not the compulsory and voluntarily engagement of children’s in the forces can be done. As the law predicts some uncertain answers to wars, the children’s recruitment in forces. However, the law is regarding those children’s to be use voluntary purposes that attain the age of fifteen. However, the direct participation of children’s in arm forces is not accepted by law it. It is not necessary to make participation of children’s in war until or unless there would be the variety of reasons to engage them in those fields. It is avoided to use the children’s directly in the arm forces or in the military world. Article 77 section 2 provides that children’s under the age of fifteen do not have the right to take participation in the children’s forces.
So fifteen is the minimum age of recruitment of children’s in forces, however, the recruitment can be done from the age of 15 to 18. So it is clear that the minimum age of the children’s participation in arm force s is fifteen and no children’s below this age has allowed participating in some military actions. Many countries have restrict the use of children’s below the age of 15 in the arm forces and make such policies to stop use of such agencies or forces who made them to join the arm forces to fight against enemy. The use of children’s in armed conflicts is just the violation of law in many countries and the government made such steps to make severe punishments to those who involve the use of children’s in the forces.
The authorities should be conscious of the heavy responsibilities. They are assuming and should remember that they are dealing with the persons who are not yet sufficiently mature or even have the necessary disecvernment of discrimination….the purpose is to protect the physical and moral injury of children’s and to ensure that they develop as normally as possible under the condition s prevailing in armed conflicts……Article 25. (Brett, R. and McCallin, M. 1996)
Why Children’s Participation Done in Wars
There are nearly twenty countries in which the direct participation of children’s done in the wars, which was just against the social rights and the denying of their childhood facilities and their needs like the children’s of the other developed countries of the world. In one of the estimate about the children’s soldiers it is to find out that nearly 200000 to 300000 children’s are participating now in the arms forces, which are divided in to both the conflicts hat is the first group which is related to the arm forces and the other to the government forces. These young children are who have the age from 10 to 15 been used in nearly all the fight done in wars and made the clear and direct participation inn war. These children’s were used to serve the human mine detectors in various places during the war by many countries.
They were also used for the suicide missions and the provision of supplies to military camps and messages to the forces used them at borders or at the places of military camps. Instead of other soldiers, children’s are used as the most usable, mostly obedient servants in case of war who doesn’t refuse to any thing and participate nearly in all the things to give help to forces. There are many children who were used by force to follow the orders of the forces and they did the same because of the fear of death. These conditions present in some of the countries due to the changes in some structural system, political system and the economic system of the economies. This is mainly present in those economies which are less developed ands have less education standards as these societies breaks during many of the conflicts and the changes appears it made many groups who formed their own standard of living their own boundaries their own class and their own set of priorities.
The force used on children’s to stop them from going to school take away them from their families by using various forced methods to stop use their participation in the forces. There are many children’s who have the aim to join the security forces and other arm forces like to be agents of government to take revenge for the murders, un law full death of their family members they wanted to show on others their strength and they are made to fight against such peoples who have killed their basic needs of life from the early childhood. There is no the exact figure of the use of children’s in the forces, however, there are millions of children’s who have been used by different governments and the agencies to fulfill there aim by their participant in the forces. In the 2001 survey report over the child soldiers revealed that there is much increase in the children’s soldiers from the last years and it is done in almost all the regions of the world.
Children’s are not to be the part of any military actions because of their innocence their physical and moral weakness and emotional immaturity. Many forces used the children’s in their force because they can easily accept every thing because of the fear they would be scared of death and they will do everything for them which they want. The increased in technological and geographical factors lead to the formation of many small forces group which used the children’s as the force to fulfill their aims.
The category of children’s which are mostly be the part of the forces are those which have less educations which are poor and have less income to live or they have no home to live. These are those children’s who are fed up of their poorness and they want to get money in order to fulfill their own rights of living like the others. There are many children’s who would be the part of the soldiers groups because of some economic and social factors because of this pressure the joined the forces or the other groups to take the necessities of life like the food and shelter from them by their participation in arm forces.
These children’s included both that is girls and the boys too the example of countries includes Nepal, Uganda and Sri Lanka where the both girls and boys are used to fulfill the arm forces recruitment. After the recruitment done that child will be serve as the cook or the messenger or as a spies to the forces many of them sent to the minefields in order to take the information about the mines and the other suicide attacks.
“In 2000, the United Nations adopted an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict. The protocol prohibits the forced recruitment of children under the age of 18 or their use in hostilities. To date, it has been ratified by more than 110 countries. The ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labor prohibits the forced or compulsory recruitment of children under the age of 18 for use in armed conflict. It has been ratified by over 150 countries”. (Cairns, E. 1996)
Description of Countries
Algeria is one of those African countries who are involved in the children’s recruitments under the age of 18. After the children’s rights prevention agreements this country has changed the age limit to 19, but still the country children’s are involve in the arm conflicts. There are so many children’s who are recruited in the arm forces of Africa, even if they don’t want to take part in these arm forces. They are forced to do so from past. There are so many examples of the children’s soldiers in the arm forces of Africa African countries like Nigeria, Algeria, Burundi and Liberia. All the countries are those who are counted as the countries, where large number of violation of children’s rights took place in the past and still the hidden practices are going on. After the children’s rights agreements with in many governments to help and protects children’s from war conflicts.
Human rights in their mission of making research over the children’s usage in soldiers in 2006 reveals the use of children’s in the eastern Chad there were large number of children’s who were recruited in the forces as the military agents this includes the Chadian armed forces the Sudanese movements and Tora Boro movement. They have used children’s directly tin the forces to fulfill the forces aims and that was the direct violation of human rights act about children sot the usage of children’s in the armed conflicts. They made the direct participation of children’s in hostilities that are under the age of eighteen.
“In November 2006, Human Rights Watch noted two under-aged soldiers in the company of two JEM field commanders in Bahai, Chad. Both field commanders identified the underage soldiers as their children, though they declined to state their ages’.
These children’s are in uniform or in civilian dress to make fight against their enemies, and some of them said that they feel secure themselves in participating to the militaries that these forces will secure them in future from any further danger. The human rights reported the use of four children’s who had the age of 11, 13, 15 and 16 were doing the work in soldiers of Sudanese rebel forces in Eastern Chad. A littlie eleven years old child was equipped with the rifle however from one of the person view it was reported that they use the Childs in forces to make tea and to serve as the scout in combat situations. As the children’s are more less then the experienced persons and they do not have such maturity like the adults and have less capability of fighting that’s why there are many children’s who suffers from causalities in the forces.
And it has also been found in tora bora that the children’s there suffer from their lack of experience and lack of capability from various problems including death. Chad is the party which plays the role of fighting against the use of children’s soldiers and the opponent of using the children soldiers in direct hostilities. The use of children’s of less then their age in the military operations is reported as the war crime in statue of the international criminal court.
Chad and Sudan are both the participants of the United Nations conventions on the rights of the child to protect them from the violation of the humanitarian law and make them to recover these Childs who are participating in wears fields.
“If we hear that there are Janjaweed in the wadi , we can send the petites to see if this is true or not,” said the soldier. “Since he is a child, they will not kill him if they see him. Also, if someone is wounded during the fighting, [the child soldier] can go out and get him.
In the last thirteen years of civil war in Burundi there were many children’s who were recruited and used as the combatants and for the general help in nearly all the regions of the country. There national liberation forces are using children’s to fulfill many objectives of the forces and to make them trained for many other war duties, however, there were also several efforts done by the forces of government to make recovery of the children’s and stop their usage in the forces but no such clear results were brought up which reveals that there is no use o children soldiers in Burundi now. The FNL takes away children’s in welcome camps and in these children’s those who are in prison are in worse conditions then those which are welcome camps.
There were many children’s who are in government custody and there are many which have been reveal by the government who were the part of FNL.government is making efforts to find out the supporters and those who are the participants of FNL forces in Burundi. There are many children’s who involved in such forces in order to get food drink and other necessities from them they are poor and they do not have much more to live for that’s why they are participating in the children s soldiers. Dozens of children’s were taken by the government under custody from these forces and increase the efforts of finding them from every part of the country to stop use of child soldiers.
Conditions at Randa are difficult, but those in prisons are far worse than at the welcome center. In addition, children at the demobilization site have the expectation of being sent home with a package of benefits while children in prison expect at best to be released and at worst to spend more time in prison.
In the year 2005, peace negotiations there were large number of children’s who have joined the FNL some of the joined them to take many benefits of joining like the food shelter and income. In June 2005 the government takes nearly hundreds of these groups in its custody. However presently there are large number of groups of children’s which are the part of the children’s soldiers forces in FNL and they are the top and most active participants in FNL.the government soldiers an police is using many practices to make these situations under control and they are success full to some extent.
In Western Africa from 1989 there were many practices made in which the use of children’s done in the formation of forces. These armed conflicts contains the conflicts in sierra Leone Liberia guinea and these have also done the practices of the crossed borders fights in order to gain some economic objectives. These children’s are used as the combatants these participants are the young fighters who are worried of their home necessities and they want to take them from the others who in their thinking took away their all needs of living. There are many soldiers groups who are also supported by the government to make them fight against the enemies at the borders or cross the borders. The military career of these children’s got started when they were forced to join the forces and recruit by threatening and that was done by the physical hardship forced labor and drug abuse these soldiers who are young use to fight with the government forces and the neighbours forces to take the economic benefits.
Because of the continuous no government efforts and the increased crime rates with low development and education lead to the children’s usage in the fights, the countries of western Africa are counted as the most populous and the backward countries in the fields of education and technology. These people are under the poverty and their thinking of hopelessness for future make them to fight against the use of their rights and there every body want to take the economic benefits after making the fights with the other groups. The minimum age of the combatant started from the age of sixteen or seventeenths are the combatants who are not only fighting in their own country but also in may other countries of the worlds but they have fought a lot with their neighbor countries.
