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Chapter Three of Brave New World

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Linguistically, Huxley cleverly incorporates different techniques into his writing to successfully portray both the structured views of the society in Brave New World and also, the necessity to conform to this society. One technique Huxley uses to convey beliefs clearly, and the idea of conformity is repetition. In pages thirty-eight to forty-six, a conversation takes place between Fanny and Lenina with voices in the background as a voice of the conformed society.

‘Ending is better than mending, ending is better than mending. These hypnopaedic voices clearly show how Lenina feels drawn to thinking and what their society regards as correct. Fanny is also used as a voice for society in hers and Lenina’s conversation, when Lenina begins to think individually and differently to her own views. This conversation, however, appears strange to us as readers as the beliefs of the people in Brave New World are the opposite of our own expected reactions. Characters such as Lenina make how similar most other characters are increasingly obvious.

Idyllic language is also used when describing unpleasant subjects, which both shocks the reader and show how society differs, conveying lack of emotion. This is evident in this paragraph: “Outside, in the garden, it was playtime. Naked in the warm June sunshine, six or seven hundred little boys and girls… or squatting silently in twos or threes among the flowering shrubs”. The fact that the language used here is so idyllic, and almost poetic, disturbs the reader, as the subject matter is so shocking. Yet light atmosphere is created with the use of pleasantly descriptive imagery.

A reader would normally associate these types of circumstances with dark, depressing and rather disturbing surroundings and imagery. There are many characters whom Huxley uses to help display ranges of social conformity. The mixture of characters is ingeniously utilised as some characters, such as Bernard and in many cases Lenina differ slightly from the main model of society, in that they are rather more individual. This is viewed as an extremely negative aspect in this society, being the reason why these characters can work so well. However, there are many differences in these two characters.

Lenina, when taking a different attitude to Fanny, appears apologetic and is portrayed as foolish for her accidental individualities. So, she frequently corrects herself, and takes back what she has said; “Fanny nodded in sympathy and understanding. ‘But ones got to play the game. After all, every one belongs to every one else. ‘ ‘Yes. Every one belongs to every one else,’ Lenina repeated. ” Here, it is as if Lenina is trying to convince herself she agrees with the advice given, rather than Fanny. Another incident where she appears not to conform, is her liking of Bernard Marx.

Fanny ridicules Bernard, as, although he is an Alpha- plus, he does not reach the typical height reached by most Alphas’. Her comments are both bitchy and stereotypical, yet Lenina appears unaffected, perhaps seeing past the idea of perfection and recognising other features; ” ‘He’s so ugly! Said Fanny ‘But I rather like his looks. ‘ ‘And then so small. ‘ Fanny made a grimace; smallness was so typically low-caste. ‘ Bernard is a very interesting and prominent character in Brave New World in that he experiences different emotions toward different events, unlike the other characters.

He seems more intelligent than Lenina, and far more aware he is different. He appears angered towards other characters at times ” ‘Idiots, swine! ‘ Bernard Marx was saying to himself, as he walked down the corridor to the lift. ‘ Without characters such as Bernard and Lenina it would be difficult to observe how far society has conformed. Bernard is very much easier to identify with, as he experiences many of the emotions that resemble normality. The fact that he is, in many ways, a social outcast evokes sympathy from the audience.

This is also the case with Lenina, when she and Fanny dispute, as Lenina’s feelings seem very normal to the reader. Another linguistic technique Huxley has used is symatic fields, helping to convey different aspects of society, beliefs and practises. One paragraph has many connections with machinery using ‘machine’, ‘turning’, ‘wheels’ and lots of factual, numerical description with no emotion whatsoever, revealing how structured, rigid and monotonous their world has become. A very important issue raised in Brave New World in which Huxley portrays practises and beliefs is the idea of love.

Love no longer exists in their society, and sex is solely for reproduction or seen as a necessary recreational activity, there are no emotions involved. There is also no family, which too, appears strange. When the Director informs the students of how there used to be families and motherhood, they react with disgust. This jolts the reader, as this is also the opposite of our gut reaction. The idea of love is described; ‘No wonder those pre-moderns were mad, wicked and miserable. ‘ These emotions are not usual of those described with love. This clever use of adjectives once more helps to convey how differently they see their world.

Sex is another issue, which differs greatly in their society. As there is no longer the feeling of love, sex is only used for pleasure, necessity to conform and reproduction. ‘The Feelies’ highlights this – ” ‘There is a love scene on a bearskin rug; they say its marvellous. Every hair of the bear reproduced. The most amazing tactual effects. ‘” The word ‘love’ has lost all of its’ meaning, Henry and the Assistant Predestinator only take an interest in the bearskin rug. History is also unimportant in their society. They are taught nothing of the past so as not to question their present.

Huxley has used characters such as Mustapha Mond here, who do know about their past to display how controlled their society is. ” ‘you all remember, I suppose, that beautiful and inspired saying of Our Ford’s: History is bunk! ‘” They know of nothing until the time of Ford. Linguistically, Huxley conveys how unimportant it is to them – “Whisk, the cathedrals; whisk, whisk, King Lear and the Thoughts of Pascal. ” The fact these people and events of extreme significance are interrupted so often, by the indication of dusting, portrays how little they know.

In addition, the way in which ‘Ford’ has replaced ‘Lord’ shows absence of religion. Huxley has cleverly chosen ‘Ford’ as the sounding is similar to ‘Lord’ ensuring the reader can make the connection between the two. Mainly concrete nouns are used in this chapter, making it seem very factual, again showing lack of emotion in their society. Abstract nouns are used in areas, usually to portray a negative image, however. ‘Their smile was rather patronising. They had put aside similar childish amusements too recently to watch them without a touch of contempt.

Although this section of writing makes the students appear to have individual emotions, they are still all feeling the same. Emotion is described in one particular situation – “The Controller’s evocation was so vivid that one of the boys, more sensitive than the rest, turned pale at the mere description and was on the point of being sick”, yet this disgust is not something the audience can easily understand. Also, the next paragraph contrasts the former – “Lenina got out of the bath… ‘ This makes the emotion seem unimportant, as they are in the society of Brave New World.

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