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This research paper will provide an overview of the research on authoritative parenting and the impact that it has on the development of pre-school and teenage children. It will present an overview of the authoritative parenting style and the characteristics of the authoritative parent and explain the behavioral traits that contribute to this style of parenting. This paper will offer an overview of the research findings on the subject with the focus being in the areas of social development, academic development, psychological development, and behavioral development. In closing it will offer a summary of the benefits of this style of parenting and the long term outcome on the development of young children and teenagers. Background
During the early 1960’s a developmental psychologist named Diana Baumrind conducted research of pre-school aged children to determine how different styles of parenting effected the development of the children (Baumrind 1967). Baumrind’s research identified four styles of parenting. The research was focused on two specific behaviors present in the parents that could be isolated and defined. The two factors became the distinguishing behavioral characteristic that enabled Baumrind to establish the four types of parenting. The factors were “warmth” and “control”. It was by defining “warmth” and “control” that the four styles of parenting were apparent. The first parenting style was labeled Authoritarian Parenting which is defined as the parent that shows little warmth in the delivery of their control over their children and is very strict and acts in a dictatorship like manner when placing rules and limitations on their children. The second style of parenting is referred to as Permissive parenting.
Permissive parents show their children much warmth but no understanding nor do they offer any attempt to establish an understanding of their children. The third style is referred to as the Uninvolved parenting which shows their children absolutely no warmth and exerts no control over their children, this type of parent sets no rules, limitations or expectations taking no interest what so ever in their children. This parent is completely removed from their children’s life. The final parenting style is Authoritative parenting. The authoritative parent shows much warmth while being very strict in the enforcement of rules. Many studies have been conducted and these studies have produced statistics indicating the positive and negative effects on the short term and long term outcomes in the development of children that are currently being raised or have been raised under each of the parenting styles. Authoritative Parenting Characteristics
This is the style of parenting that shows their children warmth in exercising their authority and is very understanding and diplomatic in exerting their control over their children. Authoritative parenting is the most desirable of the parenting styles and the children and teenagers reared by authoritative parents tend to be better adjusted than children reared under the other parenting styles. Authoritative parents are stern and strict and place high expectations on their children. They are kind, loving, and caring in asserting authority as well as when delivering AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING 5 punishment. They encourage their children to have a voice and invite and open dialog that encourages individuality and create and atmosphere that is condusive to establishing self-confidence and fosters the ability to make decision and allows their children to feel ssfe in expressing opinions.
These parents set the bar high for what they expect their children to accomplish and how they are to behave. Parental warmth is the kindness and understanding and the degree of involvement, openness, and responsiveness that the parent uses in their approach with their children. Parential control is the degree to which the parent delivers their authority over the child. The parent can either be very harsh, rejecting and unresponsive towards their children or they can be open and encouraging diplomatic is establishing rules. one of the main styles of parenting as the authoritative parenting style. This style of parenting can be viewed as a democratic and child centered approach to parenting in which parents hold high expectations for their children.
Researchers have conducted many studies in an attempt to establish which method of parenting is the best for the development of children. They have studied both the positive and negative effects of each parenting style. As children progress through the stages of life it is the influence of the style of parenting that will be the foundation for the success and stability of the child. The authoritative parenting style has effects many areas of child and adolescent development. Authoritative parenting is the preferred form of parenting and professional research finds that children from authoritative parents are more confident and have higher self esteem and are more successful that those raised under other parenting styles. Authoritative Parenting Style
AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING 6 They hold their children to the highest of standards while encouraging open communication in an atmosphere in which children feel safe to express their opinions. Authoritative parents hold themselves as role model for their children. The authoritative parent’s exhibit behaviors and actions that they expect their children to mirror. The authoritative parent places limits, expectations and consequences on their children’s behavior. The authoritative parent administrates discipline that is consistent and fair. The children of these parents tend to internalize these behavior standards. Children of authoritative parents tend to exhibit far less negative behavior problems than those children raised under parenting styles other than the authoritative parenting style. Authoritative parents have a close and warm relationship with their children by giving their children love and nurturance. They listen to their children and encourage their children to strive to be independent and to utilize reasoning when establishing opinions. Authoritative Parenting
Authoritative parenting has positive influence on the development of children. It is from the parent’s interest in listening to their children that builds confidence and high self esteem. Authoritative parenting encourages independence in their children. Authoritative parenting allows children to express opinions and allows their children to discuss options. Authoritative parenting sets realistic limits and places obtainable expectations on their children’s behavior. Authoritative parents express warmth and nurturance towards their children and they administer fair and consistent discipline. This parenting style promotes positive influence in the social development and academic success.
AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING 7 Authoritative Parenting Effects on Pre-school Children
Young pre-school aged children that are being raised by authoritative parents are the children that live in a household that centers around positive development. These young children are given many opportunities from their parents. They are raised in a positive atmosphere filled with love and support. These children seem flourish from this style of parenting and they experience positive development in every aspect of one’s life. They are given strict rules and standards bby which they must abide or suffer the consequences shall they obey. But on the other hand the rules although stringent are not unrealistic. This predictablility of expectations and consequences produces a stong sense of stability in the child. The child developes a stong sense of confidence that is a direct relection of knowing what is expected of them and knowing what the consequences will be.
Psychological growth in children of authoritative parents progresses normally through the pre-school years free from mental instabilities that are present in children raised under parenting styles. Discipline strategies that are centered around establishing consistent and firm limits while providing an understandable reason for the limits allows the child to self regulate. This provides a stong foundation for which the young child can establish self confidence, social resonsibity, and individuality. Children that are raised by authoritative parents feels safe to explore there own individuality and they feel safe to have an opinions. These young chidren feel safe to voice their ideas and to voice their frustration and concerns without the fear of being judged or chat sized. These children have a high level of interaction and cohesiveness within the family. From this loving atmosphere at home they become responsible well directed children.