The majority of these regional warriors began their fighting careers after being forcibly recruited by either the NPFL or the RUF, usually when they were still children. After fighting in their first war, however, nearly all willingly crossed borders to fight in other wars or ‘missions’, a term these fighters used for war. At the time of recruitment into these subsequent wars, almost all were unemployed or living a precarious economic existence, and were motivated by the promise of both financial compensation and the opportunity to loot.
In Liberia there were large numbers of usage of children’s as the soldiers in the Liberian civil war. These were nearly some 15000 children’s and there were many units of forced which was made up of only of children’s many of the children reported that they are going to fight against their enemies. In order to take revenge of some past happening this made them to fight giants those who have led them to live this life. There were also some of the past laws happenings which make children’s move towards such fields like there may be no income or money to live for and to fulfill the basic needs of life. Many children’s were used to join these forces because of some abuse to their families and there selves too.
These children’s are abuse by the military forces to make them to take revenge from others of their past happenings because these people are so poor and they do not have much money to live for they found this the better way to take the economic benefits and live like the other nations people of the world. There are also some of the families where there arte only the children’s who become the source of income for future so parents use them to make money and try to involve them in these fields to take advantages of better life.
Children were also regularly recruited in government raids on the displaced camps near Monrovia in 2002 and 2003. Parents soon learned to keep their children inside when the government forces visited the camp, since they regularly rounded up adults and boys to fight.
Example of Children’s Soldiers in African Arm Forces
After the several years of agreements and the children’s rights prevention convention much work done to prevent the children’s from these conflicts, which are seems to be killing for them. but no such changes are made that are called satisfactory. Those countries who were involve in the children’s soldiers recruitments in arm forces at that time are now using hidden ways to make them the part of arm forces and to fights inside the countries. According to many researchers and also the P.W. Singers book on children’s soldiers, these are the children’s who are playing the active roles in the participation in the war against America. They are not those children’s who have the knowledge of every thing from the very beginning but they are those children’s who are forced and trained to fight and kill other peoples.
The army was a nightmare. We suffered greatly from the cruel treatment we received. We were constantly beaten, mostly for no reason at all, just to keep us in a state of terror. I still have a scar on my lip and sharp pains in my stomach from being brutally kicked by the older soldiers. The food was scarce, and they made us walk with heavy loads, much too heavy for our small and malnourished bodies. They forced me to learn how to fight the enemy, in a war that I didn’t understand why was being fought.”
There are several cases for discussion on children’s soldiers in Africa in which some of them are:
The boy is of 16, he was abducted by the Lords Resistance Arm forces in Uganda to trained and fight in the arm forces and use the war weapons. He said he tried to run away from them but they caught him they tied his hands and beat him thus they made large torture over him. In order to scared him of running away from the forces they gave him a gun and said to use it , he said I have no chance other then using this gun. I still dream about the boy from my village that I killed. I see him in my dreams, and he is talking to me and saying I killed him for nothing, and I am crying.
Susan has not the legal age and also he didn’t want to fight in the arm forces as he said , it is just the illegal use of rights and the violation of laws against the children’s rights this is just due to their lack of education and lack of cooperation , in many countries of Africa large number of division made due to the socio economic conflicts in these countries these are the countries including Uganda where people are so poor and they even don’t have much food to eat and money to fulfill their necessities these are just the stories of ill minded and less developed countries people.
A Child From Liberia:
Another child from Liberia told his story about participation in the arm forces. He said these arm forces people gave him the pills that made him just mad and his mind only wants to kill people. That is these arm forces also involve in the practice of making children’s mind damages. This is just the violation of all rules and regulations there are several rules made for the children’s rights, but no any change is made to prevent the children’s rights. Only need here is the need of evaluation of those forces and the use of international forces to control them. This child from Liberia has also the same case he has the illegal age for arm forces conflicts, he was just of 13 when he was recruited in the arm forces.
A Child From Burma:
One of the child from Burma said, that he actively participate in the wars with the opposition forces in the front line, violated all rules and regulations that said the children’s are the just voluntary portions of the forces and they are not the active participants. He said because he is a child the other forces and the villagers don’t predict him to be in the arm forces.
I was in the front lines the whole time I was with the [opposition force]. I used to be assigned to plant mines in areas the enemy passed through. They used us for reconnaissance and other things like that because if you’re a child the enemy doesn’t notice you much; nor do the villagers.
Stop the Use of Children’s Soldiers in Arm Forces:
From many centuries, nearly twenty centuries children’s are the active participants of wars, why this is still happening. Even after the large forces made to protect the children’s rights and several conventions and agreements made for the children’s rights protection still everything is that place where it was in the past. The reasons for children’s recruitments in arm forces is just to use them for the fulfillment of own objectives and to fulfill the dreams for necessities of life. This is the fact in the less developed countries where large number of children’s recruitments has been made. It seems that in these countries children born only for war and there is no other option to them for living, this is an ill practice even after the several years. These are the immature in experienced children’s who are so young that they also don’t know what is wrong and right for them, because they can easily do every thing for the arm forces. Because of the fear of death so they are used by these forces, it is right to say that these children’s have only two options life or death and they have the right to choose one of them. This is all counted as illegal ill minded and ill mannered practices that are violating the children’s rights in African countries.
Children Soldiers and Media
In one of the report of CNN it was said that in Liberia many of the children’s were used as the weapons for fighting against the enemies. In nearly all the regions of country the United Nations children’s funds reports said that fighting’s in Liberia brought children’s to fight against their enemies and they said that nearly 60 percent of the arm forces made up of the children’s. The use of child soldiers is very common in most of the countries of Africa the soldiers which have been used by these countries in many of the fighting are even in the age of nine. To whom they have given the training and practices to fight against the other nations to take the economic benefits. These child soldiers on many countries of Africa are used for many war attacks and other types of horrific violence are which dib not expect by any country that has the law regarding the young children rights.
Often children are more willing to commit atrocities than adults because they are less developed mentally and emotionally,” she told CNN. “They are often plied with drugs and alcohol to take away the fear of fighting,” she said.
There are many girls who have been participated in the war fighting’s not only the boys, these countries in media report because of the poorer standard of living and less education and technology committed such crimes in which the horrific crimes also done by many younger children’s the forces in these countries forced and encourage these children’s to do such things in order to take freedom of rights from others. in some of the countries the arm forces also killed the family members of the children’s in order to make them abide by the rules of the forces and said that they would never go back to their homes, this is something the right of life and death to their hands and tell them to make decision. (Gaddafi, M, n.y.)
UNICEF Press Releases
UNICEF made several negotiations for the recovery of children’s in the Central African Republic. The press report of UNICEF was made up of that negotiations which were made by UNICEF that negotiations were started in May 18 and was with the non state armed forces to release the children’s who are the part of armed forces in the central republic Africa. UNICEF made an effort to return those children’s to their families that discussion was having the support of Central African Republic government too. The UNICEF program fort releasing the children’s from the arm camps based on the rights of the children’s and their welfare and to make the solution of those problems which are the key part of these activities. They made negotiations with different African countries to release the children’s who are in the armed forces and have not the legal age to fight for this UNICEF has personally monitor. He whole progress with the cooperation of the Central African Republic government.
This effort was done after the Paris commitment which was held in February and that was also on the issue to release those children are who are in the armed forces. For this process the African government provided the greater support to UNICEF and many efforts to make the program successful. This support of UNICEF for the children’s was not only conducted at the high levels. It is started from the society levels and UNICEF tried to found those problems which made these children’s to join the arm forces and the solution of such problems. UNICEF is working in nearly 150 countries to stop such territories and stop the participation of children’s in the ram forces.
On Sixth of February 2007, the representatives from the 58 countries of the world held the conference in Paris and that conference was based on the issue of recruitment of children’s in soldiers that Paris conference was held with the support of UNICEF to the France government for children rights protection in the conference. Those countries were brought nearer and discussion over the issues regarding the recruitment of children’s soldiers in those countries was made and the solution for such problems was conducted.
“What this conference has shown is that there is a great deal of political commitment to ending the unlawful recruitment of children,” said Rima Salah, UNICEF Deputy Executive Director. “What needs to be done now is to harness this commitment and turn it into concrete action on the ground that protects children from recruitment and supports those already recruited to overcome their experiences and reenter their communities’”. (Goodwin-Gill. G. and Cohn, I. 1994)
In the discussions made in the conferment it was decided that the governments should effort to that large extent until or unless to make the problem under control and the countries made ban over the recruitments of children’s in all regions of the world to stop the use of children’s in armed conflicts. This is against the humanitarian law and for the child welfare and rights. In that conference the Paris principles were also presented in the conference and those principles were the guidelines for the protection of children’s from the recruitment in the arm forces.
They discussed and decided that there is a need of setting up of those departments to check out the problems associated with the ban over such recruitments and why not the progress made from many years. There is an in crease in the children MS level in arm forces takes place. In that conference the governments of many countries decided to make every effort to take the control over such problems and make such rules and regulations which would be beneficial for child welfare.
“We are very excited to see so much political commitment to tackling this issue. We know it is a long road ahead of us and it will require long-term commitment and support. But we truly hope this marks the beginning of the end for the use of children in warfare,” Salah said.
(Hecht, D. 1997)
Many conditions survive which leads children behaviour to adopt the aim of being the soldier and acrive participants of arm forces. There are large numbers of pressures which are upon him to bear and from preventing there selves from such pressures they preferred to be the soldier. These include both girls and the boys to fight against others for their rights. The recruitment of children’s done at the beginning is like the support to the arm forces and then their role is to be increased with the increase in training. The use of children’s in forces is nearly the five hundred million small children’s arms forces which are equipped with war weapons to fight against their enemies. The illegal use of children’s for getting the rights is now very popular in many less developed countries of the world.
