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Spatial Variations in Human Wellbeing

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Chad and Australia


9Geo AT3 Report Scaffold
Spatial Variations in Human Wellbeing
Human Wellbeing: Australia and Chad
Australia (rank 2) Chad (rank 186)
Life expectancy (years) 82.5 51.9
Gross national income ($) 42,822 1,991
Average years of schooling 13.2 2.3
Source: http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/HDI


Spatial variations
Impact on wellbeing
Natural resources can impact on Australia’s wellbeing – mainly economically. “Australia is the world’s leading producer of rutile, zircon, bauxite, iron ore and ilmenite, the second largest producer of alumina, gold, lithium, manganese ore, lead and zinc, the third largest producer of uranium, and the fourth largest of silver, nickel, and black coal.” – Geoscience Australia. Australia’s resources are used not only for its own use but to sell by exports. By having lots of natural resources, Australia does not have to depend on importing resources from other countries. Australia can use these natural resources to create their own goods and produce energy. Natural recourses open up many industries and employment for people e.g: miners, engineers etc. To conclude, Natural resources open many work opportunities and make Australia money from exporting raw material.

One issue arising from this factor

Although having natural resources can help in many ways, mining and using them can be a burden on the environment. The resources we use to produce energy emits pollution and greenhouse gases. The process of mining minerals causes a lot of pollution to the environment and destroys natural habitats for the wildlife. Pollution caused by this can also affect people’s health.

What action can the government take on this issue?

The government can put tighter restrictions and regulations to reduce the amount of damage caused by mining and restrict the number of licenses they give out to open new mines. The government can invest in renewable energy instead of burning coal. In addition, the government can support converting to renewable energy, which will reduce the amount of pollution and greenhouse gases and other damage to the environment. By using renewable energy, this also benefits peoples health as there will be less pollution in the air.

Impact on wellbeing

Trade in Australia allows us to sell and buy goods, services, ideas, skills and more. In Australia, coal, gold, iron ore, alumina, meat, wool, wheat, machinery and transport equipment are the main exported items. In 2015, Australia exported $190B. Trading can give us resources that are not available in Australia and we can sell things we have large quantities of. Trading also helps Australia helps built relationships between trading partners. Trade helps build Australia’s economy and invites foreign investments. Trade can also improve other investments such as transport, communication, and financial systems. Prosperity is also improved by trade. As a whole, trade impacts Australia’s economy and can greatly increase it.
One issue arising from this factor
One issue is that trade can threaten local industries. For example, Australia no longer produces cars locally because their market is overtaken by other imported cars. Our local car industries could simply not compete with the imported goods. This is a problem as many people lose their jobs and businesses are forced to close down.

What action can the government take on this issue?

The Australian government can help grow new industries in Australia by providing subsidies and other assistance to help maintain their competitiveness in the international market. By doing this, more local industries will be able to compete with the international market and Australia can sell new and different good/services overseas.
Another way to stop this issue is to create legislation to protect local industries. This can be in the form of regulations or import taxes, so it is more expensive for the countries importing goods. This is done to increase the competitiveness of the local enterprises.

Population growth
Impact on wellbeing

Population growth in Chad can affect the wellbeing in different ways. Chad is one of the worlds poorest countries with the fourth highest fertility rate. Increasing population increases the number of people per km of land (population density) which then increases the cost of houses and land, and limits the amount of shelter there is available for people to live, especially those who cannot afford proper homes. As half of the chad is the Sahara desert, more families are moving from the urban areas to the rural areas because of the great population. Many families such as a man called Malngaye Adam cannot afford to send his children to school, having 10 kids, because he must use his money to provide food and other necessities for so many children.

Chads population often changes, unsteadily increasing. The environment and resources struggle to provide food for the population. Humans are creating environmental pressures such as desertification, overfishing, and farming. The income also decreases as more jobs are filled and there are not enough available jobs open for the unemployed.

One issue arising from this factor

An issue arising from this factor is the stress the population growth puts on resources from the environment. The environment is struggling to produce the food and natural resources needed to provide the population. Humans have created environmental pressures such as overfishing and land degradation of arable land to fit housing. This is a big problem caused by population growth in Chad.

What action can the government take on this issue?

If Chad’s government were to make school free or much more affordable, more women would go to school, therefore the fertility rate and population would decrease. Teenage marriage and pregnancy are extremely common in Chad; being in school delays marriage and fertility. Reducing school fees will not only reduce dropout rate but will also reduce teenage marriage and fertility. Educating women would give them the knowledge of supporting their family if they do bear children, supporting women to have fewer children to increase the quality of life. “Secondary education increases people’s capacity and motivation to reduce their own fertility, improve the survival of their children and care for their own and the families’ health,,” Professor Cohen said.

In the red circle in the graph, we can see chad from 1997 to 2010. As the education rises, the teen fertility rate decreases. As seen in the orange circle, we can see developed countries such as China, Italy, and Spain in the top corner. This is where the education is very high, near 100% and the teen fertility rate is extremely low. According to this data, if the school were more affordable, women and teenagers would decrease the fertility rate, resulting in lower population.


Impact on well-being:
Aid greatly impacts Chad’s well-being in different ways. Floods and health epidemics are often occurring in Chad, which affects the majority of the populations in ways such was lack of crops available to provide food and to export and a lack of workers to produce goods and services within the economy. The United States has provided humanitarian aid to Chad which can be in the form of money, food, temporary shelter and other goods and services. The aid is given to Chad for short-term suffering and is not needed to be paid back. In 2006, Chad was given $936,161 in aid by the US, and it was increased in 2007 to $8,482. The aids are given to Chad until the people can start to make the profit from their crops once again. This affects short-term well-being, making sure Chad does not suffer a financial crisis and keeping people fed and cared for until the country returns to its original state.

Chad also receives aid from Canada, which supports efforts to establish security, peace and political dialogue. Canada helps Chad to achieve economic development by providing health care and education to children in hopes to increase future productivity and make health and education standards higher and consistent, which may increase Chads wellbeing in the future.
Many different organizations and doctor of high skills and knowledge, supply Chad with medical services to fight off diseases, which improves indicators of well-being such as life expectancy and health.

One issue arising from this factor:
Although aids have been very helpful in times of need for food, water, medical needs and more, Chad can become dependent on aids, which prevents its own country development. The aids have been a limiting factor in developing the countries necessary skills to run effectively. Consistently being dependent on aids will prevent Chad from developing, and as a country, Chad will never improve.
Recommend what action the government could take on this issue.

The problem of being dependent on aids is because Chad is struggling to develop, and relying on aids will increase this problem further. As chad is receiving money from countries, the government can use this money to buy technology to increase productivity in chad. This technology can be things used on farms, factories and other machines to help Chad produce and in future, to build the income. The government can also ask donor countries to help start businesses instead of long-term donations. If the government would borrow, once businesses started and Chad made a higher income, Chad can re-pay the aid given and develop their country further. Developing their country will help the general population, and Chad will no longer be dependent on aids.

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