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Henry Fayol is considered to be the father of Modern Operational Management Theory. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management, having proposed that there are five primary functions of management:-

(1) Planning
(2) Organizing
(3) Commanding
(4) Coordinating
(5) Controlling

Application in the Modern Workplace
Fayol’s elements of management are recognized as the main objectives of modern managers. Fayol believed management theories could be developed, then taught and suggested that it is important to have unity of command: a concept that suggests there should be only one supervisor for each person in an organization. Fayol suggested that management is a universal human activity that applies equally well to the family as it does to the corporation. Application of Fayol’s 14 principles of Administrative theory at McDonald’s

1. Division of work-

The first thing one would notice in a Mc Donald’s kitchen is the tools, the work process and the actual food. Each food item has its own machine. There is one toaster-grill for each kind of bun, and one fryer for each kind of burger. The area is laid out for maximum efficiency and minimum movement by the worker – for example the buns, toaster grill and trays all being one on top of the other.

In this way the job becomes very well-defined each employee knows exactly what he has to do. For example when three people are working on Cheeseburgers one works on laying out burger, second on filling the burger and the third one on taking burgers out of the grill. After which the “controller” (the employee who supplies orders to customers) collects the burger and provides it to the customers while cashiers collect the payment.

2. Authority.

The branch manager has full authority to give orders to the employees. The Training Squad Members, Dining Area Host/esses, Party Entertainers, Administrative Assistants, Security Coordinators, Maintenance Staff, Night Closers, Floor Managers and Shift Running Floor Managers all report to the branch manager and it is the branch managers job to ensure that the work is done. At restaurant level the hierarchy is: –

General Manager
Restaurant Manager
1st Assistant Manager
2nd Assistant Manager
Shift Running Manager
Floor Manager
Staff Training Crew
Crew Members.

3. Discipline:-

All the employees of Mc Donald’s have a clear understanding of there job. The jobs are well-defined and they also have a clear understanding of the company’s vision-mission statement which is to provide “quickest and friendliest service”. Employees are allowed a five minute break every two hours and a half an hour break every four hours; they respect such rules that govern the organization.

4. Unity of command:

All the jobs in Mc Donald’s are well-defined and streamlined such that each employee reports to a particular manager whereas all of them report to restaurant branch manager. For example the information regarding maintenance would flow from:- General ManagerRestaurant ManagerFloor Manager Maintenance Staff

5. Remuneration:-

Employees of Mc Donald’s are paid on an hourly basis which is why the attrition rate is very high. Mc Donald’s also follows the Pay and Reward policy wherein the better an employee performs the more salary he receives.

6. Centralization:-
Mc Donald’s has a mechanistic organizational structure, authority is highly centralized and the tasks and rules are clearly specified. Yet every employee listens, communicates freely and honestly and acts in the interest of all other employees.

7. Order:-
Each food item has its own machine. There is one toaster-grill for each kind of bun, and one fryer for each kind of burger. As mentioned earlier the materials are at the right place at the right time for example the buns, toaster grill and trays are all one on top of the other. Moreover in order to ensure that the right person is hired for the right job Mc Donald’s ensures McDonald’s inducts all new employees into the business through a Welcome Meeting, which they must attend. The Welcome Meeting gives an overview of the Company, including: job role, food, hygiene and safety training, Policies and procedures administration benefits. New employees also meet their trainer, and tour the restaurant. The company operates a 3-week probationary period, after which employees are rated on their performance and are either retained or have their employment terminated.

8. Equity :-
Managers at Mc Donald’s treat their subordinates, i.e., maintenance staff, training staff and crew members indifferently.

9. Stability of tenure of personnel:-
Employees of Mc Donald’s are paid on an hourly basis which leads to high employee turnover. But however Mc Donald’s pays a lot of attention to recruiting the right employees for its restaurants. Management spends a lot of time and effort in training the new recruits and is hired after an “on the job experience” training session.

10. Esprit de corps:-
Mc Donald’s inculcates team spirit amongst the employees of a restaurant by providing performance – driven incentives to branches on the basis of their performance. This promotes a feeling of harmony and unity amongst the employees.

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