The illegal trade has made now the availability of illegal weapons to all those who wants to purchase them and use them for fight, many policies have been made by the different governments. Even by the government of European countries to stop such trades and the use of child soldiers and much agreement signed in past and still now to make control over such conditions but all that is failed to achieve right now. Large number of agreements made between the developed countries of the world in which the minim um age of the soldiers were said to be eighteen for joining the arm forces. Present international agreements include the age of children’s as eighteen to join the arm forces.
“UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan declared that UN military peacekeepers must be at least 18 and should preferably be older than 21. Some governments have also changed (or are considering changing) their policies and instruments such as the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child reflect this perspective. U.S. law, however, permits 17-year-olds to join the military voluntarily, with parental permission”.
There is much attention given to the child use in solders after the wars and conflicts in arm forces. Many of the children’s who played a very active part in the forces are unacceptable for the people even their own families do not want to accept them as their family members. So unfortunately due to these reasons the child go back to their criminal works and starts taking part in the small crimes and from these small crimes they are the biggest and the top fighters in the world to fight against their rights. (Easy Prey, n.y.)
Present United States Policy
United States from the past years made several efforts to take control over the child use in soldiers and opposed to the minimum age of soldering by children’s is eighteen. The United States policies are towards children’s rights and norms and they do not want even eighteen as the minimum age for the child to fight in arm forces. United States makes every effort with those developed countries of the world that are making the policies with the other governments to make the use of child in soldiers as eighteen the minimum age. United States has opposed the formation of the international criminal court which leads to the recruitment of child and have right to stop them to be recruit.
The United States also opposed of the child labor in the summer 1999 negotiations on the international labour organizations convention number 182. The administrations of United States have opposed the use of children’s in the arm forces. The minimum age eighteen as unrealistic and this opposition of child use in soldiers also opposed by the administration of Pentagon in the domestic recruitment practices. However the United States has also been found failed to solve the problem of children’s use in the wars the United States has also not played a good role in implementation of the us of children age in arm forces as 15 to 18. Also United States from past to present provides much military forces to deal with the arm conflicts in the countries and the military training availability too.
The new policy of United States now include the clear acceptance made by the United States to raise the child age to eighteen for being the part of arm force. The research reports must be made on child soldiers and then the actions would be based on such reports these reports must be under examination of congress and the state departments before further action.
The congress and the departments of States refused to provide the military trainings and transfers from one country to another and the military aid selling to those who are indulge in using the children’s as the arm forces and the use of increased advancement of child soldiers in the society.
The world survey of human rights showed much increase in the usage of children’s soldiers in arm forces. These children’s have injured killed and have given the horrible punishments of leaving the forces. These children’s are not all those who ant to be the part of army these also includes those who do not want to be the part of army and are made their part by force or threat. The survey of the human rights asked the European Union 8 and the other developed countries government to make steps against the child use in soldiers and to implement such policies and plans to make ban over the use of children’s in forces. This coalition committee comprises of amnesty international defense for children international human rights watch international save the children’s alliance resuit refugee service the Quaker United Nations office in Geneva and the world vision international that made the report on the use of children’s in arm forces.
Casey Kelso, the head of coalition made to stop the use of children’s in the arm forces said:
Children should be protected from warfare not used to wage it. Instead, generations are having their childhoods stolen by governments and armed groups,” said Casey Kelso, head of the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. “A world that does not allow children to fight wars is possible, but governments must show the political will and courage to make this happen by enforcing international laws.” (Kaplan, R. D. 1994)
The use of child soldiers global report 2004 use 196 countries to address their reports they reported that with very few changes made in this context however there position remains as the same like past. There are no such implementations done by the European Union and the other countries to stop the use of children are having less age in the arm forces to fight. Many wars which were fought in the past and still they are continue shows the use of 40000 children’s in the war practices which includes Afghanistan, Angola, Sierra, Leone and there were 25000 children’s which are brought up to fight because of different arm conflicts. In the view of human rights report made on the child soldier the things done by the governments of the developed countries to make improvements all are wasted and no any policy implemented in the better way for banning the child use.
Even the efforts made by the United States Security Council who played the role of checking the fighting parties during such wars have not made such progress of taking control of children’s use in wars. It is necessary for the developed countries to take such steps which would be beneficial to stop the use of children’s in the arm forces. The human rights report was also made ion the use of children’s the boys and girls both in the revolutionary armed forces of Colombia and Congo.
“Armed groups should protect children from conflict,” said Jo Becker, advocacy director in the Children’s Rights Division of Human Rights Watch. “Groups that use and recruit child soldiers need to be held legally accountable. (Keen. D. 1995. “‘Sell-game’)
Government of many countries including the developed countries like the United States to also used the children’s in front line positions fore fight other countries also includes the democratic republic of Congo Burma Burundi use children’s in many of the conflicts. In Colombia, Uganda and Zimbabwe there is the formation of military group who used the children’s to fight against the government forces. There are many governments like Russia, Burundi, Indonesia threatened and tortured the children’s to involve in the soldiers and the arm forces, there were many agreements made between the western governments too for child protection against war and other crimes but those all agreement are break now they are also involve in providing protection to such governments and forces who use children’s as the soldiers.
The coalition made on the use of children’s in arm forces opposed the use of children’s and appealed government forces to make ban over such recruitments in the different countries of the world these all practices are the child rights and norms. There are nearly sixty governments who are using the legal recruitment system for children’s to become part of arm forces from age limit 15 to 18 these includes United States Netherlands Germany Austria and Australia.
United States Policy towards Colombia
United States policy towards Columbia in which there is large number of breaking of human rights laws took place encourages the use of government strengths. In widening of those institutions which are making much efforts to stop the child use these institutions in Colombia are doing much efforts to protect the respect for human rights and increase I those riles and regulations by which the ban over such recruitments can be done. United States encourage the Colombian government efforts to stop the child usage in wars and the socio economic development efforts United States provides the clear support from congress in making progress in the ban of such un realistic and harmful practices of children’s use in Columbia .
United States Convention
The United States convention on the rights of the child requires the countries to make implementation of policies and to make the correct measurement that those who are not under the age of being the part of arm forces they would not be making o fight illegally, the child should have the age to admit in arm forces.
No recruitment of children’s would be made by any country if the children’s are under the age of 15. This convention was the biggest convention for the human rights in history and it was signed by the many countries of the world nearly 191 countries. In 1994 the convention was made by some working group in the United States which increased the children’s age in arm forces from 15 to 18.
There were many countries which have not accepted the use of children’s in arm forces of the age eighteen as minimum age these countries includes Pakistan, United States, United Kingdom, Bangladesh, Cuba and Israel. From many years the United States have the rule of children’s admittances in to the arm forces from the seventeen as the minimum legal age to enter? However these children’s who have the minimum age are not to be used by the united stats and other countries to fight as the active and the top combats.
In 1998, the 68 members of congress write the letter to President Clinton which was signed by them in which they demanded the ban over the use of children’s in the soldiers. In congressional resolution it was senator pall well stone called the United States not to resist the use of children’s having age limit more then 18 in the arm forces which was passed in October 1998. The leaders of 40 countries wrote the letter to Clinton in 1998 and ask president to make support of those issues which are related with the ban of use on the children’s soldiers in arm forces. They demanded the resistance on those issues which are engaged in including the children’s in soldiers of arm forces. (Uttlewood, R. 1997)
There recruitment in the forces as the messenger transfer and the spies isn’t beneficial in the human rights rules and regulations, because they are so younger and they do not have the experience to fight and to use the deadly war weapons. These children’s according to them have been sufferers from large number of causalities in the past because of taking them to the mine fields and the suicide bombers missions, they said that all these practices are illegal and president should take such steps which will be beneficial for the ban over such activities in future. After many years the negotiations done on these matters government makes some agreements and these agreements were successful to some extent when the governments used forces to stop the recruitment of children’s in the arm forces.
In January 2000 after many agreements and negotiations there were successful steps made in the ban of such treaties and it was declared that the minimum age of participation of children’s in the arm forces is 18. And many governments make support to the agreements that this is necessary to make the rules and regulations regarding the developments and implementation of the policies which will be beneficial in stopping the children’s usage in arm forces.
After several steps made by the government of developed countries now the proper treatment done on this issue however those who are using the children’s for getting their rights are still continued and there is much need to stop them to use the young peoples in fighting. The efforts taken by the United States and the other European Union countries are taking the active part in the setting up of this issue, in which many agreements made and the set up of conventions took place they are successful to some extent but much need of progress is required in nearly all the countries of the world.
In the course of the past year, there have been new tragic experiences of terror and deprivation to which children have been subjected in many conflict situations, including the Middle East, Darfur and eastern Chad. In other situations, such as Haiti, where the dynamics of conflict are very different, children also face similar grave violations including systematic recruitment into armed groups, death and maiming, abductions and sexual violence. Further, recent evidence indicates that recruitment and use of child soldiers and other grave violations are beginning to “migrate” within regions such as in the Great Lakes regions of Africa.
UNICEF Efforts for Child Protection
UNICEF played an important role in setting up of the children’s and arm conflicts these involves the UNICEF different conventions which described the phenomena of child recruitment in the armed forces. In 2000 the convention was made by the UNICEF for the rights of children’s and prohibiting the usage of children’s in arm forces in that convention. It was decided that the recruitment of the children’s in arm forces must have the minimum age limit of 18 years. it is not necessary that the involvement of children’s done in the age of 18 and are directly involve in wars they should be selected voluntarily and then towards fights when they would be the experienced to fight and have the legal age for arm force selections. That convention was held with the aim of protection of rights of child which was based on the opposition of the children’s selections in armed conflicts that is now the part of every country in the world to stop such habbits and make good control over such activities.
