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Theories of Development

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  • Pages: 7
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  • Category: Child

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It states that children do not use the same rules of logic for solving problems as adults do. As children’s In schools, teaching should be carried out at a level and style to match (e.g. Piaget) experiences change, they alter and adapt to what they believe. As children gain experiences they then expandthe needs and current way of thinking of the individual child, Lessons and broaden their learning – eventually being able to think about experiences themselves that are not yet should be broken down into time allotments that will hold the child’s developed. attention span.Teaching a child through ‘phonics’ and ‘number lines’ will help them to expand and improve their understanding in numeracy and Piaget stated that children learn through the play process. He suggested that when teaching children, literacy.Practical work should be included – allowing children to work and appropriate materials should be provided in order for them to interact and construct. Disciplined experiment with real materials in order for them to develop thought and questioning known as ‘Socratic’ questioning should be used to get children to reflect on what they were practical behaviour.

Children need to have some control over their doing, to try to get them to see contradictions in their explanations. learning to ensure that they are able to constructively work things out for themselves, encouraging more independence and confidence. Psychoanalytic It states that our personalities are made up of the following: Children must be supported when working through their emotional and (e.g. Freud) The Id psychological crises to ensure that they develop a sense of emotional The instinctive part of our personality, based on our biological needs, such as hunger and thirst. well-being and mental health. Role play in the class setting helps The Ego children to play out any fears and anxieties. Children need to feel When a child realises that its behaviour may affect how its needs are met.

This is based on being impulsivecomfortable and stable in their environment. This can be aided by and often unaware of the implications of their actions. encouraging children to bring their favourite toys in to school at certain The Superego times to form a link between family and setting. Lessons should include Developed later on in childhood, it is based on th development of the conscience, Instead of instinctually choices so that children can learn to make right decisions and gain acting like the id, the superego works to act in a socially acceptable way. It uses morality, judging our confidence. There are helpful sessions such as the ‘Life Bus’ that help to sense of wrong and right and using guilt to encourage socially acceptable behavior. induce a child’s developing knowledge and understanding.

Theory What it states How it influences current practice Humanist It states that humanistic psychology is based on own free will, that we have a hierarchy of needs that we Within the school setting, there should be a feel of trust and safety. A (e.g. Maslow) could not progress without. These are: child should be able to come into the setting feeling secure and Self-actulisation, Esteem, Belonging, Safety, Physiological. confident. Schools strive to develop and teach children in a ‘holistic’ manner, ensuring that all aspects of child’s well being are catered for. It is vital that a child is seen as a whole individual being, rather than a classroom number. Staff should ensure that children feels they can trust [pic] them and always maintain a professional, approachable manner. Health and Maslow’s ‘Hierachy of Needs’. safety and care of one’s self and body is a vital part of the curriculum. Teaching through PSHE classes (Personal, Social, Health and Economic) Humanistic theorists stress the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to ensures a holistic approach to children’s development. Not only do schools treating them as a ‘group of symptoms’.

This theory believes that every person has a strong desire to teach children the usual educational subjects of numeracy and literacy, realise his or her full potential, to reach a level of ‘self- actualisation’. but also P.E for body fitness, lessons that include healthy dietary advice, religious studies to broaden the understanding of other cultures and races. Classes are broken up with breaks thoughout the day, to enable children to rest their minds. These breaks come with the offer of fresh fruit and vegetables, the option of water and milk drinks, toilet visits and fresh air. All of these to include physiological input to the child’s day. It is a known fact that healthy children learn at a faster rate. Schools aim to maintain an environment of security, spirituality, creativity and trust. It is much easier to teach a child who feels secure, safe, happy in it’s environment.. Theory What it states How it influences current practice Social Learning It states that children learn through observing and imitating others. A child’s personality and learning is Social learning to work correctly should follow the following steps: (e.g. Bandura) seen as being the result of them modelling their ideas and behaviours of others.

Attention, Retention, Reproduction and Motivation. By observing, learning and then acting on their outcome i.e. a child being praised for an action, a child Within the classroom setting, it is important to plan lessons that will will learn by trial and error, but much more efficiently. There are three models that are followed: hold the attention of the child. This will ensure that details of the Live model: An actual person demonstrating the desired behaviour. lesson will be remembered and retained in the child’s mind. The lesson Verbal instruction: A person describing the desired behaviour. should include a process where by the child is required to reproduce some Symbolic: Occuring through media, such as television, radio, internet, newspapers etc. work that relates to what has been taught. Practice will also improve this ability. The most important part of the lesson is to ensure that an incentive or motivational feel is given as the first three steps will not work as the child will not engage in the behaviour without motivation.

Operant Conditioning It states that a child’s learning is based on a situation which follows a particular behaviour. Experiences In schools, positive reinforcers are used to increase and strengthen good (e.g. Skinner) that have been enjoyed will be repeated and those not enjoyed will be avoided. A child will behave in some and appropriate behavior. Children are far more likely to repeat model way which is followed by a reward. behaviours happily and willingly if they feel rewarded. Also, by using reinforcement to increase a desirable behaviour will be more effective than using punishment By repeating desired behavior to gain an adults attention with such to decrease an undesirable behaviour. reaction as praise, will increase their desire to behave well. Positive reinforcers can be: Putting a marble in a jar towards a class reward such as ‘golden time’. Being allowed to bring toys to school on a set day, A movie/ DVD afternoon. Other examples of rewards for good behavior are reward stickers for good work, reward charts on the wall, stars in a child’s reading record for good reading. Carrying out enjoyable activities can also encourage children to participate in a positive way.

Theory What it states How it influences current practice Behaviourist It states that children are all born with the same abilities and that anyone can be taught anything. It is Lessons are carried out where the whole class will be involved. The (e.g. Watson) felt that children can be ‘trained’ to behave in a particular way. It was though that psychological care andteacher will show the children what to do and the children will copy. analysis was required for infants and children. The theory states that children should be treated as young External behaviour can be gained through continual repetition in lessons adults ensuring that they will behave more mature and follow positive behavioural patterns. to ensure desired ways or actions, rewards given and discouragement of bad habits. If lessons take on a familiar format, children will remember and follow the plan.

For example, if each literacy lesson begins with the children sitting on the carpet having a story told to them by the teacher, followed by the whole class recounting the story whilst the teacher writes on the board and the children then expected to sit at their desks and write their version of the story in their own words. Finally, the children will present their work individually to the teacher to see and praise for their work. By following the same process each week, the children will begin to understand what is to be expected of them and begin to follow the desired behaviour.  Social Pedagogy This states that all children, young people and adults are equal human beings each with their own potential Social pedagogy aims to achieve a holistic education and well-being. In (e,g, Dewey) and each one competent and resourceful. It focuses on valuing human dignity, mutual respect, trust, schools, children are guided to enable them to empower themselves and be unconditional appreciation and equality. self-responsible. Such subjects as ‘anti-bullying’ are created to promote human welfare and prevent or ease social problems. Children are taught how to behave in society through learning. Theatre groups such as ‘Loudmouth’ visit schools and use drama and discussion to help children address issues affecting them such as ‘stranger danger’ and the dangers of alchohol abuse.

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