The Different of Malaysia Before and After Independence
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Do you know that British colonists had invaded our country, Malaysia and also occupied our territory? Ouch! Yes, indeed it was a history resembling continuous or intermittent record of the time. But if you understand well, the best part of this history was Malaysia enabled independent from British colonists. An independent country that enable feels citizens with hopes and freedom. Evelyn Nesamanie Samuel once said: “I still remembers the sounds of jubilation mingled with the cries of joy and laughter, followed by the cries of Merdeka was deafening and not easy to forget”. (Bavani, 2012).
According to the journal, The Malaysian Experience in Developing National Identity, Multicultural Tolerance and Understanding through Teaching Curricula, Malaysia defines as a federal constitutional monarch located in the heart of Southeast Asia. (Dr. Khader, 2012). Although before and after independence for our country, Malaysia aims to improve living standard of citizens, both of their leading style and expectations for citizens differ significantly. While before independence for Malaysia is underdeveloped on various aspects, after independence for Malaysia gets rid of previous shortcomings to enhance on various aspects. The changes of Malaysia after independence can be classified into three main changes which are national organization, economy and technology.
First of all, the most main change is the national organization. The national organization of Malaysia before and after independence is colonization and democracy. According to the journal, A View of the Art of Colonization, With Present Reference to the British Empire; In Letters Between a Statesman and a Colonist, colonization which is the principal elements are emigration and the permanent settlement of the emigrants on unoccupied land. Democracy is a well-known word for people and form of government in which all eligible citizens have fair to take decision that affect their own lives. Indeed, democracy is a set of principles about freedom. Before independent of Malaysia, it is called Malaya which formed by different races and various custom. During the British colonization, British was implemented a strategy which called “divide and rule” policy. Among British occupation of Malaya, there was no clear policy implemented on education for Malaya citizens. Therefore, various vernacular schools were presents and only to particular ethnic group.
Various vernacular schools were categorized into four types which included English-Medium, Malay-Medium, Chinese-Medium, and Tamil-Medium. By following Malaysia’s independence, the government has focused on developing a national system of education. The education system was centralized and the Ministry of Education established the national curriculum to all start schools. Since 1961, The Rahman Talib Report stated that education emphasized on the use of Malay as medium of institution. At the same time, it was a rule which called The Education Act 1961. When the Education Act was passed, the National Education System was implemented. The National Education System made Malay was compulsory in all government-aided primary and secondary schools and attached to selected English-medium secondary schools. Mont said that: “ Sustainable lifestyles are patterns of action and consumption, used by people to affiliate and differentiate themselves from others, which: meet basic needs, provide a better quality of life, minimize the use of natural resources and emissions of waste and pollutants over the lifecycle, and do not jeopardize the needs of future generations ”.
During the British colonization, citizens were not focus on their healthy life. British also not implemented clear policy to care about Malaya’s citizens. British was brought more people came to Malaya and tried to help Malaya’s citizens on other aspects to bring more profits or gains to themselves. Since Malaysia’s independence, the government planning a policy or held a campaign to let all citizens started to care on self. For example, The Country Health Plan. This plan has included on 10th Malaysia Plan which detailed out the health plan of Malaysia. Generally, infrastructure defined as a set of interconnected elements provided to support an entire structure of development. Infrastructure also is a basic structure for services and facilities for an economy.
Among the British occupation of Malaya, British tried to build up infrastructure that convenience to import or export the freight. For example, British have constructed roads and railways to carriage those freight. Since 21st century, the government is keep planning to develop more advance infrastructure to let all citizens’ convenience at anytime. For example, Malaysia have invited Japan designer to design our international airport, KLIA which replaced Subang Skypark. Other that, the government also developed Penang Bridge, North- South Avenue and others for citizens’ convenience. As a conclusion, the residents of Malaysia after independence have better lifestyle, healthier and enjoy convenience brought by the infrastructures which build by government.