UNICEF made efforts to control them with some agreements with those countries which are the top level of violating the human rightist has been observed from many years that the children’s who are the part of armed forces have the age of 15 and below 15 the convention said that this is not the legal age of recruiting the children’s in the arm forces, it is just for getting benefits from the younger ones in order to fulfill their own aims that is the aims of those forces who used child soldiers.
Noting that article 1 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child specifies that, for the purposes of that Convention, a child means every human being below the age of 18 years unless, under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
After that there were also certain agreements were made this issue was also discussed by the red cross and the red crescent organizations in 1995 and decided the ban over the recruitment of child below the age of 18 in the armed forces.
Another protocol on the rights of the children’s was again discussed in the second convention which was held in 2001. In that convention it was observed that the children’s use in the arm forces is resisted or not and the certain measures to be taken by the government for the children’s protection against such recruitments. In that convention the states parties were said to brought such steps by which the children’s recruitment in the armed conflicts can be taken in to control. There were many reports made on this issue and were presented by the states parties in which the child rights protection was decided and their implementation and planning was made, for resisting those wars by which this practice is increased largely. They had distributed many copies of the reports the decisions which were based on the children’s rights and their selection in armed conflicts were distributed to the securities arm forces administrative departments and many other decisions to arm forces.
The convention discussed the direct participation of the children’s in the arm conflicts whether they are controlled or not after the law regarding children’s recruitment in arm forces was made or the avoidance of the forces. For recruiting the child below the age of 18 in the force and the collection of data were made in the reports on the number of children’s who are below the age of 18 and are participating in the different armed conflicts. The article two of the convention discussed the details of the reports in which the number of children’s recruitment was made in previous years whether they are below the age 18 or of 18 and the use of moist reliable document by which it can be clearly say that the child has the correct legal age of 18..
The article 3 of the human rights convention was made up of the minimum age requirement to use the child as voluntarily in the arm forces not directly in the hostilities the changes in age and other policies for such recruitment voluntarily, the number of children’s who were recruited voluntarily in the arm forces they are not the direct support to armed forces. The article four of convention discussed such arm groups and those territories which are involves in the recruitment of children’s below the age of 18. In the armed forces measurement of children’s who have been recruited in such forces and their correct measurement by monitoring those forces where they have been recruited there age and their work in arm forces.
The documents or agreement by the arm forces in which they declared that they are not using the children’s below the age of 18 in the recruitment process. The use of legal documents by which resistance to such practices was to be made, was to avoid such practices in future and present too. Any provisions made by the national legislation the other international instruments and the international humanitarian law regarding the rights of the childrens.the description of those states which are involves in such practices and the number of children’s which were recruited as directly playing parts in the armed conflicts and used for wars. Article Six discussed the provision made by the legislations the international humanitarian law and the amendments in the domestic law those departments of government which are essential and are necessary for further progress in meeting the goals to stop children’s recruitments.
The number of children’s who set up crimes their ages and their punishments it was decided that what implementations are necessary to be taken for the ban over children’s recruitment below the age of 18.
After many such agreements were made and many reports conducted on this issue but there are very less amount of children’s which are not the age below the legal age, large number of children’s recruitment done in the countries of the world mainly in Africa where a little child should fight for getting his rights and this fight would be done by him by engaging himself. In some arm forces is necessary to make the participation of the different countries in the stoppage of such problems possible by different means in order to ensure the human rights and the rights of the children’s so it will be better for the future recovery of children’s from the recruitment in arm conflicts but the thing is not that to solve the problems by agreements because large number of reports and conventions were made in the past but there is an increasing amount of the children’s use in arm conflicts day by day especially in those countries where there is less power of government department and no security.
Use of Children Soldiers in Africa
There has been much increase in the children’s soldiers from the last years in many countries of Africa. There is lack of education and another governmental and non governmental departments that why the children’s soldiers is very common today. There are 300000 children’s are doing the jobs as soldiers in different arm forces and these children’s are performing the duties in wars and other fighting’s in nearly 30 countries of the world. In these countries the African countries are at the top of list countries in which the children’s soldiers are playing much role. In Africa the report was made on the measurement of those children’s who are participating in the wars these children’s are nearly 120000 who are participating in the wars and are under the age of 18.
“In these children’s there are some children’s who are less then the age of eight or seven the countries in Africa which have large number of children’s recruited in the arm forces are the Congo, Angola, Algeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra, Leone Sudan and Uganda”. There are large numbers of children’s use in these countries who have the age of fewer than 18 and in most of the internal arm conflicts were made in which the children’s ages are less then 18. These children’s in African countries started from the very beginning from the age of seven or eight to join the arm forces and mainly these children’s are fighting in the internal forces of the countries. The risk of taking the children’s in the arm forces is that they are too young and they actually don’t know the danger of wars and fighting’s. They are not the experienced however children’s are very good for getting the information’s from others, however these children’s are not as young to use such weapons which are the automatic war weapons that can only be held by the adults.
These children’s who are the part of arm forces in the African countries are not the trained children’s, however there training has been made by them from the very early age to make them more advance in using the war weapons. They serve as the messenger and spies in the African forces, first role to these children’s given by the forces was just the little participation not the direct participation in the wars. When these children’s do not use as the active participants in the combats they would be used for the checking of mines and for bullet transferences so the children’s will be the first victims of bullets however, there are large number of children’s who are serving as the combatants not the less active participants in fights. The little amount of girls are also used in the soldiers there measurements is less then boys in the arm forces. In Liberia the child soldiers were mainly girls who were participating in the war many of the girls were the girl friends and wives of the rebel leaders and several join the forces for their own protection.
The girls were given to soldiers and those who refuse to become the soldier’s girl friends and wives were killed in front of others to show that the end result of those girls is death. These children are who are in arm forces are taken away by the forces leaders and their force from their homes and they have no permission for going back to home and meet and family member. there are many African countries who sets the minimum age of the Childs recruitment in to the arm forces as the 18 legal age however they are admitting much amount of children’s in the governmental arm forces south Africa has increased the minimum level of age of children’s from the 16 age to 18 in Angola which is the country has large violations of children’s rights they have reduce the age of child selection in the arm forces from 18 to 17. However there are large numbers of recruitments made by the governments which are illegal of having the young children’s participating directly in to the arm forces. Burundi and Rwanda are those countries which has huge legal violation and their recruitments ages are much less then the other countries. And Uganda has recently announced the children’s participation in wars having the age of 13 as the minimum age with their parent’s consent. And in Chad the recruitment legal age is 18 with the parental consent. Libya accepts those children’s as on voluntarily basis who have the age of 17 and if they are not too younger.
“If only domestic legislation were always respected in practice, the problem of child soldiers in Africa would be significantly reduced. Many African States — Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Tunisia to name but a few appear to follow appropriate recruitment procedures that prevent underage troops being recruited into the army. However, in Angola, Burundi, Congo-Brazzaville, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, and Uganda, children, some no more than seven or eight years of age, are recruited by government armed forces almost as a matter of course. Some children do volunteer to join the armed forces (though the true number will vary depending on how one interprets the word volunteer). In the DRC, for example, between 4,000 and 5,000 adolescents responded to a radio broadcast calling (in clear violation of international law) for 12-20 year olds to enroll to defend their country; most were street children”.
There are many children’s in the arm forces who have been forced to join the arm forces and they do not want to become the part of these forces they have the fear that if they want to go back home and to their families these forces will make severe punishments on them. These children’s are so young and they have not the rights of social participation in other programs, they are just doing the jobs of fighting not other then this. They received the training of handling the war weapons which are so severe for them from the very early age to use them on those to whom they take revenge. the governments of African countries has made several adjustments to take control over such practices but these forces are so strong and up to that extent that there control is hard for any government.
United States and other European countries also made efforts with the African government for the recovery of these children’s but all those actions were failed. The law full legal age of recruitment as described as 18 but there are many recruitments made in the African countries like in Sudan where the minimum age is 16.in Burundi the Tusti armed groups have the children’s whose age limits are from 12 to 25, and the entrance in to the forces at the age of twelve is not the legal age of participation in armed conflicts. That force formed in Burundi by the Tusti minority in order to save the minority from the other ethnic groups. These children’s which are used by Tusti forced are armed by the business class government officials and the other arm forces departments of the country. Also the government forces in Congo have used much of the children’s who are below the age of 18. These governments are the top list governments who are abusing the children rights and the human rights.
There are large number of military schools in Africa and their function is to give training to the African children’s about the war weapons and fights, for example the central national instruction department by arm forces they admitted children’s from the age of 13 and from the 6th grade their selections will be made by the military groups. For further usage in wars and other fighting’s those who are best at performance in the schools they are selected as the children’s to participate in the war and other fighting’s inside the country. There are many schools which are doing the work of training to the students for fighting in Rwanda and Burundi.
“In Eritrea, a 17-year-old Ethiopian prisoner of war, Dowit Admas, interviewed by a British journalist claimed that he was playing football in Gondar High School when Ethiopian government soldiers rounded up 60 boys and sent them to a military training camp. In Uganda, there have been persistent reports that street children in Kampala have been approached by soldiers and forced to join the army in order to be sent to the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in November 1998, parents protested against the forced recruitment by the Uganda People’s Defense Forces of 500 youths in Hoima”. (Mokuwa, 5. 1997)
Armed Opposition Groups in Africa
There were certain different oppositions made by the political groups in Africa when the government started the selection of the children’s in the arm forces these groups opposed the selection of younger children’s in the forces and their participation in the war. Unita set the minimum selection age of the children’s in the arm forces in African countries as eighteen the legal age however the political groups watches and the inter African human rights development network noted that Unita has recruited such children’s which have the age of 13 or less then 13 in the arm forces. Children’s are the most seriously affected portion of the society due to the disasters of societal fights and community also the cross border fights. So that’s why this issue needs the serious discussions to take some actions for future to make ban over such recruitments of children’s in arm forces.
Recruitment of Children’s in Arm Forces Opposed by Different NGOS
It is necessary to make awareness among people about children rights and the welfare of the children’s. Human rights activities and the efforts of UNICEF are not enough for the welfare of the children’s. It is necessary to take other steps also for the children’s recruitment ban in such activities. This is conducted by now many NGOS who are working for the children welfare and the fulfillment of rights of the children. Their mission is to protect children’s rights from those forces which are responsible for taken away their needs and rights and gave them everything which are essential to live a in a good society. In past years there have been much work done in this context but no one is whole successful in the mission in fact the number of children’s use in different war fields increases every year which makes the attention of the developed countries governments to wards the children’s rights. Child soldiers.org is one of them in introducing different projects and reports to take control over such problems these problems are not only the problems of present but they would be large in future.
Another part o the law indicates the rights of the children’s and to make control over the children’s interference in arms conflicts and other fights.
During his visit to Sierra Leone in June 1998, “Mr. Olara Otunnu, Special Representative of the UN Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict, obtained commitments from the government and from CDF leaders that the CDF would cease recruitment of children under 18 years of age, begin demobilization of child soldiers, provide special protection to child combatants, and create a joint task force comprising representatives from the government, the Economic Community Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), UN agencies, and relevant NGOs”.
There are also such plans made in which the government announced formation of those armies in which the recruitment done from the legal age of 18 and no younger children’s bring to the arm forces.
The forces in African countries and in other countries of the world comprises largely of the children’s soldiers. The use of children’s is considered to be the severe war crime in the wars and the arm forces predicted by many governments. No doubt there is much increase in the number of girls and boys use in the arm forces takes place and no better solutions for these problems made in the past sierra Leone and Liberia are the two countries who have large number of forces comprised of girls and boys. The NGO started the child soldier project and this NGO is making these efforts with the hope of getting the results that are good and beneficial for the children’s. The NGO is working on the fields of recruitment of innocent children’s in to the arm forces. This is just the child hood destructions to use them in the arm forces. These children’s are forced to join these movements and the NGOS is making such projects for the recovery of these children’s from arm forces to their home.
The states of the worlds children’s UNICEF has made several efforts in the past and still it is doing many efforts to make children’s free of war. With many programs based on the children’s health and the nutrition there programs also includes the ban of children’s recruitments in arm forces. UNICEF is working for the children’s who are force to adopt this profession and with threat to leave their families, including the women and the girls who are serving as the part of these arm forces. With in last years the increase in children’s recruitments in arm forces moves the eyes of different world class NGOS and children’s organizations towards the children’s rights.
They have done many agreements and large number of conventions but no any better result comes out of these efforts, UNICEF is also one of those organizations who are fighting for the rights of the children’s and participating with the government of those countries where the larger violation of laws takes place and introducing the programs for their management or the criminal acts controls from the children’s. UNICEF is doing work with different countries to promote the value of children’s rights and welfare on the community basis and to stop divisions with in the society by evaluating the problems and needs of the society. The UNICEF reports are based on the inclusion of those children’s in to the arm forces who are the only member of their family to bring income who is so poor or less educated or the child is made by the forces to take revenge for some past happenings.
UNICEF made many negotiations with those countries that have these forces of children’s it negotiate to make the release of children’s from these forces. It has done much work in the African countries and those countries which has less financial developments and there have been no human rights because of the less of departments of government to provide the security to the citizens. One of the children states that:
At the age of 13, I joined the student movement and I had a dream to contribute to make the things change. So that children would not be hungry later, I joined armed struggle, I had all the in experience and the fear of a little girl, in spite of my commitments they abused me they trampled my human dignity and above all they did not understand that I was a child and that I had rights …….from a Honduras case study
After large work done by the different NGOS, now many organizations are doing efforts to tell government for ban over such movements. For these reasons many governments has now increased the child recruitment in forces age to 18 and more then 18 to participate in the armed conflicts. For these reasons the NGOS are working to create awareness among people about the national and international disadvantages of using the children’s in armed conflicts their rights and welfare affectivity. The non governmental organizations the civil society movements and the other government departments must take the measures to control over the children’s contribution in arm forces other wise it will be the serious violation of human rights.
Actions Taken by Different Countries
First of all it is necessary to make support of the United Nations projects for the children’s social welfare and their rights and it is all up to the NGOS and different non governmental organizations to make awareness at the domestic level and make people aware of children rights.
The need of forced law for the rights of the children’s and welfare of the children’s not only on the country basis but also at the small community basis.
The optional protocol by United Nations on children rights convention whether every country’s government is taking steps as according to the decided objectives or not if any government is not doing the same. Then the negotiations are necessary to make control and ban over the children’s recruitment ion arm forces.
There must be the good relation ship between the United Nations and the other organizations and the forces who are working for the rights of the children’s. It is necessary for the governments to expose these use of children’s in the arm forces with media help by which all the true facts come to know by every citizen of the country and every body should take step for the children’s rights.
To monitor the role of organizations and NGOS who are working for the rights and benefits of the children’s for taking the further policies in to action.
The peace agreements between the governmental and non governmental forces to release the children’s from the forces. A good implementation of every plan is needed if it would not be done then there is no any benefit of making the plans. Government should support such plans of different organizations who are working for the child welfare. The setting up of disputes in small communities and the large societies too in order to prevent from further dangers
Evaluation of the crimes and quick monitoring of every crime associated with the children’s rights violation.
The forces recruitment by government on the basis of the legal provisions and the formation of those forces, which followed the law regarding the rights of the children’s can support the international conventions and agreements if they are beneficial for the future rights of the children’s. Internal risk management in the country and make citizens free of every war fear and dangers of forces of neighbor countries can stop the cross border fighting’s as these situations always involves the younger peoples of the country to be killed and injured.
The need of law enforcement for the unaccompanied children’s they are those children’s who are not with their families they have no parents and no any other adult person to care them. Provision of care ands security is the responsibility of the government.
The developed countries of the world must make such steps that are beneficial for the children’s rights and for making the awareness open report should be provided to every country’s government and it is necessary to take the steps by combined efforts of various governments and their organizations for human rights.
In response to the conflicts in Rwanda and extensive regional displacements a vast tracing programs was setup in 1994 by the international Red Cross. UNHCR, UNICEF save the children’s and other NGOS more then 100000 children’s were registered by may 1996 more then 33000 of these children’s had been reunited with family members. These unaccompanied children’s who do not have any support from their families are taken away by many agencies for their own benefits so the need to give them protection is necessary point in the children’s abuse.
This needs the family tracing programs by government to provide the security to unaccompanied children’s this is to be done by the governments of many countries by participating and cooperation with the United Nations department of humanitarian affairs and other humanitarian agencies.
It is necessary for adopting the clear and easy system of reporting the crimes to the governments departments and the security force’s good response to the reporters. It is important to make severe punishments to those who commit the child abuse and war crimes and the recruitment of children’s with force to get their own needs and objectives.
The refugees and the relief camps designing in the way of providing security to women and girls also the younger children’s, that there participation must be indirect and voluntary not the direct participation in wars and other crimes. The financial help provision to those NGOs and the organizations who are working for the development of the children’s rights ands to stop the recruitment of children’s in the war and several different crimes. Government should make the plans to stop the use of land mines their trade and stocks in the country.
Those countries that are trading the war weapons including the land mines, other countries ban their trade and the use of those companies which are producing the land mines the countries should stop the trade with these countries. The measures to stop the settlements of different schools for the training of younger children’s for fighting as it is going on in different countries of Africa ,governments of the developed countries should take the forced steps to stop the use of such institutions and schools who are promoting fighting’s.
Good relationship development with the neighbor countries for healthy trade and the economic be3nefits achievement policy with peace not with fight and the use of different illegal methods to take the economic benefits.
The arrangements of work shops among many institutions by the governments are necessary to make awareness among people about the mines and other harmful effects of using the war weapons.
The energies of youth and the aware educated and well and good youth is the key factor in every country’s development if these are not strong then the economic pillars if the country’s also be weak it is necessary for every government to make the children’s welfare strong in their country to avoid their wrong and illegal usage. Provision of good health education and security is the key role of every government in their policies of developing economies.
“Child soldiering must be curbed by mobilizing political pressure, addressing the economic, social and political factors behind the phenomenon, and enhancing capacities on the ground for receiving and rehabilitating child soldiers, Olara Otunnu, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict, told the Security Council”.
“Security Council should continue to investigate linkages between illicit trade and the ability of parties to armed conflict to conduct war. It should consider limited bans on exports of natural resources that benefited those parties, and indicate its willingness to consider targeted sanctions against parties in violation of those standards. The international community must work closely with local communities to strengthen deeply rooted local values that had traditionally provided for the protection of children in times of war. For the fulfillment of these objectives there is the need of the regular monitoring of the governmental and non governmental efforts to restrict crime”.
Cultural Role in Commitment of Crimes by Children’s
The use of children’s in the arm forces has destroyed the families the lives and the social life of the peoples it has divided the communities in to many groups and every body is fighting for their own rights and needs. The most common victims of these situations in every country are the children’s who suffers from war crimes and many other ways to use in crimes by the groups to fulfill their aims, it is right to say that there is much role of the cultural aspects of every country’s children’s abuse and the children’s crimes. The children crimes can only be restricted by the help of taking those steps which starts from society and ends at the national and the international levels. In many countries the crimes done by children’s who have a minimum age of seven or eights terse are due to the cultural environments, that is the things which the child adopt from the society from their birth and become the top leader in those crimes after the time passes.