The economy is the second change which the economic formation is differing on before and after independence on our country, Malaysia with the economic cycle. Economic cycle is a natural fluctuation in economic activity abstract from trends or irregular movement which over several periods. When the time Malaysia is colonial by British the economic model which using by the British is the Colonial Economy Model. Colonial Economy Model is the British government decides to divide these races into specific economical activities to work into, with minimum opportunity to work in other sector which are exploited by the British themselves. Now a day, Malaysian economy has shifted over the past 55 years from dependence on raw materials export to a healthy mixed economy, although it still relies to some degree on income from oil sales. Besides that, Malaysia also exports electronics, petroleum products, rubber, textiles, chemicals, palm oil and others. In additional, the currency of country also has different which the time when British colonization Malaya is using Malaya and British Borneo dollar for all money transaction but after independence Malaysia has create own currency which is Ringgit Malaysia (RM) and it is using in Malaysia for all money transaction which we buying or selling the product and service also is using Ringgit Malaysia (RM).
Moreover, the foreign exchange rate of Ringgit Malaysia in today is a One Ringgit Malaysia exchange for 0.3276 USD at 2nd November 2012. Furthermore, the economic development of British just focused on the trading of spices and other primary products. It has incurred the focusing in planting economic crops which is the rubber, ports are developed, existing towns grew larger; roads were built to the mining centers and plantation areas. Many Chinese and Indian laborers has arrived to work in the tin mines, rubber estates and other plantations, and to staff the civil service. Economic development generally by passed rural Malay communities. Now, Malaysia Government also continues to development economic which has similar with the time when British are colonial Malaya. Malaysia after independence has continued planting the rubber and has focus one more economic crops which is oil palm. Other than this, Malaysia also developed some famous ports in the world which are Port Klang and Port of Penang. Besides that, Malaysia also develop the existing towns grew larger as Kuala Lumpur, George Town, Ipoh and other towns. Next, Malaysia has built the road to the all economic plantation. As the result, Malaysia has continue build and develop the economic well after independence that cause Malaysia will have a bright future and the resident will improve the standard of living.
The third change between before and after independence on our country, Malaysia is technology on some aspects. In simple terms, technology is to extent human capacity to satisfy human needs or wants. Before independence, Malaya is a country that lack of knowledge and skills on technology. For this reason, their entertainment was traditionally. They were made their own game at leisure time. A good example will be the traditional Malay game, Congkak. It mostly made by mahogany wood and the wood would have two different types of holes. This game mostly played by girls and few simple rules on the game. However, some traditional games gradually been forgotten because of the technology replace it slowly. Since 21st century, citizens’ entertainment mostly depends on technology. The most significant example is theater. People like the entertainment especially watch movie at theater at their leisure time. People enjoyed the movie and also with a full pack of popcorn and a large cup of soft-drink. Moreover, theater also is a famous place for dating. Next, communication was outdated when British occupation of Malaya.
On that time, people force to face-to-face communication when exchange goods or chat with others. If stay more far, people were handwriting the messages and transfer via other people. In mid, British just developed telegraph for government use. While, more advance devices offer for citizens when Malaysia’s independence. Nowadays, people have mobile phone which able to communicate with others at anytime. People no need handwriting the messages, just typing messages on mobile phone and sent. It is save time and save cost. Another example is the e-mail. People also just typing message on computer and sent via Internet. During British colonization, country was lack of technology skills. Each product was hand-making by citizens. Especially, the manufacturing relies on the human force. British does not provided much machines for the manufacturing. At the same time, workers were forced to produce more products for industries but the salaries were not much for them. For instance, workers need produce a certain number of products on each day even if sick also no excluded.
Different from this era, the manufacturing relies on the machines when Malaysia’s independence. The government was imported or produced more advance production machine for those industries. Workers not only know how to produce products and also need learn how to use the machines to produce products. Today, workers have own timetable which enable making more systematic on production. Workers also get better welfares which offering by the government. For example, female workers whom are pregnant able receive 2 or 3 months holiday. Finally Malaysia has keep improve the technologies after the independence that to keep up and meet the development of the times in way benefits the residents.
In conclusion, if British provided or developed more goods or services to citizens, citizens will be better on life. Many times, citizens hope enough foods or goods on their life. Citizens have feeling. They will hungry, cry, angry and others. If you just give some not all, they will feel you are unfair. Nowadays, the government has planning out more suitable policy to let our country Malaysia towards to year 2020. All citizens will be treating fair at anytime and anywhere regardless different races, religion and others. The living standard for all citizens has improved and gets better welfares for life. In short, after independence has considerable advantages over before independence on the 3 main changes of Malaysia which included the national organization, economy and technology.