In many countries of the world there is exist the financial crisis and economically backwardness these are the countries who suffers from the very beginning from many disasters which includes the natural disasters too. A person that suffers from hunger nutritional deficiencies diseases and several other problems associated with the health. There has much progress done by many countries in order to remove the problems of hunger and the necessities of life availability but because of these countries internal governmental and non governmental factors made every thing failed to adopt by any one for the progress of the country, these countries have less departments in which the social security departments are much less, so people have no security to live, as these peoples suffers from food problems and other necessities of life lack ness from very beginning they do not have the social status in the world. These peoples for getting their rights from others adopt the habit of fight for the rights and for these fights they used the weapons which are severe for others to take them wit force, getting the rights by force is now the cultural aspect of those countries who are less developed because of the reasons that these peoples are backwards in educational fields too. So they don’t know about the harmful effects of war and war weapons, as the adults of the countries are engaged in the crimes so children’s are also must engage in the crimes.
They adopt these things from their elders to take rights with fights, for their training their groups made several institutions for the training of fighting. They do not know that the use of children’s in war crimes is the most severe crime in the human rights. So the cultural aspects are also necessary to be considering under the children’s recruitments in armed conflicts and the other severe crimes. No one can do any thing with these forces who are indulge in commencing the crimes from the youth but the only way is to enforce the strict law regarding these forces to not to continue their violation of law regarding human rights. (Peters, Krijn and Paul Richards, 1998)
Children’s Soldiers: A Rationalist Perspective:
The rationalists theory, considered the two sides of war that is the war between two countries and the two arm forces are rational, that is, every side wants the good results and the prevention of life and property for their side. If the two countries knew before the beginning of war, then these situations will never be the results of the wars. If the two groups knew and understand the destructions after the war, they will never want to fight against each other. This is that statement at which many scholars of wars are agreed. The thing which is evident from these statements is that how horrible the wars are and more horrible are the results of the war. The need of war always occurs when the two forces do not want to leave that thing, which they both wants, both of them don’t want to share that thing even not interested in taking part of it, they both want the whole thing that will results in the war
Rationalist explanations of war can be critiqued on a number of grounds. The assumptions of cost-benefit calculations become dubious in the most extreme genocidal cases of World War II, where the only bargain offered in some cases was infinitely bad. Rationalist theories typically assume that the state acts as a unitary individual, doing what is best for the state as a whole; this is problematic when, for example, the country’s leader is beholden to a very small number of people, as in a personalistic dictatorship. Rationalist theory also assumes that the actors are rational, able to accurately assess their likelihood of success or failure, but the proponents of the psychological theories above would disagree.
There are so many reasons fort the children’s use in arm forces, as the two forces are using their force to take the thing that they want as the whole. They also want the force to take that thing from their opponent and children’s are counted as the most obedient and active servants who would never refuse to do anything because of the fear of death.
Child Soldiers in Africa: A Book by Alcinda Honwana
Programs promoting the demobilization of soldiers and their reintegration in to the civil society recognize that boys who grew up in the militias face special problems. They have been socialized in to violence rather then in to identities develop through work and family in peace able time their relatives and co villagers recognize that young man who have been changes in to instruments of death must be transformed in order to return to family and community life they face risks and pose dangers to themselves and others………….recruitment and initiation chapter in book.
This is clear that after the child indulge in the criminal practices it is very hard for him to adopt again the good cultural aspects of society because he would be habitual of doing the crimes and he wants every thing from fight because he has gain the education of fighting from his trainers. After adopting the militias these girls and boys are their own defenders and they do not take interest in the society benefits and the cultural aspects they just fights for their own rights. They do not prefer the society norms and objectives and just committed to crimes and crimes management and leadership they are not the educated ones to adopt the good cultural system.
It is very difficult for them to go back to the same cultural system which they left several years ago now after their entrance to the crime they would be the top criminals and they trained others to commit crime. it is also hard for the society to adopt such children’s after their commitment of crime or their active performance in some forces. This is the reason why several children’s do not want to go back to home because they know they are unacceptable for their families now.
“One person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter” – this classical contradiction remains unresolved. Children are often imbibed with nationalism by non-state actors. Children who are killed in combat are glorified as martyrs and the involvement of adolescents in the freedom struggles of many modern states inspires many children. The process by which these values are inculcated is crucial
In the armed conflicts situations the whole community suffers from these conflicts those who willing to do and those who do not want to involve in these conflicts it is the natural thing that the environment makes person to do everything which is going on here and there so those who do not adopt the same things they are the rejected members of the society and every body always speaks against them. So it is necessary for them to adopt the culture in which they are living if they do not respond to these terms of society they should bear the severe punishments including the threats and force to adopt the culture.
This is going on in may countries that those children’s who do not want to become the part f any crime they are forced to do by the arm forces and adopt the thing which they told them, so this is not on the children’s to make the solutions of their problems and the struggle for their rights but it is on the adults in the society to adopt such things which are beneficial for their rights and welfare. They are the innocent citizens of the country main thing is to take control over such organizations who are promoting such practices in the society or accepting the environment and culture by force many governments are now considering the policies on the community grounds to start the development of the countries from the small society level.
Children Soldiers: By Book Reviews
There are large numbers of efforts made by many organizations and NGOS for the development of children’s welfare the introduction of those programs which are essential for the protection of rights of the children’s in which the writers played a vital role for awareness creation among the public about the children’s welfare. There are large number of books which are written on the topics of child welfare and rights these books describe the use of children’s in the arm forces of different countries specially the western countries of the world in African countries or in the less developed countries of the world there is much needs on the children’s welfare to be cover by different writers these children’s are not those children’s who are willing to do the work of children soldiers but also those who are not interested in this work but they are forced to do by these forces.
My Gun Is As Tall As Me: Children’s Soldiers In Burma: By Happener K
Burma is the country where large number of violation of children’s rights takes place it is the country which has so many forces and these forces and these forces are recruiting the children’s who are under the age of fifteen. The book covers several forces in Burma and the children’s recruitment under fifteen and below the legal age, after the children’s convention it was decided that the children’s should be recruited in the arm forces whose age limit started from 18 and are voluntarily be the part of children’s soldiers when they are used as the volunteers for war for example as the messengers and many other functions.
This book describes the several number of armies in Burma and have large number of children’s recruitments Burma arm forces are considered to be those forces in the world who has violated the all human rights and they are still recruiting children’s who are not under the legal age. These armies in Burma have nearly 100000 soldiers recruited under the age of fifteen, although the government of Burma always refused for the children’s recruitment on the questions from the other developed countries of the world the government is denying that they have the children’s in their arm forces. Burma forces are those forces which have used large number of children’s as compared to the other forces of the world after the other African countries although the African countries like Sudan Rwanda Burundi has also such forces but Burma is at the top of those forces which have large number of children’s recruitments
- The international community, including the United Nations and its agencies, foreign governments, and international non-governmental organizations, should do more to press the SPDC and the Burma army to cease recruiting child soldiers and to demobilize those already in the armed forces.
- Do much more to assist child soldiers who manage to escape from military service either in the Burma army or in non-state armies. There is growing need for services to be provided to former child soldiers, including protection, education, psychological counseling, and reunification with their families.
Many countries are against the recruitments of children’s in Burma but the government is always denying the fact of the admittance of children’s in their arm forces .the country has exclusively the children forces which are trained by the institutions and schools in the country by the forces leaders. They gave them the training of fighting from the very beginning, after the developed countries enforcement of law that the children’s recruitments must be done in the arm forces only by the age of 18. Now the government is planning for the law of recruitments for children’s but this is not the successful step it needs the structural changes in all of the country, writers try top pin point the law less ness in the country and the loss to children welfare in the country.
Children’s In Sudan: By Jamera Rone
Another book on children’s welfare was written on the topic of children’s welfare in Sudan these are those children’s who are living at the streets and are the slaves and those children’s which are recruited in the arm forces of the country, in Sudan due to man y reasons the children’s recruitment done in the arm forces these children are directly in volve in the conflicts and they have no right to go back to homes they are the direct participants in the war, and other internal fights of the country the writer describes that after the several conventions of children’s welfare and many more practices there has been no such responses given by the government of these countries. The peoples of these countries are so poor and they have no other ways except to join the forces. I order to fulfill their needs and the security because of lawlessness in the countries like the countries of Africa.
There is need of the development of rules and regulations and lathe laws for the welfare of children’s these forces are violating the human rights although many efforts done by the UNICEF and other children organizations to save these children’s from these problems and save their rights but this is only possible by the good government systems. If the government of the country is that weak and no structural changes done in any of the department then there is no law in to the country, the writer describes those children’s who are the apart of arm forces and they are those who have no home they are the street boys and have no any adult to care for them, children in Sudan because of their poorness join the arm forces and many other groups from the very beginning in order to fulfill their family demands.
The writer discussed in this book about the children’s rights and the other aspects with the conventions of human rights and the law and order creation by the other countries of the world. The discussion over various projects on human rights and the implementation of policies for the rights of the children’s conducted in this book. The book covers whole children’s of Sudan at one place and describe the three stages of their lives. These three stages of the children’s are associated mainly with the unaccompanied children’s who have no home and no necessities of life for their survival. The discussion over different organization was.
There are so many books which are written on the topics of children’s soldiers in the countries specially in the African countries and writers describes so many aspects of their lives, how they join the arm forces, how they live, how they were forced to join the arm forces, even they did not want to become the part of arm forces. But they are forced to do so. Many books are written on the child welfare of African countries large discussion was made on the different projects by the United Nations and the other countries of the world to save the rights of the children’s but this is only possible when all the countries organizations for children’s welfare work for the children’s rights together and for the release of children’s from these arm forces. These children’s who are the part of arm forces are not only the boys they are the girls too and in African countries girls are also used for these reasons to serve in the arm conflicts.
Latin American and Caribbean Conference on Use of Children Soldiers
There were many efforts to prevent the children’s for recruitment in the arm forces includes the efforts done by United Nations and also other organizations of the world. For this issue the conference between the Caribbean and the Latin Americans was held in Uruguay from 5 to 8 July of 1998, this conference was related to the efforts of different organizations in countries of the world to increase the efforts to stop the children’s recruitments in arm forces. In that conference it was said that nearly 300000 children’s were used as the children’s soldiers in different countries of the world in these countries the African countries are on the top. The children who is the part of arm conflicts and there age limits are not as according to the age demands of including in the armed forces was the main discussion of topic in that conference.
The conference members looked upon the united nations conventions for children’s rights and there implication whether they have been followed in the countries ort the countries are still engage in using the children’s in arm forces. The United Nations organizations and many other children’s organizations which are large and small and in nearly different countries of the world have done many efforts made many agreements and conventions to secure the rights of the children’s but all those efforts were failed as concluded by the conference. There is much increase in the children’s recruitment in arm forces takes place from the past and still it is going and those countries governments which are also indulge in the recruitments of the children’s and they are denying and hiding these facts from the other developed countries of the world.
“Recalling that the UN Commission on Human Rights, in its resolution 1999/80 on the Rights of the Child, has reaffirmed “the urgent need to raise the current minimum age limit set by article 38 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the recruitment and participation of any person in armed conflicts” and that the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, among other recommendations, ‘strongly supports the adoption of an optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child aimed at prohibiting the recruitment of children under 18 years of age into the armed forces and armed groups and their participation in armed conflict. She further urges States to take immediate unilateral action to raise the age of enlistment to 18 years.’”( E/CN.4/1999/39, para 97);
- They recalled the force from the other developed countries of the world to participate and remove the child recruitments from being enters as the child soldier in the armed conflicts. They discussed many political cultural and economic impacts which lead to the children’s entrance in these forces. They discussed the international criminal court efforts to enlist those soldiers who are under the age of fifteen and are using as the active participants in war and other fighting’s inside the country. They welcome the United Nations celebration of the year 2000 as the peace year. they discussed the efforts and forces used by the united states secretary towards the human rights violations in different countries of the world and their negotiations with the African countries governments to stop recruiting the children’s who are below the age of fifteen in the armed forces. they declared some of the major points these are:
- To stop the intervention of the children’s in to the arm forces at the very little age ort that age at which they are not suitable to fight in the armed conflicts they declared that this is against the human rights and those countries forces who are involve in these practices the countries of the world will take serious action against them,
- They decided the mission to stop the illegal entrance or participation of any child in to the arm force and his recruitment by forces with threat and other physical pressures considered to be the action against the human rights,
- They pressurized the forces that are governmental and other forces in the country to stop the recruitment of the children’s who are below the age of eighteen in different arm conflicts,
- They appealed to all armed forces and the governmental forces to stop the recruitment of younger children’s in the country violence and the other internal fights in the country.
- They called the different organizations of America who are working for the children’s rights to make the special steps or plans to stop the recruitment of younger children’s in to the armed conflicts,
- They advice to setup the council for the rights of the children’s which would be the only council and separate council for children’s to secure their rights,
- The formation of commission for human rights such as the inter America commission for human rights cooperation in the annual reports of the children’s recruitments in various countries and take actions after planning the recruitment ban,
- The corporations and organizations which are associated with military defense security and many other programs are advised to take the open part in these plans to stop the children’s recruitments below the age of eighteen,
- They called the governments of all the countries of the world to come and take active part to stop the children’s recruitment in armed conflicts and the protections of the social rights of the children’s,
- The assistance provisioned from the United States to help the countries governments who wants to reduce armed conflicts and the release of children’s from their custody,
- Help from United States, that is the technical financial and pother resources to put the plans successful and take action against those forces who are involved in the recruitment of children’s,
- They called the civil society organizations who are performing their works for human rights and as the social workers in the society to take participation in these plans against those forces which are indulge in the recruitment of children’s and to make those measures by which the knowledge of recruitment of children’s would be provided to the public. (Reno, W. 1995)
“Welcoming Convention No. 182 of the International Labor Organization (ILO) concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor, adopted unanimously by the International Labor Conference in June 1999, which includes “forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict” as one of the worst forms of child labor. Welcoming the proclamation by the United Nations General Assembly of the year 2000 as the International Year for a Culture of Peace”;
“Welcoming and supporting the work of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict to prohibit the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict; Welcoming the presence as participants or observers at this Conference of diplomatic delegations and defense ministry representatives from several Latin American and Caribbean countries and from other regions of the world, as well as that of inter-governmental organizations and national and international”.
Political Cultural and Economical Effects on Children’s
Children’s who are now participating in different crimes and wars these are not those children’s who always want to do these things or have the aim to start their life as the criminal. There are certain factors who pressurized them to take these fields for the protection of their rights they adopt something from their elders and if they are born in those countries where they only saw the human rights violation they should be very conscious about there rights and they always want them with the fight against those who made them to live in hunger and diseases. All countries of the world are not that develop as the European countries and some of the Middle East and Asian countries, however from large number of research report it is noted many crimes took place in the countries of Asia and Africa why this is happen?
The only answer to these crimes is that the people living tin these countries are under the poverty line and they have much lack of resources to fulfill there needs and demands they even don’t have much money to fulfill the basic needs of life, they are called the third world peoples of the third world countries, these people as suffered from hunger and diseases from several years due to their internal conflicts, and why these conflicts exist? These are just due to the lack of industrialization education and technology, they have no such things to live like the other countries citizens unfortunately these things convert their minds towards fights and they decided to take there rights from their governments and other organization with force. They do not want to become the criminals but there needs make them to act like the criminal. the children’s of these countries as they grow up in these conflicts they do not know what is wrong and right they are too younger when they are forced by their elders or the leaders of the arm forces to adopt the mission of fighting for the security of their rights this is just due to the lack of awareness among people of the country.
Of the estimated 300,000 child soldiers in the world, 120,000 can be found in Africa alone. This fact is of particular concern because Africa is not only the world’s poorest region, but it also consists of its youngest populations. According to Peters and Richards, whilst five to twenty-five year olds account for only 25% of the population in Europe and North America and for 35% in Asia, in Africa they comprise an overwhelming 45% of the population.6 This deadly cocktail of violence, poverty and large numbers of disaffected youth does not bode well for the welfare and development of children, their communities, nations and the future. (Richards, P. 1996)
So children’s are not responsible for their conditions those are responsible for their conditions who are in strength and have forces to stop the children’s recruitments in arm forces .it is necessary for the world organizations to take steps for the settlement of the children’s recruitment in such forces in the countries like the countries of Africa there is large number of structural violence’s and the other fighting with in the country these are responsible for the conditions of children’s rights. Since from many years the structural violence’s conflicts which are the internal conflicts remains in these countries so there peoples are used in such environments and they don’t have much resources and modern technology education to behave like the other citizens in different countries. many organizations are now working for the human rights specially in the countries of Africa to avoid the violence and other serious defects to children’s in the countries governments are now aware to make the changes in the political structure of the country in order to gain the good system of politics.
The successful justification of a morally suspect social practice on the grounds of culture needs an audience sympathetic to cultural relativism…more specifically to persuade a human rights activist that using children in armed combat is right or legitimate would require a high degree of tolerance for deviation from the clear prohibition laid down in the international code of children’s rights.
Why the Children’s Soldiers are Volunteers:
Many children’s are participating actively in the arm conflicts and the other conflicts inside the countries is just due to the lack of education. These countries in Africa don’t have much technology and education for the improvement in minds of the people there. They still don’t know the use of children’s soldiers in the arm forces destructions. These African countries are so poor and because of this reason. The children’s are taking part in armies to earn income for their families an some of them feel honour to participate in the arm forces because in this way they can easily rule over others. These African countries due to the lack of government rules and regulations forces to control these practices inside the country, because of their poorness every body is involve meeting their own objectives. These children’s if not want o participate in the forces they are forced to participate in the arm conflicts.
Independent and Dependent Variables:
The children’s recruitments in arm forces are seem to be the independent variables in the arm forces. These arm forces are still involved in the practices of children’s recruitments in the forces but these children’s are counted as the dependent variables. They are participating in the arm forces because of many necessities which they want from the forces to fulfill. The negotiation between countries and the agreements and conventions all these things are independent. They are relying on any factor and they still not in practice and the countries governments are just make choices to use them or not to use them, however it is right to say that when ever the countries have less education less finance and technology less government stabilities the countries would always involve in the children’s recruitments in forces. The country’s financial growth and economic growth is the dependent factor they are dependent on other things to move forward so they will never change with out the changes in other socio economic changes in the countries.
How Children’s Recruitments in Arm Forces Can Be Removed
The United Nations organizations said that the exploitation of children’s rights in different countries of the world should take an end after the measure steps taken by the government of those countries in which this violence’s exists. They said that the children’s soldiers is that condition which was created by the adults in which the children’s are not responsible for their aims the adults are responsible to build them as good as they can. There has been much effort done to demobilize the use of children’s in the armed forces and efforts to stop the use of children’s in these forces.
“Children are dropping out of childhood,” commented Devaki Jain of India, one of Ms. Machel’s Eminent Persons’ Group of advisers. “We must envision a society free of conflict where children can grow up as children, not weapons of war.” (RUF/SL 1995)
The recruitments of children’s in the arm forces is new now and from many years it takes the shape of the cultural aspect to enter the children’s in the armed conflicts who are of very less age and are inexperience. How they can be removed is the major thing to discuss here.
No one can say that this practice should be stopped by any organization or the governments of the countries with some of the efforts it is very difficult to stop such activities at world level because this is now going on in many countries of the world. It is necessary to change the whole system of governments in these countries where there is large number of violation of human rights takes place, those countries that have more then two or three forces to provide the security to their minorities. It is necessary to remove such forces and make the governmental forces in which the recruitments of children’s should be done. If they are under the age of eighteen it is also necessary to adopt the rules and regulations of the United Nations efforts for the children’s welfare the organizations belongs to many countries of the world should take step in cooperation with the European countries of the world to stop the recruitments of children’s soldiers in the arm forces and to use the law enforcement agencies for implementation of these plans.
The need to change of existing policies and made those policies which are essential to save and protect the rights of the children’s. Sanctions over such countries that are involve in these things in order to make them aware of the use of rights of children’s and the human rights.
“According to the report, children are often press-ganged from their own neighborhoods where local militia or village leaders may be obliged to meet recruitment quotas. In Sudan, children as young as 12, have been rounded up from buses and cars. In Guatemala, youngsters have been grabbed from streets, homes, parties, and even violently removed from churches. In the 1980s, the Ethiopian military practiced a ‘vacuum cleaner’ approach, recruiting boys, sometimes at gunpoint, from football fields, markets, and religious festivals or on the way to school”.
The NGOS working in different countries the need of social performance to be increase in order to get the goals of children’s rights and welfare from the lowest and the structural portions of the country.
Development should start from the community levels. Stop those countries trades and the companies who are involve in the provision of funds and weapons for fighting against the enemies. Regular monitoring of the whole setup of different organizations working in the country for children’s rights and welfare should be done in order to get the goals achievement easily.
Childs welfare is only possible by providing the resources and needs to the human beings the fulfillment of necessary things for life make their main with peace and they would never move towards fight with others to save their rights. Provision of funds and other financial assistance that is the provision of financial aid to the less developed countries and the monitoring of the funds in order to find out the regular use of funds whether they are used for the welfare of the children’s or not it is other main responsibility of the country’s government.
Formation of different new organizations and NGOS to help the people who are in need and correct distinction of needy peoples if the country is so poor then this is up to the developed countries of the world to provide such helps and make some social action programs to develop their minds and provide them funds for the protection of their social status. It is very important to make control over the minorities and the rights of minorities in the country in any country there are several different peoples who belong to the different religions they are not the people of one religion so it is necessary to setup the local government in order stop the small conflicts which ever brought up in those societies where there is large number of minorities exist.
provision of different rules and regulations regarding the children’s rights and setting up of law for the protection of children’s rights , the formation of such forces whose work is to stop the child labor and monitoring of the children’s recruitments in armed conflicts. Stop the training institutes and schools in which the weapons use teaches to the children’s from the very beginning.
“While much remains to be done, there have been some successes. In Peru, for example, forced recruitment drives reportedly declined in areas where they were denounced by parish churches. And in Myanmar, protests from aid agencies led to the release of boys forcibly recruited from a refugee camp. In the Sudan, humanitarian organizations have negotiated agreements with opposition groups to prevent the recruitment of children”.
Impact of Armed Conflicts and Children’s
Children are considered to be the pillars of economy they are responsible for meeting the overall goals of the economy. If they are the children’s with full provisions of rights that is if they have every necessity of life it is not wrong to say that every thing will be achieved in the short interval of time the countries should be developed from the youth experiences and hard working of the youth is suffer from hunger and diseases then what will be the end result of that economy, it is necessary to build the organizations for children’s rights, many conflicts when ever raised in the countries they should make the severe impacts on the children’s of that country, and to save them from these conflicts is the very hard task for the governments and there adults because these conflicts. If started they immediately involves every one in the society and those who do not want to participate in the conflicts they should be participate by the use of physical pressures and forces.
We have so many examples from different countries of the world where the violation of human rights has violated every thing and destruct the whole economies, to build the good future of the children’s security pf rights is the first priority which is the lacking thing in time of the armed conflicts children’s must adopt every thing from there environments and if they are born in such environment of conflicts they would never be the good citizen they should adopt the environmental aspects and run in that way at which the overall society is running, the formation of such organizations us necessary to promote the children’s rights enforcement of law to stop the dealings of those forces which are against the children’s rights , as in many countries Childs suffers from slavery live as the street child’s they have no homes and no necessities of life all that want the attention of the whole world towards the rights of the children’s. the violation of human rights considered to be the top crime in European countries protect children’s from that crimes is the responsibility of adults stop arm conflicts in the country and made the countries for the living places for every one majority and minority it is necessary to stop the arm conflicts by taking control over the divisions in society.
“As part of the effort to deal with the tragic and growing problem of children serving in armed forces, the NGO working group on the Convention of the Rights of the Child and UNICEF conducted a symposium in Cape Town (South Africa) from 27 to 30 April 1997. The purpose of the symposium was to bring together experts and partners to develop strategies for preventing recruitment of children, in particular, for establishing 18 as the minimum age of recruitment, and for demobilizing child soldiers and helping they reintegrate into society. The Cape Town Principles and Best Practices are the result of that symposium. They recommend actions to be taken by governments and communities in affected countries to end this violation of children’s rights”. (Zack-Williams, A. B. 1995)
These are those practices which can only meet an end when the forced things are used in the society, this needs changes in whole of the government set up and awareness among people by providing instruction of different programs for human rights. It is the responsibility of every government to provide the security of rights to its citizens human rights exist in many agreements and conventions reports but not actually the part of our society these rights provision. If done in high sense the division in societies must be removed and it becomes the develop societies governments need to change the steps for the rights prevention by enforcement, and stop wars with the neighbor countries and the internal fights the use of weapons in the country and the use of children’s to deal with such war weapons.
“This use of children in war is greatly facilitated by an estimated 500 million small arms and assault weapons worldwide. These weapons are very inexpensive—an AK-47 and two clips of ammunition can be bought for $12 on the Mozambican border. They are also durable, small, lightweight, easy to maintain, and simple enough for a 10-year-old to handle. Illegal arms trafficking and poor monitoring of the legal trade make it easy for nearly anyone to obtain these weapons—and to put them into the hands of children”.
Combined efforts are necessary to take control over the children’s recruitments in the armed conflicts this is now going on in many countries and there are large number of countries who adopts the rules and regulations of United States conventions for children’s rights and are following the rule for recruitment of children’s in arm forces.
“Rehabilitation and reintegration of child soldiers into their communities is crucial in ensuring both lasting peace and stable communities. Just as the decommissioning of arms is now seen as a crucial—though often missing—component in cease-fires and peace accords, the resettlement and reintegration of child soldiers and other combatants should be critical elements”.
Those children’s who adopts these killing ways to fight for their rights would be very harmful not only for the country’s development but also for other countries developments because arm forces in which they are participating made their minds evil, rights of unaccompanied children’s protection must be the duty of government so that no one should use them in the achievement of their own goals and objectives. Which thing is necessary here is the good cooperation system for the children’s protection of rights and children’s welfare programs
Amnesty International. 1992 The Extrajudicial Execution of Suspected Rebels and Collaborators Index AFR 51/02/92, London: International Secretariat of Amnesty International.
- Sierra Leone: Prisoners of War? Children detained in barracks and prison Index APR 51/06/93, London International Secretariat of Amnesty International.
Bradbury, M. 1995. ‘Rebels without a Cause: an exploratory report for CARE
Britain on the conflict in Sierra Leone’. London: unpublished mimeo.
Brett, R. and McCallin, M. 1996. Children: the invisible soldiers. Stockholm: Swedish Save the Children.
Cairns, E. 1996. Children and Political Violence. Oxford: Blackwell.
Easy Prey: Child Soldiers in Liberia. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Gaddafi, M. The Green Book. Benghazi.
Goodwin-Gill. G. and Cohn, I. 1994. Child Soldiers: the role of children in armed conflicts. Oxford Clarendon Press.
Hecht, D. 1997. ‘Magic kingdom,’ New Republic, 3 November, pp 1-17.
Human Rights Watch/Africa Human Rights Watch Children’s Rights Project. 1994.
Impact of Armed Conflict on Children
http://www.un.org/rights/concerns.htm Accessed June 4, 2007
Kaplan, R. D. 1994. “The coming anarchy: how scarcity, crime, overpopulation, and disease are
rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet,” Atlantic Monthly, February, pp. 30-76.
Keen. D. 1995. “‘Sell-game’: the economics of conflict in Sierra leone,” Paper read to a one-day conference on West Africa at War: Anarchy or Peace in Liberia and Sierra Leone? Department of Anthropology, University College London, 21 October 1995.
Mokuwa, 5. 1997. “Rice Biodiveisity Education: a problem-based curriculum innovation for post-war recovery (case study of Kambia District and Freetown in Sierra Leone).” M.Sc. thesis,
Management of Agricultural Knowledge Systems, Wageningen: Agricultural University. PEA. 1989. Bras, Greens and Baliheatis: intervieis] with Freetown ‘street boys’. Freetown: People’s Educational Asociation of Sierra Leone.
Peters, Krijn and Paul Richards, “Why We Fight: Voices of Youth Combatants In Sierra Leone,” in Africa, 68 (2) 1998, pp.183-199.
Reno, W. 1995. Corruption and State Politics in Sierra Leone. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, P. 1996. Fighting for the Rain Forest: war, youth and resources in Sierra Leone. Oxford: James Carrey; Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, for the International African Institute.
RUF/SL 1995. Footpaths to Democracy:. toward a New Sierra Leone. N.p.: Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone.
Uttlewood, R. 1997. “Military rape.” Anthropology Today. Machel, G. 1996. Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. Report of the expert of the Secretary General pursuant to General Assembly resolution 48/157, New York United Nations.
Zack-Williams, A. B. 1995. Tributors, Supporters and Merchant Capital Mining and Underdevelopment in Sierra Leone Aldershot: Avebury Press.